home Dogs Do dogs have a menstrual cycle?

Do dogs have a menstrual cycle?

Heat Cycle Phases of Dogs

The female dog’s reproductive cycle is called the estrus cycle and is broken down into three distinct phases:

  • Proestrus is the beginning of estrus. It is characterized by swelling of the vulva and vaginal discharge with a blood tinge. Female dogs will not allow mating during this phase. This phase can last from a few days to four weeks. On average, it lasts 7-10 days.
  • Estrus is also known as estrus. This is the time when the female dog will allow mating. This phase of the cycle lasts from 3 to 21 days with an average duration of 9 days.
  • Anestrus is defined as the time period when heat or menstruation stops. This phase usually lasts about four to five months.

When a dog is in heat?

The term “menses” in relation to our dogs is a misnomer. Female dogs do not enter estrus, or as many of you think, menstruation, but usually once or twice a year. On average, about every seven months.

Just as the length of a person’s menstrual cycle differs from person to person, every dog ​​is different and there can be differences among breeds and even variation from one cycle to another in the same dog.

Dogs have periods?

No. at least not the way people do.

Dogs do not menstruate and are only susceptible to mating when they are actively in heat. Are dogs going through menopause? No. dogs can get pregnant throughout their life.

You got a short answer that explained the female dog’s reproductive cycle, especially when compared to the human menstrual cycle. Here’s a guide to help you better understand dogs’ estrus cycles (menses) and all the changes that come with them.

Dog owners may notice blood and vaginal discharge from their untrained dog, and may think that their dogs have a period similar to that of humans. In fact, this is not the case. Dogs do not have a period per se, they are in estrus or estrus cycles. The blood that is secreted during your dog’s estrus cycle is part of a different process than that in humans. In bitches, the genitals and reproductive organs are provided with additional blood to prepare for reproduction, and this can lead to bleeding. This is different from the process in people who know everything as menstruation. So, both humans and dogs have secretions that may seem similar and related to the female’s reproductive cycle, they are not actually the same.

dogs, menstrual, cycle

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Do dogs have periods??

Before adopting a dog, it is important to be prepared to take responsibility for the dog. From getting the correct sized dog crate to arranging a puppy’s vet visit, there is a lot of preparation to do. And if you have a female dog, you also need to know about the so-called periods, many of you ask if dogs have periods. Today we will try to find out everything about menstruation.

What happens when a dog is in heat?

Dog pheromones are not detectable in humans, but there are several other reliable ways to determine if your dog is in heat, including:

  • Physical changes: You may notice continuation of vulvar edema, cessation of spotting, or even discoloration. Your dog may also arch its back when pressure is applied from across it, and you may notice how it moves its tail to the side.
  • Behavioral changes: Courtship-like behaviors are often initiated by the female dog and may include pheromone release, vocalization, changes in posture, increased physical activity, urinating in the presence of a male dog, or engaging the male (such as sniffing or licking the vulva).
  • Diagnostic testing: Vaginal cytology (similar to a Pap smear) is an inexpensive, relatively quick and valuable monitoring tool that can be done on an outpatient basis with a veterinarian.

If in doubt, see your veterinarian.

How old is a dog in heat??

The first time you notice that your dog is in heat may be at 6 months of age or later than 24 months. Although dogs can become pregnant during this period, this is generally impractical as they are still not fully mature.

© shutterstock

Are dogs going through menopause??

In short, dogs don’t go through menopause. Because their reproductive cycles are different from those of humans, dogs can continue to heat up and subsequently become pregnant throughout their lives.

However, you may notice that your dog’s cycle may occur less frequently, or the duration seems to be longer than one heat to the next. This is normal for dogs as they age; however, dogs that have stopped cycles altogether should be evaluated by a veterinarian, this may signal an underlying health condition or metabolic disease.

But just because dogs can get pregnant at an age doesn’t mean they should. What’s more, dogs that become pregnant after 8 years of age are more likely to develop pyometra, which is life-threatening.

Neutering dogs

Preventing a dog’s pregnancy is not as easy as it sounds. Don’t underestimate your dog’s. or someone else’s. determination to mate. You need extra vigilance, believe me, just because you have a fenced yard, it doesn’t mean anything!

Dog neutering, which involves removing the ovaries and / or uterus, is the most common and effective method of preventing unwanted pregnancy in dogs and reducing overcrowding in pets. Sterilization is permanent and cannot be reversed.

From dog diapers to body wraps, there are many fickle ways to prevent pregnancy at home. Do not go to dog parks or other dog populated areas while your dog is in heat. Also, if you decide to use a dog diaper, keep in mind that it needs to be airtight, absorbent, comfortable, and most importantly, reliable. It should also be changed frequently.

