First of all, the treatment of this kind of vitamin deficiency involves changing the diet. The menu should include an easily digestible food high in pyridoxine. You can also add milk separately to food. If the case is severe enough, your veterinarian may prescribe pyridoxine powder or vitamin B6 tablets. It is also possible to carry out symptomatic therapy.
Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis C
A similar disease appears due to an excess of starchy foods in the diet, problems with the production and absorption of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), which usually occur during gastrointestinal diseases and liver diseases. If the above violations are absent, the animal’s body is able to produce ascorbic acid itself.
Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis K
Avitaminosis K in dogs indicates a lack or absence of folloquinol in the animal’s body. Usually, this disease causes the occurrence of hemorrhagic diathesis.
Treatment of vitamin deficiency and hypovitaminosis B2 involves improving the diet with the addition of meat, fish, eggs and whey. Riboflavin can also be taken in pure form.
If a dog has vitamin deficiency or vitamin B6 deficiency, it may grow slowly and also suffer from seizures, anemia, or leukopenia. Erythema may appear on the paws, tail, and even muzzle.
Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis B6
Diagnostics and treatment
To make the correct diagnosis, the veterinarian carefully examines the animal, draws attention to its age and an approximate feeding menu. To alleviate the condition with vitamin deficiency, the owner should walk the dog more often in the summer. In winter, the dog will need ultraviolet irradiation. To restore the balance of vitamins, the pet is prescribed fish oil or vitamin B in the form of oil. An integral part of therapy is sodium gluconate.
Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis B5
Vitamin 5 is niacin, the absence of which can also cause serious harm to a dog’s health. This kind of vitamin deficiency can occur due to feeding exclusively with boiled foods, the absence of milk, raw meat in the diet, and also due to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
This includes the lack of all B vitamins in the diet: thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid and others.
This type of vitamin deficiency is characteristic of young ruminants, pigs and horses. In adult ruminants, vitamins of the B complex are synthesized in the rumen, and therefore they almost never have hypo- and vitamin B deficiency.
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With a lack of B vitamins, pronounced nervous disorders are observed: hyperexcitability, ataxia, spasms, paralysis. Skin and coat changes, stunting, wasting may occur.
B vitamins are found in bran, green hay, carrots, feed or regular baker’s yeast. Make sure that these foods are always in the diet of your animals. In winter, it is necessary to add preparations of B vitamins to the feed.
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Avitaminosis in animals
How to understand what they are missing (audio)
It is not surprising that the peak of avitaminosis in animals occurs precisely during the winter stall period. After all, the reserves of vitamins accumulated over the summer in the body are depleted. Pregnant and lactating animals, male producers, as well as growing young animals are very sensitive to the lack of vitamins. Of course, all this happens with cows, sheep and pigs in the summer, but in winter such important processes always require more strength and energy.
During the winter stall period, animals move little, do not eat as well as in summer, receive less ultraviolet radiation, and get sick more often. All this leads to depletion of the body and weakening of the immune system. This is where vitamins could come in handy.!
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Lack of vitamin E leads to disruption of the gonads and a malfunction of metabolic processes in the body.
Lack of vitamin E immediately affects the reproductive function of animals. In this situation, one can observe infertility, lack of estrus and heat in females, a decrease in the number or complete absence of sperm in males. Abortions, stillbirth, and the development of dairy-free disease are also possible.
Vitamin E is found in wheat germ and green food. Additionally, you can give animals vitamin preparations.
Avitaminosis D (rickets)
Lack of vitamin D is typical for young animals: lambs, kids, piglets. Less common in calves, foals and rabbits.
In winter, rickets manifests itself especially often, since related factors also contribute to its development: insufficient sun and ventilation, dampness, intoxication, a lack of calcium and phosphorus in the diet of animals.
At first, sick animals begin to lag behind in development and growth, become lethargic and tense. Later, thickenings appear at the ends of the true ribs, the epiphyses thicken, the tubular bones of the limbs, the spine are bent, the bones of the skull swell.
Movements become painful and limited. Piglets and calves crawl on the wrist joints. Symptoms of gastroenteritis and other diseases join these phenomena, convulsions appear.
The diet of animals must contain calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. Young animals can be fed with fortified milk, it is also useful to add vitamin preparations to lactating queens.
Vitamin D is found in fish oil and irradiated brewer’s yeast. To compensate for mineral and salt deficiency, bran, cake, precipitated chalk, eggshells, bone meal and wood ash are added to the feed.
