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Cats Hip Dysplasia What Does It Mean

Description of the disease of hip dysplasia in cats

First of all, it should be said that any dysplasia is nothing more than an abnormal formation and subsequent development of a tissue or organ.

As for the direct hip dysplasia (hip joint dysplasia), it was not so long ago that it was believed that cats do not suffer from it at all.

However, as it turned out, this is far from the case, and that, according to statistics, pedigree cats are most susceptible to this ailment, and, in particular, large cats such as Maine Coon, Norwegian Forest, British and Persian.

As for the Scottish Fold, despite the fact that the Scots are much smaller than the British, due to a mutation that caused the sagging of their ear cartilage, this breed is prone to several serious diseases of the musculoskeletal system, among which dysplasia is also listed hip joints.

What is this pathology? The fact is that with this disease, the femur, due to improper formation and development, cannot be correctly combined with the pelvic bones: free space is formed between it and the pelvic cavity.

This leads first to damage to connective tissue, such as cartilage, and then bones begin to deform.

Dysplasia of the hip joints cannot be diagnosed at an early age, since it will manifest itself only as the kitten grows up. However, if this disease was diagnosed in close relatives of the baby, then the likelihood of its appearance in a growing pet will be incomparably higher than if it belonged to a line free from this ailment.

Diagnostics: how to identify?

One of the most reliable diagnostic methods is X-ray. It will not only allow you to find out whether the pet has joint deformities or not, but also will be able to accurately determine the nature of these changes, be it dysplasia, trauma, arthritis or arthrosis.

During a personal examination of the animal, the joints are palpated so that the veterinarian can assess their mobility, the presence or absence of pain and crepitus.

Arthroscopy, which is a mini-operation, will allow you to assess the condition of the tissues by puncture. It is recommended as a diagnostic method for the early stages of the disease.

In addition, during it, if necessary, the doctor will be able to remove the accumulated fluid and particles of destroyed cartilage.
In addition, a general analysis of blood and urine, determination of the level of salts, as well as biochemistry are prescribed.

Treatment methods

If dysplasia is in an advanced form, then drug treatment is used, which includes the use of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs, as well as vitamins.

However, their use without the lack of fixation of the affected joint is ineffective, since after the drugs relieve the pain, the cat will again begin to lean on the sore paw with its entire mass, and this can only worsen its condition.

In the same case, when the disease has reached its final stage, it will no longer be possible to return the animal to a full life without surgery.

With dysplasia, three types of surgery are performed:

  • Resection of the head of the pelvic bone. With this method, the femoral head is sawn off and an artificial one is formed in place of the affected joint.
  • Correction of the adductor muscle of the thigh. It makes sense to carry out this operation only if the kitten is not yet a year old.
  • Prosthetics. The essence of the operation is that an artificial prosthesis of the affected joint is installed.

The type of required surgical intervention is determined by the veterinarian, since only he can calculate the likely risks and predict the outcome of the operation.

Symptoms (photo)

Symptoms of hip dysplasia may include:

  • Clumsiness.
  • Staggering gait.
  • When jumping, the cat jumps like a hare.
  • Lameness, especially noticeable after the animal runs or jumps.
  • Clearly audible crunch when driving.
  • The cat does not like to jump on the tops, even prefers not to climb on a chair or sofa.
  • When the cat gets up, the stiffness of its movements is visible.
  • X-shaped hind legs and muscle atrophy.

How strong the signs of dysplasia will manifest depends on its degree. There are five of them in total:

  • Healthy joint: everything is in order, dysplasia is completely absent
  • Minor changes visible only on x-rays.
  • Mild pathological changes: at this stage, clinical manifestations of the disease are possible.
  • Severe: severe changes can be seen on X-ray images, and pronounced clinical symptoms are also present.
  • Extremely severe degree: with it there is a complete destruction of the joint and its dislocation.

If dysplasia first manifests itself at an early age, then the listed symptoms will be less obvious than if the disease first manifested itself already in the mature age of the pet.

Dysplasia grades are of particular importance for mating tolerances. According to the rules of the World Cat Federation, animals with the first three degrees are allowed for breeding, while choosing a partner for your pet, preference, of course, should be given to perfectly healthy producers.

Do cats have hip dysplasia??

First of all, it should be said that dysplasia of the hip joints, even if the pet has it, does not necessarily manifest itself sooner or later. For many purrs, this disease does not make itself felt throughout their lives, while in others, its symptoms begin to appear from an early age. What is the reason for this? Firstly, with the physical condition of the animal, and secondly, with the fact that dysplasia can be of different degrees of severity, and if a cat has a mild form, then the disease can only be detected during an X-ray.