Stages, cycles of emptying

Conditionally, estrus in a dog is divided into four successive stages:

  • Proestrus (forerunner). The cycle lasts seven to ten days. At this stage, characteristic manifestations are not noticeable. Due to the rush of blood to the genitals, the vulva swells. A small amount of bloody mucous discharge is released from the loop. There is no ovulation, the bitch is not ready for mating, does not allow the males, driving away the suitors with a growl. Behavior changes. The pet becomes more excited, playful, energetic, can show disobedience, and is reluctant to follow commands. Some bitches are irritable and aggressive. On walks, they explore the area, leave marks. Increased urination.
  • Estrus (rut). During the period of sexual heat, in the first two to three days from the moment of its onset, ovulation occurs. The female is ready to mate, but she does not always let the males go. The rut occurs approximately on the 11-14th day after the onset of bloody discharge. During this period, females are usually interested in males. The bitch flirts with the dog, takes the tail away. The loop swells strongly, becomes more pliable and loose. The discharge becomes dark red, brown, viscous thick consistency.
  • Metaestrus (end of heat). The amount of discharge from the loop is reduced. The labia are reduced in size, puffiness subsides. Females do not accept the courtship of males, driving them away in every possible way. The duration of metaestrus is 10-11 days. If pregnancy has not occurred, the body gradually comes to a state of rest. But regardless of whether the egg is fertilized or not, the blood of the bitches contains an increased concentration of progesterone (pregnancy hormone), so a false pregnancy can develop.
  • Anestrus. The duration of the rest period, which determines the frequency of emptyings. 100-170 days.

If you are planning to mate a bitch, the most favorable period is 10-12 days from the beginning of the pimple. On other days, the female simply does not want to admit the males.

It is better to mate twice, for two days in a row at the same time. If the dog is obstinate, introduce the dog to the male a few weeks before estrus.

First estrus in dogs

If you decide to have a girl dog (bitch), you need to understand that the period of puberty in females is much more difficult from a physiological point of view than in males. In addition, throughout life, owners should pay great attention to the health of their pet. At least twice a year, during estrus, the dog’s body becomes more vulnerable than during other periods.

As a rule, the first estrus in females occurs between the ages of 8 and 13-15 months. Some females may begin estrus at six months or even a year and a half. Much depends on the breed, physiological, individual characteristics of the organism. For example, dogs of miniature decorative breeds (Yorkies, Chihuahuas, Chins) come into heat after a year, and in females of large, giant breeds (Great Dane, Shepherd Dogs, Labradors) about six to ten months.

Note that often in young dogs, the first puddle is not real. That is, there is no ovulation. The next estrus may take some time, so be careful.

But even within the same breed, the first estrus occurs in different periods, and the intervals and duration are different.

Advice! If the bitch does not start estrus before two years, this signals the presence of any pathologies in the dog’s body, indicates a hormonal imbalance, disturbances in the functioning of the reproductive system.

Normally, the frequency of estrus in dogs is once or twice a year. Typically, the interval between estrus is four to six to seven months. So in mongrels, northern dogs (huskies, huskies, malamutes) estrus occurs approximately once every ten to twelve months, and in bitches of other breeds. once every five to six months.

If a bitch has a puddle every three to four months, we recommend that you show your pet to a veterinarian. It is possible that frequent estrus indicates hormonal disorders.

How to determine the onset of estrus

You can understand that the dog will soon begin estrus by the behavior of the pet. Of course, each pet is individual, has its own character and disposition. At the same time, knowing the demeanor and habits of your dog, you can understand that in a few days, weeks, the pet will begin to be empty.

Bitches become more playful, active and even naughty, especially on walks. In a few days, the dog begins to flirt with the males, leaves urine marks, explores the territory, is interested in males, and reluctantly return home from a walk. Some dogs have increased or decreased appetite.

Important! Before a puddle, as well as in the first days, urination is more frequent, so the dog often asks to go outside. The loop (labia) swells. The dog begins to lick itself often. Disturbed appetite, fever.

During the rutting season, bitches can jump with their paws on other dogs, regardless of their gender. Females lift, twist the tail to facilitate mating.

Some bitches before estrus become angry, can show unmotivated aggression towards their relatives, regardless of their gender, as well as people. The dog refuses to obey commands, can run away from the owner in an unknown direction. Therefore, if you notice behavior that is not typical for your pet, walk it on a leash.

Pay attention to how the males react to your dog and how your pet perceives grooming. Before estrus, the level of sex hormones in the bloodstream rises, and even with a minimal concentration of them, males can show interest in a bitch. On ovulating days, most females are ready to mate, flirt with males, and may even run away for a walk.

Remove carpets from the floor before estrus, as droplets of blood will appear on the floor during estrus. Spotting, especially at the beginning of estrus, can be seen on the litter where the dog is resting.

Teach your pet to hygiene from the first heat. The dog must watch itself, lick the discharge. Until the end of the spotting period, some owners put on panties on the dog. The use of hormonal drugs is not recommended, especially. This will negatively affect the health of the animal. Estrus is a natural physiological process in which a person should not interfere.