It is necessary to provide animals with regular walks in the fresh air and create the most comfortable conditions in the stalls for their maintenance.
Avitaminosis PP (pellagra)
Observed in pigs. Lack of vitamin PP often occurs against the background of protein starvation of animals. For example, if you feed pigs exclusively with plant food for a long time: corn cobs, silage, mixed feed or potatoes without protein additives.
In animals, appetite decreases, signs of indigestion are observed: vomiting, diarrhea, putrid breath. The characteristic symptoms of PP vitamin deficiency are pustules and ulcers on the skin, swelling of the oral mucosa, swelling of the tongue with a grayish-black coating (black tongue). In severe forms. convulsions, seizures, anemia and wasting.
Make sure that the diet of pigs constantly contains protein foods and B vitamins. Add yeast, succulent feed, herbs and legume hay flour to the diet. Nicotinic acid (vitamin PP) can also be given to animals by mouth with food or by injection, after consulting a veterinarian.
Perhaps one of the most common vitamin deficiencies. Absolutely all types of animals are susceptible to it, pregnant and lactating females, young animals and breeding males are especially vulnerable.
On the skin there are eczema and dermatitis, peeling, dryness and changes in the coat. The characteristic symptom is lacrimation, photophobia and various eye diseases. Cramps, muscle spasms are possible, in pigs and sheep. paralysis, as well as impaired coordination of movement.
The lack of vitamin A also affects reproductive function. Females may experience abortion, stillbirth, retention of the placenta, endometritis, and infertility. In males. impaired spermagenesis, diseases of the gonads, cystitis, stone formation in the urinary system.
In young animals, vitamin A deficiency manifests itself in weakness and growth retardation. Animals are more prone to colds and often suffer from digestive upset.
An important point is the conditions of detention in the winter. It is necessary to provide animals with daily walks and irradiate with ultraviolet and infrared rays. Fish oil, sprouted grains, green fodder, and early harvest grass silage make up well for vitamin A deficiency. In severe forms of vitamin A deficiency, drugs are prescribed for subcutaneous or intramuscular administration.
Vitamin K regulates blood clotting, as it participates in the formation of the protein prothrombin. Lack of vitamin K is characteristic of poultry, in animals it is synthesized in the digestive tract.
Symptoms Decreased appetite, lethargy, blood in the discharge. Often this type of vitamin deficiency is difficult to diagnose on your own, the most accurate clinical picture can be obtained by a veterinarian after examining the blood and taking a liver sample from a bird.
It is best to take care of the prevention of vitamin K deficiency. Add green feed, grass meal and silage to the poultry diet. Group K preparations can also be added to compound feed (if it does not already contain a vitamin complex).
Remember that any vitamins should not be given to animals and poultry thoughtlessly. Any dose must be calculated according to the recommendations of the veterinarian or instructions. If you suspect an acute vitamin deficiency, self-medication is not worth it, seek the advice of a specialist.
you can learn more about the intricacies of keeping pigs in winter here
Cyanocobalamin: Vitamin B12
Anti-anemic element responsible for hematopoiesis. Lack of meat, dairy and fish products can lead to illness of various organs, impairment of their functions.
Retinol: Vitamin A
This element is responsible for the physical growth of your dog, the condition of its coat and skin, for the reproductive function of the animal. Most often it is found in carrots, but this does not mean that it is time to start feeding your dog this vegetable. Saltwater fish will do as well. Although dogs do not like it due to its large amount of bones, it is necessary to introduce it into the dog’s diet if retinol is insufficient. If the pet refuses to eat it, replace the fish with fish oil.
Ascorbic acid: vitamin C
Of course, the dog’s immunity and its susceptibility to various diseases depend on vitamin C. If she does not have enough health to protect herself from colds and other health problems, she will feel tired, the pet will cease to be active, and bleeding gums will appear.
Vitamin C can be found in fruits, vegetables, herbs, and cabbage. These foods should be in your dog’s diet.
Riboflavin: vitamin B2
Due to the absence of this element in your pet’s body, its fur begins to creep, bald patches appear on the back and around the eyes, cracks appear on the face and ears, the eyes become cloudy, as if with a “veil”.
For the intake of vitamin B2 into the body, give the animal more often boiled kidneys, liver and heart, dairy products. They should be part of the sick dog’s regular diet.