Treatment

Depending on the stage of the disease and how badly the joints of the animal are affected, either conservative or surgical treatment is performed.

Therapeutic activities

If there are no indications for surgery, then the treatment is carried out by therapeutic and drug methods.

At the initial stages of the development of the disease, veterinarians usually recommend limiting the pet’s physical activity, for which it is advised to place it in a cage or in a small aviary.

This is, first of all, necessary so that the joints are constantly in a natural position, which later will allow them to be correctly fixed, which will help significantly reduce the load on them.

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The next necessary condition to improve the condition is a special diet. In a cat’s diet, the dose of fatty and heavy foods is reduced, but at the same time the amount of foods rich in omega-3 acids increases.

It is also advisable to add foods or supplements to food that include chondroitin and glucosamine.

A cat that is overweight must be put on a diet, while feeding it, preferably with special dietary feed.

At the onset of the disease, procedures such as massage, warming up and electrophoresis help well, but with lameness and pain, they are prohibited.

The owner should try to make life easier for the pet: you should choose a comfortable bed for him, suitable in size and put it in a place convenient for the cat. The same goes for the bowl and tray. In addition, you should remove high obstacles that a sick animal has to overcome in a jump.

Prevention

In order to avoid dysplasia of the hip joints, or at least reduce the risk of its occurrence in a pet, it is recommended to follow the rules listed below:

  • Do not receive offspring from producers whose close relatives are sick with dysplasia.
  • When buying a thoroughbred kitten, it is advisable to find out heredity from its breeders.
  • If you plan to take a kitten of a breed that has a predisposition to dysplasia, then you need to carefully approach the choice of cattery and producers. It is advisable to take the baby from lines completely free from dysplasia.
  • Prevent pet overfeeding and obesity.
  • The food of the cat must be balanced.
  • It is necessary to carry out prophylaxis to prevent rickets, which can also provoke the development of dysplasia.
  • You should regularly take your pet to the clinic for preventive examinations. This is especially important if he has a hereditary predisposition to this disease.
  • You need to be attentive to the cat, without putting it at risk of injury to the spine or extremities, and at the first signs of dysplasia, immediately take it to the veterinary clinic.

Symptoms

The first signs of dysplasia can appear at a very early age. At the initial stage, the kitten has impaired motor function, which increase after physical exertion.

Later, the cat may develop lameness in one or both limbs. Because of painful sensations, the cat often avoids any activity, tries to spend more time in a sitting or lying position.

Over time, an increase in the deformed joint becomes noticeable, with its flexion-extension movements, crisp sounds occur. If the cat suffers from dysplasia of one limb, the muscles on it atrophy.

It is possible to identify the pathology of the limbs in a cat by the following signs:

  • Awkward, staggering, sometimes “hare” gait when the cat moves by jumping;
  • Lameness, which especially disturbs the animal after physical activity;
  • Crunchy sounds when driving;
  • The cat tries to avoid high obstacles, because it cannot independently jump onto any hill, be it a chair or a sofa;
  • When the pet stands up, the stiffness of its movements becomes noticeable;
  • Muscle atrophy and X-shaped curvature of the limbs.

If dysplasia begins to develop at an early age, symptoms will be mild. There are also cases in which there are no external signs of dysplasia and problems with joints are detected only on x-rays of the extremities.

How to treat dysplasia in cats?

Dysplasia is an abnormal joint condition that affects the quality of movement in cats. In most cases, the disease affects the hip joint, much less often the deformity affects the wrist and elbow joints. Dysplasia in cats is a dangerous pathology that can significantly worsen the quality of their life, since animals lose the ability to move fully.

Description of the disease

Translated from Greek, dysplasia means “violation, change in shape.” And this fully reflects the essence of the disease, in which there is an abnormal development and formation of tissue or organ.

Previously, it was believed that only dogs are susceptible to dysplasia, but over time they began to diagnose this pathology in cats, especially in pedigree cats. According to statistics, large breeds of cats suffer from dysplasia. So, in representatives of Maine Coon, the probability of developing pathology is 18%. Breeds such as the Norwegian Forest, British, Scottish, Persian are also at risk.

Two types of joint dysplasia are diagnosed in cats:

  • Dysplasia of the hip joint. the most common, affects the lower limbs of the animal.
  • Elbow dysplasia. much less common, is a pathology of the forelimbs in a cat.