Tips for bitch owners

During estrus, females need especially careful care and attention. Observe hygiene, regimen, daily routine. The diet should be nutritious, balanced and complete.

To prevent unwanted mating, walk the animal on a leash and away from common dog walking areas. An empty bitch attracts males, which is unpleasant for their owners and for the dog itself, arranges fights with other females.

It is possible to release the dog from the leash only in deserted places where there are no dogs or people. Do not let the pet out of sight, control its actions, movements. If the bitch is disobedient, limit yourself to walking on a leash.

If the dog is kept in the yard, cover it in the enclosure during estrus to avoid unwanted mating.

My Female Dog is Bleeding, What can I do? coton de Tulear I Lorentix

Watch your dog closely. False hygiene may develop. Therefore, to avoid possible complications, noticing the first manifestations of such a condition during or after estrus, consult your veterinarian.

If the bitch is of no breeding value, it is best to neuter the dog. There are also special remedies to prevent ovulation, unwanted pregnancy.

Important! Long-term use of such medications can provoke hormonal imbalance, oncology. Only a veterinarian should prescribe them.!

How to tell if a dog is in heat: stages of the cycle, signs, advice to owners

A dog’s heat (estrus, puddle) is a certain period, the reproductive stage, when a non-sterilized female is ready to mate in order to obtain offspring. A natural process also indicates the onset of puberty. The bitch is ready to mate, carry and give birth to offspring. If you have no experience with pets, but are planning to have a girl, we recommend reading this article, from which you will find out when the first heat should come, how long this period is, and also how to determine the onset of estrus in bitches.

How the puddle proceeds

Not only breeders of bitches, but also males should have an idea of ​​how estrus proceeds and how long it lasts in a dog. This information will help to avoid unwanted mating, since it is during this period that the female admits the males.

Heat is a natural physiological process that indicates the onset of puberty. This main signal indicates that your pet is ready for pregnancy and bearing offspring.

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Estrus is accompanied by bloody vaginal discharge from the vulva, swelling of the outer labia, enlarged nipples, hormonal changes in the body, a change in the behavior of a pet.

The abundance of vaginal discharge during estrus, their nature (consistency, color) depends on the size, age of the dog, as well as the period of emptying. In representatives of small breeds, the discharge is insignificant and the owners do not always determine the exact date of the onset of estrus. Therefore, the article will consider other signs by which you can understand that the dog is in heat.

Despite the readiness for mating, during the first puddle, experienced breeders and veterinarians categorically do not recommend mating a dog, since the body is not fully ready for bearing offspring, childbirth. Too early pregnancy will negatively affect the health of the dog, is fraught with the birth of weak, non-viable puppies, difficult childbirth.

Advice! It is best to knit a bitch with a male during the third estrus, choosing a worthy groom for your pet. This is the optimal age for mating.

Problematic estrus

The development of hormonal disruption, possible pathologies are indicated by:

  • too frequent heat;
  • bloodless, latent estrus;
  • too abundant vaginal discharge of an uncharacteristic color and consistency during or after puffing (blood with pus, black discharge);
  • weakness, apathy, lethargy, inappropriate behavior of the dog;
  • refusal to eat, increased thirst;
  • unstable body temperature.

For several days after estrus, the loop remains slightly swollen. A small amount of light, clear discharge flows from the vulva. This is the norm.

If a dog is in heat for more than 25-28 days, vaginal discharge has a strong putrid odor, gray-brown, dark yellow-brown color, after puffing, severe bleeding has developed, immediately show the dog to a veterinarian. A similar condition causes vulvovaginitis, endometritis, metritis, the presence of tumors in the organs of the reproductive tract, infection of the uterus with pathogenic flora. Heavy bleeding signals poor blood clotting.

Duration of estrus

The average duration of estrus in bitches is three weeks (21-23 days). In this case, you need to take into account the number, frequency of emptyings, age, weight of the dog.

In young dogs, as a rule, the duration and frequency of leaks are unchanged. In older dogs, due to age-related changes, the resting period increases.

If the duration of estrus in a bitch is 25-28 days, rest periods are six to seven months, then such a schedule should be constant. If vaginal discharge has become abundant, more pronounced, with frequent leaks, or estrus does not come on time, consult your veterinarian.

Important! The pushover may not occur at the appointed period if the dog is sick, weak, emaciated. Latent estrus is noted in case of hormonal disruptions, after prolonged use of hormonal agents that prevent sexual desire.

Bitch owners should monitor the dog’s health during and after estrus for several days, regardless of whether the dog has been mated or not.

To have an idea of ​​the duration of estrus, mark the days of its beginning and end in a notebook, and also describe the behavior of the bitch at certain periods.

Even older females, if there is no control, are attracted to males and can be mated. A bitch can be covered by a sick male or a male of a larger size.