Manufacturers of vitamin complexes
When your pet is seriously ill, you need to urgently contact your veterinarian. Only he will be able to prescribe the necessary medicines. But if you want to take a number of preventive measures, then these quality manufacturers of dog vitamins will help maintain the health and immunity of your beloved pet.
- The line of vitamin complexes “8in1”. These are various products for the health of your dog. It includes tablets, oils, sprays, pastes, food additives.
- Vitamin complex “Adult Multi Vitamin”. Contains all useful elements to make your pet feel vigorous and full of energy. Vitamins are recommended during the winter season, when the diet is not entirely balanced.
- Vitamins “POLIDEX”. Produced by the British veterinary firm T.E.C. Pharmacephtic. Each medicine has a targeted effect on the problem and is available only in packs of tablets.
- “GelaBon plus”.Improves your dog’s coat, strengthens bones and joints. The medicine is hypoallergenic and does not cause side effects.
- Vitamins “Multivitum plus”. Strengthen the immunity of dog lice in the cold season, saturate the blood with oxygen, iodine.
- Powder “Beaphar”. Will help your dog recover from stressful situations or underwent a major surgery.
- Complex of vitamins and minerals “Top Ten”. Can increase the vitality of the animal. Active components have a positive effect on the development of the bone and nervous systems, regulate the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
Folic acid: vitamin B9
Vitamin B9 is responsible for the functioning of the genitals and the reproductive function of the animal. Its deficiency can affect the growth and physical condition of the pet. To avoid this, include plant-based foods, beef and fish in your dog’s diet.
Canine vitamin deficiency
If you notice any of the following symptoms in your pet, take your pet to a veterinary clinic immediately. There you will be able to prescribe the necessary drugs or menu according to which you need to feed the animal.
- Sudden loss of appetite, stomach problems, erratic stools.
- Hair loss, fadedness, receding hairline.
- Gait problems, wobbly legs, inability to run or play for long periods, fatigue.
- Redness of gums, bleeding, tooth loss.
- Long lasting wounds.
Pantothenic Acid: Vitamin B3
This vitamin regulates the enzyme system of the animal’s body. Due to its lack, endocrine problems, dry skin, hair loss, problems with the liver can begin. A sufficient amount of vitamin is found in yeast, kidneys, corn, nuts.
How does itchiness in dogs appear?
It is quite easy to suspect that something is wrong. The dog is constantly scratching and chewing on itself in a specific area or all over the body. Due to unpleasant sensations, she does not sleep well, refuses games and favorite delicacies. Decreased appetite, which quickly affects weight. The coat gradually falls out until some areas are completely bald. The skin turns red and inflamed.
The suspected cause of itching in a dog can be determined by its location. Active scratching of the ears indicates a high likelihood of otodectosis. If the pet rubs against furniture with all parts of the body and rolls on the floor, then he may suffer from a skin disease or an allergic reaction. Regardless of the reason, treatment is carried out only after diagnosis in a veterinary clinic.
The most dangerous fungal infection is ringworm. It is caused by fungi of the genus Microsporum. A sick dog constantly scratches its hind legs, neck and head. As the disease progresses, the fungus spreads to the back and eventually affects the entire body. Infected skin has round redness, dry crusts, and well-defined bald patches.