Dysplasia of the hip joint in cats can occur at an early age, which significantly affects their future life. In this disease, the femur cannot be properly aligned with the pelvic bowl. This means that the head of the femur is displaced relative to the pelvic cavity and a free distance appears between them. With such a pathology, the connective tissue is affected first, and then the bones are deformed.

Due to abnormal development and deformation of the joints, excessive mobility occurs. Over time, the friction of the articular elements increases, the pressure on them increases significantly. The result is the destruction of bone, cartilage tissue, the development of many diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

The causes of the appearance of pathology

The main reason for the development of pathology is heredity. over, in the overwhelming majority of cases, dysplasia is diagnosed in purebred cats. Scientists have found that the defective gene can be passed on to offspring even if both parents were completely healthy. Remarkable is the fact that the genetic disorder can be traced even after 15 generations.

However, it cannot be said that only one hereditary factor affects the development of dysplasia. a set of signs is responsible for this.

Consider the most common causes of dysplasia in cats:

  • Too early sterilization or castration, as a result of which a longer bone growth was provoked;
  • Excess weight is the cause of increased stress on the joints and the development of their deformation;
  • Spine or limb injury;
  • Low physical activity;
  • Enhanced growth of the cat;
  • Calcium deficiency in the body, rickets;
  • Hormonal disruptions;
  • Congenital pathologies in the structure of the chest and joints;
  • Eating only one meat or dry food.
Cats Hip Dysplasia What Does It Mean

Despite the fact that scientists have come to the conclusion that joint dysplasia in cats depends on heredity, the gene responsible for the pathology has not yet been identified. It is believed that malfunctioning of joints does not depend on one gene, but on a certain set of several genes that affect the deformation of the musculoskeletal system of a cat.

Treatment of dysplasia in cats

The choice of dysplasia treatment method directly depends on the stage at which the disease is. In the initial stages, the veterinarian may prescribe a movement restriction. To facilitate control over the cat, it is placed in a small enclosure or cage for several weeks. This decision may seem inhumane, but only at first glance. Reducing physical activity is necessary in order to then firmly fix the deformed limbs and thereby reduce the load on the diseased joint.

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Since any serious load causes pain for the pet, you should make his life a little easier. To do this, the litter, bowl and tray must be placed in the most convenient places for him, it is also worth removing high obstacles that the cat is forced to overcome.

At the initial stages of dysplasia, good results are given by physiotherapy: massages, electrophoresis, warming up. However, with lameness and pain, they are strictly contraindicated.!

If the dysplasia is in an advanced form, drug treatment will be required, including the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, pain relievers, vitamins.

If, upon examination, the veterinarian diagnoses an extreme degree of dysplasia, an operation cannot be dispensed with. Only with its help it will be possible to return the cat to a full healthy life.

Today, there are several types of surgical interventions to correct this pathology:

  • Resection of the head of the pelvic bone. It is prescribed if the joint is completely destroyed and cannot be corrected. The essence of the operation is to saw off the femoral head and form an artificial joint. When heals, cartilage forms there, with the help of which the cat can move normally.
  • Correction of the adductor muscle of the thigh. This method is only suitable for kittens of the first year of life. The operation is aimed at reducing muscle thickness and correcting the joint.
  • Prosthetics. The cat’s motor function is restored by installing a joint prosthesis.

The type of surgery is chosen only by a veterinarian who can assess the possible risks and predict the outcome of the operation.

It is much easier to cure the disease in the early stages. That is why it is so important to closely monitor your pet and, at the slightest suspicion of dysplasia, consult a specialist. Timely started treatment can give very good results.

How to recognize and treat joint dysplasia in cats

It’s no secret that pedigree animals often suffer from hereditary diseases. Selective selection for the purpose of fixing certain qualities necessary for a person in the breed is costly for our pets. One of the most common hereditary abnormalities is articular dysplasia in cats. This disease significantly limits the mobility of the animal. It appears more often in infancy and progresses as quickly as the kitten gains weight. Large breed cats. Maine Coon, British, Persians especially suffer from the disease. According to the International Foundation for Animal Orthopedics (IFAW), the average incidence of this disease in cats is 6.6%.

Physiotherapy procedures

They can be used only during remission, so as not to provoke a worsening of the condition. These are procedures that relieve pain and inflammation. ultrasound, laser therapy, electrophoresis, massage.