Treatment and prevention of strongyloidosis in dogs

Helminthic diseases in pets cannot be called rare. Every breeder has come across them. Most often, ascariasis (that is, diseases caused by parasitic nematode species) are found in dogs. Among them there are especially interesting varieties that differ in the characteristics of their pathogenesis. These include strongyloidiasis in dogs.

General information

Strongyloides stercoralis is a small hookworm that can infect dogs, cats, other animals, and humans. By the way, it is cats that are the most “popular” host, since they can be infected by three types of parasites at once (S. felis, S. planiceps and S. tubefasciens). In dogs, it is S. Stercoralis that most often “lodges”.

This parasite is extremely unusual. Two species are dangerous for humans: Strongyloides stercoralis and Capillaria philippinensis, and the latter is a separate subspecies of the parasite we are describing.

The uncommonness of the helminth lies in the presence of. a free-living form. Simply put, the worm can be both a parasite and an “honest” soil nematode. This, by the way, confirms the theory that all parasitic roundworms were originally harmless worms living in the soil. It is possible that in a couple of thousand years S. Stercoralis will finally switch to a purely parasitic lifestyle.

Life cycle

Adult parasites live in the small intestine, although some individuals are sometimes found in the large intestine. In length, worms of this species are very small, barely growing to a couple of millimeters in length. Eggs are released into the external environment along with feces.

Outside the host (at a temperature not lower than 26 ° C), the larvae that emerge from them molt twice in about 10 hours. After 18 hours, future parasites reach the fourth stage of development.

It is interesting that at the same time, free-living individuals “bud off”, which subsequently peacefully process soil organic matter in humus, without any “interest” in the parasitic way of life.

“Non-infectious” females, having mated with males, approximately on the second or third day after hatching, lay their own eggs. and die. But the invasive stage of the larvae molts again and in this state the young parasites are already ready for the process of infecting potential hosts.

It is not yet clear whether the descendants of free-living nematodes can subsequently become invasive, or whether the parasitic cycle is maintained exclusively at the expense of existing individuals. It is also still not entirely clear why the ratio of “law-abiding” nematodes and their pathological forms depends.

Cases are known when up to 80% (and more) of the released larvae passed into a free-living state, while in other situations their number did not exceed 5%. Most likely, it depends on the time of year and the temperature of the external environment, but nevertheless, according to parasitologists, there are other factors.

There is also a third (!) Variant of the development cycle. In this case, the larvae emerge from the eggs directly in the intestine, where they develop to the “perforated” stage. After that, they perforate the intestinal walls, enter the blood vessels and travel to the lungs. And how do representatives of the standard invasive form end up there??

The path of infection is also not easy. Through the skin on the pads of the paws, the larvae enter the bloodstream, and from there, along with the general bloodstream, into the lungs. Like other parasitic nematodes, this worm is dangerous precisely by the migration of young forms, since the juvenile parasite may well end up not only in the lungs, but also in any other organ.

Despite the evidence of the process of transmission of parasites from mothers with milk, there is no data yet indicating the possibility of transplacental infection (in other words, intrauterine infection, most likely, does not occur).

Other “unusual

Again, there have been cases when the larvae from the blood vessels of the skin got directly into the small intestine, bypassing the pulmonary stage. Interestingly, there is no nutritional route of infection. That is, a dog or a person can eat food contaminated by the larvae or eggs of the parasite in handfuls, but their body processes parasites without any problems, no infection occurs.

Most sick dogs show no symptoms at all. But! This versatile parasite has another feature: it often happens that some of the sexually mature females invade directly into the intestinal tissue and fall into a kind of suspended animation there.

They can come out of hibernation months after there were parasites of this species in the intestines of the animal! This can be facilitated by a drop in immunity, an infectious disease and, possibly, pregnancy.

It is also interesting that recovered animals (and dogs can recover without any treatment at all) acquire strong immunity to strongyloidosis, although this does not happen at all with other helminthic diseases. However, even in developed clinical cases, the disease proceeds relatively easily, and all clinical signs are limited to episodic cases of watery diarrhea.

About treatment

Treating strongyloidiasis in a dog is easy and difficult at the same time. It is difficult in the sense that it is not easy to prevent the penetration of migratory forms into the body. In addition, the drugs used in the treatment rarely kill the “transit” larvae that have not yet reached the intestines. The following treatment regimens are recommended:

  • Alubendazole twice a day for 3 consecutive days, at a dose of 100 mg / kg.
  • Thiabendazole once a day for 3 consecutive days, 50 mg / kg.
  • Fenbendazole once a day for 3 days at 50 mg / kg.
  • Preparations based on ivermectin according to the instructions (they kill part of the migratory larvae).

The reproductive cycle of dogs

The time to puberty in dogs varies considerably depending on the breed. The first estrus in small breed dogs usually occurs at the age of 6-10 months, while in large breed bitches, the first estrus can be delayed up to 24 months. In this regard, the absence of estrus before 2 years of age is not considered a sign of pathology.

The sexual cycle in bitches is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, diestrus and anestrus.