reasons why the dog itches
We found out that if a dog gnaws itself, then the reason may lie not only in the notorious fleas, although it cannot be ruled out that these insects parasitize on the body. Let’s try to find out what other pests and diseases can cause itching that darkens the life of a pet:
Ticks and diseases that are carried by ticks. if the dog is constantly itching, usually after fleas other bloodsuckers are suspected. arthropod ticks. These parasites cause pruritic scabies, or more precisely, such ailments as sarcoptic mange, otodectosis (ear mite), notoedrosis, demodicosis, heiletiosis. Signs of a dog being affected by ticks are rampant itching (the dog itches, scratches, bites appear on its body, the hair “climbs”), the appearance of hairless spots, a change in skin color from the usual to yellowish-gray, rough and peeling of the skin, the formation of abscesses. If the parasite has penetrated the dog’s ears, the symptoms will be as follows: constant head shaking, dark brown exudate from the ears, coarsening of the skin of the ears;
Lice are whitish chewing lice that, like fleas, can cause itching in a dog. How do you know if a dog is affected by lice? To begin with, you should carefully consider the pet’s fur and skin: wiggling light straw dots no more than 4 mm long are lice. Outwardly, they look like fleas, but their color is much lighter. Signs of the presence of lice. constant scratching (special itching can be in the ears, genitals, and also where the hair is especially long), inflammation of the skin from the bites of the parasites themselves and from the teeth of the animal itself, deterioration of the condition of the coat (the appearance of tangles, thinness and dullness hairs), insomnia;
Vlasoids are light yellow insects that take a fancy to the dog’s coat. A disease that develops against the background of the presence of lice is trichodectosis. Signs of the presence of these parasites are itching (especially in the area of the ears, abdomen and thighs, base of the tail), thickening and coarsening of the skin, deterioration of the coat, bald patches. Actually, the symptoms of the presence of lice are similar to those that are present with lice;
Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin and one of the causes of severe itching. The animal constantly scratches itself with allergic, infectious, drug and parasitic dermatitis. Other symptoms of dermatitis besides severe itching are redness of the skin (the problem areas are hot to the touch), thinning of the fur, swelling, roughness or thinning of the skin, nervousness. If the disease has affected the limbs of the pet, the dog will begin to limp noticeably, spend more time lying down;
Allergy. sudden hesh can also be observed in a pet due to hypersensitivity to certain food (the so-called food allergy), cosmetics, medicines, dust, saliva, parasites (the same fleas or ticks, etc.). There is even an autoimmune allergy, although this is rare. The first sign of allergy is severe itching (especially in the area of the paws, muzzle, ears, groin), mucus from the nose and watery eyes, rash and peeling of the skin, swelling, hair loss, and sometimes upset stool in the form of diarrhea;
Fungal skin lesions. when a dog itches and falls out of hair, one can imply the development of a fungal infection (for example, favus, microsporia, blastomycosis, sporotrichosis, etc.). Signs of a fungus on the skin. the appearance of a small bald spot (the hair on the affected area is at first very short, as if clipped, then falls out altogether), redness, and then graying of the skin, peeling of the skin, itching, anxiety. As a rule, first, the fungus affects the head, neck, lower legs, but if untreated, it happens that the dog’s back, hips, abdomen itch, that is, virtually the entire body;
Bacterial skin lesions. the most common ailment caused by various bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, etc.) is considered to be pyoderma. Signs of such a disease are severe itching and inflammation of the skin, the formation of purulent papules, erosions and even ulcers on the skin of the body (including in the interdigital space), dandruff, the appearance of an unpleasant putrid odor from the dog’s skin, hair loss in the affected areas, weakness, refusal to feed, apathy;
Mental disorder, stress. if the dog itches, but there are no fleas, like ticks and other ectoparasites, the reason may lie in an emotional disorder. Some people believe that stress is a human problem, but dogs can also suffer as much as we do, for example, from a sudden change of place of residence, betrayal by the owner, or the appearance of a new family member (child or other pet) in the house. Signs of stress. not only scratching, but also licking the body up to bald patches (paws and the base of the tail usually suffer), inappropriate behavior (excessive gaiety, aggression or apathy), attempts to undermine (even in an apartment, a dog can violently scratch linoleum or parquet with its claws). refusing to eat, cutting circles around the house. Some dogs, when stressed, begin to put tags right in the apartment;
Why does a dog itch: causes and possible help
Itching in a dog is an unpleasant phenomenon, accompanied by severe scratching. It is not an independent disease, but only acts as a symptom, warning of the existing danger. If your pet is constantly combing its body, then without timely help, it will peel off its skin. Multiple injuries will lead to secondary infection and exacerbate the existing problem.
Lack of B5
Vitamin is responsible for the metabolism of vital proteins, fats and carbohydrates for dogs. With a deficiency of pantothenic acid, indigestion, loss of appetite, apathy and drowsiness are observed. Characterized by increased salivation and coating of the tongue with a coating of a dark color. There is a high likelihood of inflammation of the epidermis, puppies in this state stop growing.
Refusal to eat becomes critical, the dog stops eating even his favorite snacks. Lethargy, low activity, refusal to execute commands. For a month of riboflavin vitamin deficiency, a dog can lose up to 5 kilograms in weight. In the future, vision problems and uniform hair loss are also possible.
Prolonged absence of treatment can lead to paresis of the hind limbs. In fact, the animal becomes disabled. All this is accompanied by disturbances in the functioning of the heart, nervous system, inflammation of the mucous membranes and outer layers of the skin is possible.