Rehabilitation

The sore paw is rigidly fixed. They temporarily restrict the ability of the animal to move, depriving it of the ability to actively move, go out into the street, and jump. Rest promotes rapid recovery from an unreleased form of dysplasia.

Operative intervention

The advanced stages of the disease (D and E) require surgical intervention. There are several types of operations for joint dysplasia. They differ in complexity and cost:

  • Pectinectomy is an operation that corrects the adductor muscle of the thigh, which is deformed, becoming involved in the pathological process. This operation has a good effect on kittens up to six months of age.
  • Triple pelvic osteotomy. The operation is performed on young individuals whose bones and ligaments have sufficient elasticity and strength. Three osteotomies (artificial fractures) of the pelvic bones are performed, after which the acetabulum is rotated and fixed with a special plate so that the joint takes the correct position.
  • Endoprosthetics of the joint. Practice in cats over 10 months of age with severe dysplasia. It is a replacement of a diseased joint with an artificial one (metal or ceramic). Most effective method. Its negative side is its high cost.
  • Intertrochanteric osteotomy. It is used to treat traumatic subluxation in cats and dogs. The doctor changes the angle of entry of the femur into the glenoid cavity and sets the subluxation. This reduces the clearance between the body and the neck of the bone.
  • Bone head resection or resection arthroplasty. The operation is aimed at forming a false joint at the place where the head of the bone was. The connective tissue that has filled the free space begins to play the role of the ligamentous apparatus.

Diagnosis of the disease

If the disease is caught at an early stage, then competent diagnosis will help determine the initial signs of changes. It will be much easier to cure the disease in this case.

The main diagnostic measures are as follows:

  • Visual inspection. The doctor examines the limbs, palpates them, determines the degree of damage, the presence of pathological deformities.
  • General and biochemical analysis of blood and urine. They will give an idea of ​​the general condition of the animal, the presence of concomitant diseases.
  • Arthroscopy. This is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure that allows you to assess the condition of the inner surface of the joint. A special apparatus, an arthroscope, is inserted into the joint through a puncture. With the help of it, the doctor examines the intra-articular structures and assesses the degree of pathology.
  • Radiography. This is the main type of joint diagnostics. It is shown to an animal that is already 2 years old. Before the examination, the animal is put into a state of drug-induced sleep in order to be able to put it in the most favorable position for a high-quality picture.

Drug therapy

The basis of drug therapy in the early stages of the disease is the long-term use of chondroprotectors (Artroglycan, ArtroVet, Stride plus). The homeopathic remedy Hondartron is also used in the form of subcutaneous injections.

If necessary, intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid and absorbable drugs are prescribed to facilitate the work of diseased joints and relieve inflammation.

Causes of the disease

The main cause of the disease is a hereditary predisposition. The disease is transmitted to the kitten from one of the parents. It is argued that a mutation that causes symptoms of dysplasia can manifest itself after 14 generations, therefore, before mating, you need to very carefully study the pedigree of the animal.

Genetic studies have shown that there is no specific gene responsible for the presence or absence of this disease. The cause of the disease is latent disturbances in the number or structure of chromosomes that have arisen at the stage of fertilization. Such violations always lead to deviations in the work of various organs and systems. That is why more and more genetic abnormalities and hereditary diseases of cats are revealed, characteristic of some specific breeds or groups of breeds.

Treatment of the disease

Depending on the stage of joint damage, different methods of therapy are used. Mild stages of dysplasia (A, B and C) are diagnosed with great difficulty, since they do not cause much concern to the animal. But if you catch the disease at these stages, the treatment will be more successful. There is a high probability that it will be possible to do without surgery.

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Therapeutic diet

The basis of a therapeutic diet is the restriction of high-calorie food and a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals. The diet should contain dietary foods rich in glucosamine and chondroitin (gelatin, cartilage). Of the microelements, calcium and manganese are especially important. It is very important to monitor the weight of the animal. In no case should the established norms be exceeded.

Dysplasia in dogs. Diagnostics and treatment

Dysplasia is a pathology of joint development. Unlike humans, dysplasia in dogs is not a congenital ailment, but is directly related to heredity. This disease is considered a scourge of all large breeds, and almost every puppy who will grow into a dog of heavy build and / or above average height is at risk. How and why does dysplasia develop? Is it possible to defeat this disease?

general information

A large breed puppy quickly gains mass, especially if the owners want to raise a real giant or a strong man. they stuff the baby with calcium supplements, feed them with meat and cereals, and various growth stimulants. Muscles grow, but bones do not keep pace with them. the load on the joints becomes excessive. Add to this a slippery floor, exorbitant physical activity (early exhausting workouts) and we get a joint deformed to one degree or another.