Proestrus is manifested by swelling of the vulva (outer labia) and bloody discharge from the vagina. During this period, the bitch flirts with the male, but does not allow mating. Sometimes this period goes unnoticed due to the fact that the bitch intensively licks the vaginal discharge. The duration of this period is from 2 to 25 days (average 9 days).

During estrus, the bitch allows mating. During this phase, ovulation and fertilization of the eggs take place. The length of the period when the bitch is allowed to sit also varies widely from 2 to 20 days, but the average is 5-9 days.

Diestrus begins after ovulation and is associated with the activity of the ovarian corpus luteum. The length of this period depends on whether the bitch is pregnant or not. In puppy bitches, the duration of diestrus is 56-58 days, and in non-puppies it is 60-100 days.

Anestrus is the resting phase when the development of follicles in the ovaries stops. The duration of this period is approximately 4 months.

The sexual cycle in dogs is repeated 2 times a year (on average every 7 months). In some dog breeds, estrus occurs only once a year. Due to individual characteristics, it is recommended to knit only after the second heat. This will enable the owner of the bitch to track how estrus goes, how long each period takes. In addition, the first estrus may be defective, not accompanied by ovulation, and the animal’s body itself may not yet be ready for pregnancy.

Despite the external manifestations of the sexual cycle, it is sometimes difficult for even experienced owners to understand when the bitch is ready for fertilization. In this case, several methods are used to diagnose the fertile period.

To determine the stage of estrus, a smear is taken from the vagina, stained, and the type of cells of the vaginal epithelium, the presence of bacteria and blood cells are assessed. This is a good research method that allows you to fairly accurately judge the current phase of the sexual cycle. It is often necessary to take several swabs at intervals of several days for greater accuracy. A more modern and accurate method is to determine the level of hormones in the blood (for example, progesterone).

If the mating turned out to be fruitful, then pregnancy develops. The larger the bitch, the usually larger the litter size. Dwarf breeds give birth to 1 to 4 puppies, and large bitches can produce up to 15 puppies. The first pregnancy is usually infertile. Also, the number of fruits decreases as the animal ages.

The sexual cycle of cats

In cats, signs of sexual behavior begin to appear at the age of 6-9 months. That is, already at the age of six months, a cat can begin to “demand a cat”. As a rule, the owners of such animals do not understand what is happening with their kitten and take the calling calls of the cat and rolling on the floor for a manifestation of pain. There are also cases when a cat’s first estrus begins only at the age of 18 months (1.5 years).

Short-haired cats are considered more “early maturing” and usually begin to show sexual behavior earlier than long-haired cats. Also, the length of daylight has a very large effect on puberty. The longer the cat is in good natural or artificial light, the faster the sexual cycle will begin.

The sexual behavior of a cat is nothing more than a manifestation of the sexual cycle and the readiness of the body for mating. In the absence of mating, the cat’s sexual cycle resumes every 2-3 weeks. The intensity of sexual behavior in each cat is expressed differently. Some of them scream heart-rendingly without interruption, stick to each member of the family, roll on the floor. In others, estrus passes with restraint with mild external signs.

However, very few cat owners react calmly to the natural manifestations of their pets’ instincts during estrus. As a rule, the owners purchase hormonal preparations for animals that interrupt estrus and eliminate its external manifestations. The use of these drugs is not safe for your pets’ health. It is better to neuter (neuter) the pet in a timely manner.

The duration of estrus in cats is 3 to 10 days, followed by a 2-3 week break. In some animals, the development of follicles in the ovary occurs continuously without interruption, which leads to constantly high levels of estrogen and, as a result, a state of constant estrus.

Also, a feature of the reproductive system of cats is induced ovulation. That is, the release of the egg from the ovary occurs only during mating. This also explains such a short heat spacing in the absence of mating. In the event that mating has occurred, due to the stimulation of the receptors, ovulation occurs, and then the fertilization of the egg. At the same time, a single mating in cats does not provide the necessary stimulation for ovulation. Requires multiple mating in a short period of time.

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Pregnancy in cats

The duration of pregnancy in cats is approximately 64 days from the moment of the first mating. The next estrus usually occurs 2 weeks after the cessation of lactation. But there are cases when the cat begins to “walk” after 2 weeks after giving birth and can become pregnant again.

External signs of pregnancy in cats become noticeable closer to the 50th day of pregnancy. Usually there is an increase in abdominal volume and an increase in appetite. At about the 3rd week of pregnancy, the nipples increase, in the last week of pregnancy, the mammary glands enlarge and lactation begins (milk formation).

Ultrasonography and X-rays can be used to confirm pregnancy. The most optimal period for diagnosing pregnancy in cats using ultrasound is 30 days from the moment of mating. At this time, the fruits are already clearly visible. It is problematic to accurately count the number of fetuses using ultrasound, especially with multiple pregnancies. X-rays are rarely used in doubtful cases.

The number of litters in cats ranges from 1 to 9 kittens. Primiparous cats rarely have more than 3 kittens per litter.

Throughout the entire period of pregnancy, it is necessary to protect the cat from stress, balance the diet, and increase the feeding rate. Vaccination and the necessary treatments (deworming, treatment for ectoparasites) must be carried out before pregnancy, because the use of certain drugs during fetal development can lead to undesirable consequences. This also applies to the use of various drugs.

Before giving birth, it is necessary to prepare the place where the cat will give birth. It must be located in a quiet, secluded place. To do this, you can use a cardboard box with an absorbent diaper at the bottom. Even if you prepare a special place for birthing, be prepared that the cat will ignore it and will give birth where it sees fit (for example, in the closet or behind the sofa).

Sexual cycle and pregnancy in cats and dogs

When purchasing a kitten or puppy, not many people think that sooner or later their pet will grow up and begin to show sexual behavior, and possibly bear offspring. In order to avoid surprises, it is advisable to think before purchasing an animal whether you will use it in breeding work (to obtain offspring) or whether you need a pet without unnecessary hassle.

If you do not want to engage in mating and obtaining offspring from an animal, then it is advisable to plan the timing of routine castration (sterilization) in a veterinary clinic.

If you want to get offspring from a cat or bitch at least once, then you need to know the basic data about the sexual cycle, the physiology of pregnancy and childbirth of these animals, as well as some pathologies that you may encounter.

Pregnancy in dogs

The duration of pregnancy in dogs is approximately 63-65 days from the moment of the first mating. External signs of pregnancy are an increase in the volume of the abdomen and body weight, increased appetite. For diagnostics, an ultrasound scan is performed on the 30th day of the alleged pregnancy.

During pregnancy, the bitch should receive a quality balanced diet. The feeding rate should be increased by 50% in the last weeks of pregnancy and during lactation. It is better to feed the animal more often in small portions. Before giving birth, it is necessary to prepare a special place where the bitch can whelp.

Causes of bleeding in a dog

Your dog will go through an average of two to three heat cycles per year. Burning is the most common cause of bleeding, but there are other conditions that can cause your dog to bleed from the vagina. However, you should try to determine if the bleeding is from the vulva or is in your dog’s urine. In addition, your dog can eliminate bloody diarrhea that may come from her vagina.

Let’s discuss and consider the reasons why a dog has bleeding. In this article, we’ll take a quick look at the main reasons and what to do to help your dog. This article has been verified by an experienced veterinarian, however, in any case, we do not recommend self-medication.

Ask The Vet, (Dogs getting their period.) Dr Yalda Motavali

Causes of bleeding

There are several reasons why your dog may have bleeding (from the vulva). Blood in the urine may indicate a urinary tract infection, but is different from blood that passes from the vulva.

  • Estrus cycles. Females go through two to three oestrus cycles each year, also known as estrus. The heat cycle lasts two to three weeks and begins as a patchy bleeding from the vulva. Your dog’s vulva will also swell and he may urinate more often than usual. Her excessive urination is intended to attract male dogs. Estrus cycles are not a medical condition, but a natural reproductive cycle in dogs.
  • Pyometra. Pyometra is a medical condition that can occur during the estrus cycle and is an infection in the uterus. Pyometra is a serious life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Because your dog’s hormones change during his heat cycles, the white blood cells that prevent infection are kept out of the uterus. Tears of the uterus will grow in anticipation of pregnancy. However, if pregnancy does not occur within several successive heat cycles, cysts can begin to grow within the thickened tissue and create an ideal environment for bacteria to grow. Without white blood cells present to fight bacterial growth, your dog could develop a uterine infection. Giving a reason why a dog has one of the most dangerous bleeding.
  • Miscarriage. Your dog may become pregnant during his estrus cycle, and after a few weeks, his body may terminate the pregnancy for a variety of reasons. Miscarriages often result in bleeding, where your dog can cross the placenta and other tissues.
  • Inflammation of the vagina. If your spayed dog feels vaginal discharge containing blood, it may be suffering from vaginal inflammation or vaginitis. Additional symptoms of vaginitis include frequent urination or difficulty urinating. Your dog may also lick the vulva area more often and ride his anus on the floor. Vaginitis is usually caused by an infection or foreign body and can affect any female at any age, although dogs in pre-fertile age and older seem more prone to.
  • Vaginal tumors. Unvaccinated bitches are more likely to develop vaginal tumors as they age. Most vaginal tumors are benign or noncancerous and can cause bloody discharge as well as blood in the urine, vaginal odor, and difficulty in labor.

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What to do with bleeding

You should take your dog to the vet if it is bleeding from the vulva and if you think it is not in heat. Your veterinarian will do a complete physical exam and ask you when you first noticed her symptoms. The veterinarian will also ask you about the amount and quality of bleeding, for example, if your dog is bleeding or bleeding and the blood is thick, thin, or accompanied by other secretions. Answering these questions will help your veterinarian make a diagnosis, but additional tests may also be done to rule out other conditions.