There are 4 degrees of dysplasia in dogs, from mild changes to serious pathology, due to which the pet loses the ability to move normally. Grade “A” is normal, from B to E. Various disorders, depending on the severity.

Such a development of events is possible if the dog’s genotype contains “harmful” genes that determine the puppy’s risk group. These are almost all puppies of large breeds, since they began to withdraw from breeding dogs with dysplasia relatively recently. The heavier (more muscular) the dog is, the higher the risk. And, unfortunately, dysplasia in predisposed puppies develops even if the owners raise the baby correctly, control the load, do not overfeed and do not try to artificially slow down or accelerate weight gain.

The point of preventing dysplasia in dogs is to minimize the consequences. If the puppy’s joints are receiving adequate stress

Causes of Hip Dysplasia in Dogs

This condition can be characterized as a consequence of the formation in the hip joint of pathological dimensions of the gap between the articular head and the glenoid cavity, while their adherence to each other should be tight. If the head of the dog’s femur does not properly match the cavity of the hip joint, friction between them leads to degeneration of the articular surface and bone, which ultimately leads to impaired musculoskeletal functions.

Some dogs are already born with hip dysplasia, this is more commonly associated with early onset hip dysplasia. From the point of view of the mechanism of heredity, this is a rather complex disease associated with the involvement of polymeric genes. Therefore, in such genetically determined cases, the disease cannot be quickly removed from a certain breed or intrabreeds.

Hello, I already wrote here a couple of weeks ago about anxiety. And now it turned out that our 9-month-old Fold Scottish woman has hip dysplasia.

We live in the Moscow Region, they touched us yesterday, did an X-ray, said that there were no fractures or sprains, but there was clearly an abnormal development (hind legs with a cross) and joint pain in the right hind leg. The cat began to limp slightly and did not let its paw feel.

In this regard, the question is, we were given a course of Travmatin and Hondartron, we will pierce it and send it to an orthopedist in Moscow, but what next? I would like to hear opinions, experience, is it being treated? Are there any prospects for a cat? And is it possible to continue to play with her so that she runs, jumps, or is it worth taking care of her joints, bones, and legs and protecting her from jumping and nimble games??

I have an idea that if this occurs in children, they are given a massage, vitamins are given and everything goes away. How are the kittens? And 9 months is not too late?

We will definitely pass the examination, I just wish maybe someone had a similar experience. Yes, and I want to know what to tune in to, how it threatens, and maybe you shouldn’t torment a cat with frequent trips to doctors? After all, one visit to an orthopedist is not limited to.

What is hip dysplasia in a cat

Dysplasia of the hip joints in dogs

So experts call changes in the acetabulum of the joint, which leads to dysfunction of the hind legs. In large dogs, hip dysplasia is often congenital. This is their genetic defect, which develops in the first 6 months of animal life. Increased calcium in the diet or excess phosphorus, which slows down the absorption of the former, can also provoke this pathology. So, we learn in detail about the clinical picture of the disease and its therapy in dogs.

How to treat dysplasia in cats?

Dysplasia is an abnormal joint condition that affects the quality of movement in cats. In most cases, the disease affects the hip joint, much less often the deformity affects the wrist and elbow joints. Dysplasia in cats is a dangerous pathology that can significantly worsen the quality of their life, since animals lose the ability to move fully.

Causes of dysplasia in cats

So, some experts believe that kittens of those breeds that grow intensively and quickly (for example, Usher cats) are more susceptible to this ailment.

If we consider these 2 versions on the example of fairly large Maine Coon cats, then the representatives of this cat breed are really large in size and grow quickly, while these cats really often suffer from dysplasia.

So it is likely that these 2 factors

Dysplasia of the hip joint in dogs. Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of dysplasia in dogs

Hip dysplasia is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders in dogs and affects many animals around the world. As the disease develops and progresses, the dog’s hip joints undergo degenerative changes, causing increased pain and movement problems. If this disease is not treated, it will ultimately lead to irreversible consequences and the dog will not be able to move its hind legs due to severe pain. Pain like this causes serious suffering. However, the vast majority of dogs with hip dysplasia can often lead a full and active life, provided that the disease is diagnosed at an early stage, and the correct treatment is prescribed and maintained in a timely manner.