Your veterinarian may take a vaginal swab to look for bacterial infections associated with vaginitis urinary tract infections. Tissue samples collected from your dog’s vulva can also be examined to determine if there may be tumors. If your veterinarian detects tumor growth, a CT scan or X-ray will be ordered to determine the size and possible metastases. Typically, surgery is performed to remove the uterus and ovaries, as well as tumor growth. Radiation and chemotherapy can be used to kill any hidden cancer cells and prevent tumor growth from recurring. Dogs are much more tolerant of chemotherapy than humans and suffer less disease and hair loss. However, some dog breeds are more susceptible to hair loss, notably English Shepherds, Lhasa Apsos, Maltese, Schnauzers, Shih Tzus and Poodles.

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Prevention of bleeding

Many medical conditions associated with vaginal bleeding can be prevented by spaying your dog. Neutering your dog will also stop future estrus cycles. Pyometra is the result of hormonal changes associated with successive estrus cycles that do not lead to pregnancy. Treatment for pyometra requires an ovariohysterectomy (sterilization), but this can be a difficult surgical procedure when your dog is fighting a bacterial infection.

Also bacteria can grow in the urinary tract and infect your dog. Giving her access to clean water and the ability to dispose of waste frequently will help prevent bacterial infections that can lead to vaginal inflammation.

Unfortunately, it may not be possible to prevent the growth of tumors in your dog’s vagina, but spaying early can significantly reduce the risk of neoplasms and cancer later in life.

How many days has it been bleeding

As a rule, the first estrus occurs at 6-12 months and depends on the breed. Despite the fact that representatives of small breeds ripen earlier than their larger counterparts, the first mating is carried out only after the end of 2 menstruation. Mating before this time is fraught with disorders in the dog, not ready to bear offspring, and abnormalities in the development of puppies.

The average length of a dog’s period ranges from 20 to 22 days and depends on:

  • Breeds. The maximum duration is observed in representatives of large breeds.
  • The time of the year. In the cold season, the duration is shorter than in the warm season. Interestingly, this factor does not affect pets living in an apartment.
  • Age. With age, there is a gradual decrease in the days of heat. Despite the shortening of the cycle, such a dog is not deleted from breeding and produces healthy offspring.
  • Conditions of Containment. When cohabitation with members of the opposite sex, the number of days of menstruation increases. Living with a male dog also affects the onset of estrus. Puberty occurs earlier in such couples.
  • Activity. The more physical activity of the animal, the sooner menstruation ends.

The entire reproductive cycle in dogs is divided into 4 stages:

  • Proestrus (forerunner). It lasts about 9 days and prepares the body for conception and pregnancy. During this period, the dog has the following symptoms:
  • swelling of the loop and the appearance of the first bleeding;
  • change in behavior (increased excitability and decreased concentration);
  • Frequent urination while walking, used to leave marks
  • playfulness towards males, but a strict ban on close contact when trying to sit.
  • Estrus (hunting). Lasts about 10 days and is accompanied by ovulation. On the 15th day of the sexual cycle, the pet is ready for mating and lets the males come to her. The willingness to mate is manifested in:
  • maximum swelling of the loop;
  • clarification or complete cessation of secretions;
  • raising the pelvis and abducting the tail by pressing on the back near its base.
  • Metaestrus. Lasts 1-3 days until the discharge is completely finished and the behavior changes. The dog loses interest in males, and its hormones return to normal. The pet reacts to the owner’s commands and suppresses any attempts at courting.
  • Anestrus. This stage lasts from 4 to 12 months and takes the time between the end of your period and the start of a new one. The duration of anestrus is stable for about 6 years and gradually increases in dogs over 8 years of age.
  • Track the number of days in heat. Pregnancy can occur on any day of the cycle. If the offspring is not included in your plans, then keep the pet on a leash until the end of the cycle. Remember that the cessation of secretions is not only observed during the metaestrus stage, but also during the estrus stage, the ideal time for conception.

    The approximate relationship between the onset and duration of estrus in different breeds can be seen on the example of the table.

    Dog breedAge of first estrusAverage duration
    Small (Chihuahua, Yorkshire Terrier, Pekingese)6-9 months10-15 days
    Medium (Cocker Spaniel, English Bulldog, Akita Inu)10-15 months20-22 days
    Large (Alabai, Great Dane, Mastiff)13-24 months22-30 days

    Frequency, like duration, is individual. On average, a dog’s menstruation occurs 2 times a year, but sometimes every 4 months (Rottweilers, Shepherds) or, conversely, only once a year (aboriginal breeds of the Far North).

    The frequency of estrus is influenced by the conditions of detention:

    • domestic dogs flow 2 times a year: in autumn and winter;
    • animals living on the street give offspring at the most favorable time of the year (summer), therefore they flow only once at the beginning of spring.

    Cycle duration and frequency stabilize over 2 years, so deviations before this age are not considered a violation.

    Dog menstruation ranges from 10 to 30 days, depending on breed and other factors.

    • Increase in the frequency of “empty spots”. Be wary if estrus occurs 3 or even 4 times a year. This frequency is rare and may be due to hormonal disorders.
    • Long delays. If the dog does not belong to the breeds that are current once a year, and lives at home, then a delay of 9-10 months is considered a serious deviation.
    • Change in the nature of the discharge. If there is abundant and intensely colored discharge, show your pet to the veterinarian.
    • Deviation of the duration from the norm to a lesser or greater extent. If menstruation ends earlier than 10 days or later than 30 days, then the animal needs a thorough examination.
    • Prolonged absence of the first heat. If the pet is more than 2 years old, and spotting has not appeared, contact your veterinarian for help.
    • Any deviation from the established cycle after reaching 2 years. At 2 years of age, the cycles stabilize, so take urgent action even with small deviations. In small breeds, the cycle stabilizes even earlier, at 18 months.

    How long does estrus last for dogs?

    The first heat or a dog’s menstruation is a real test of strength for an inexperienced owner. Previously obedient pets become uncontrollable, bloody prints appear on their favorite furniture, and on walks you have to fight off annoying suitors.

    In this article I will talk about the duration and frequency of estrus in different breeds of dogs and will analyze the factors that affect the deviation from the established norm.

    For the dog’s health, it is important to keep a special calendar that controls the duration of each menstruation. With this accounting, the owner will be aware of any deviations in the cycle that can harm the animal.

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    Be careful with your pet during estrus and protect it from cold weather, infections and contact with unwanted boyfriends. Remember that in case of any deviations, you should consult a veterinarian to eliminate all possible risks.

    The developmental cycle of the parasite

    The Toxocara worm is white in color, the length of an adult is about 10 cm. These parasites are similar to other roundworms, but the males of Toxocaracanis have one difference. there is a very thin finger-like process on the tail.

    One female toxocara per day, produces up to 700 eggs.

    There are several cycles of parasite development:

    • Puppies up to 3 months old swallow eggs of the parasite, which contain larvae. In the small intestine, the membrane dissolves, and the larva with the blood flow is sent to the lungs, where molting occurs. After that, it returns to the intestines through the trachea and begins to grow and parasitize.
    • In the body of a pregnant dog, the larvae are sent to the lungs of the fetus. After giving birth, they migrate through the trachea into the small intestine, where they begin to develop.
    • Healthy puppies under 3 weeks of age are infected from their mother through milk. In this case, the larvae immediately remain in the intestine, migration does not occur.
    • The larvae can be in the body of a rodent or bird, but their development begins only when they get inside the dog (the main host).

    What is toxocariasis, and what are the reasons for its development

    Toxocariasis is a disease caused by Toxocara roundworms (Toxocaracanis in dogs). often this ailment occurs in puppies up to 6 months old, but there are cases of the development of the disease in adult animals.

    Toxocariasis, photo of the parasite.

    The pet can become infected from the mother (while still in the womb), by swallowing water, food and feces in which parasite eggs are present. The carriers of worms are rodents that eat the carcasses of carnivores.

    Parasites are ubiquitous. Females are extremely fertile (one individual produces up to 700 eggs per gram of feces daily), in addition, toxocara eggs are able to survive in the soil for many years, since the temperature drop is not dangerous for them. One of the types of helminthiasis in dogs is also found as diplidiosis.

    How is toxocariasis manifested

    The disease may not manifest itself if there are few parasites in the pet’s body.

    With a strong invasion, the following symptoms are observed:

    • the abdomen increases;
    • puppies noticeably lag behind in development, rickets develops;
    • in some cases, diarrhea develops;
    • feces and vomit may contain adult toxocara.

    Important. In puppies up to 3 weeks old, during the migration of parasite larvae through the lungs, pneumonia develops, which can be recognized by rapid breathing, coughing and frothy discharge from the nose. This complication is often fatal.

    Some veterinarians claim that toxocariasis leads to disruption of the dog’s nervous system, which can be the cause of the development of seizures.

    Treatment of toxocariasis in dogs

    Before starting treatment, it is necessary to carry out a diagnosis. The pulmonary phase in young puppies can only be recognized by symptoms. In older individuals, feces are collected, in which brown helminth eggs are easily found.

    The treatment regimen for toxocariasis is as follows:

    • Puppies are fed a drug for helminths at the age of 2-3 weeks (this will destroy the larvae that have entered the baby’s body in utero), after another couple of weeks, the procedure is repeated.
    • At the age of 2 months, the puppies are wormed again, as there is a risk of infection through the milk of a lactating bitch.
    • Deworming of adult dogs is carried out twice with a break of 10-12 days (the dose of the drug is calculated by body weight).
    • It is recommended to drive out the worms of a pregnant bitch 3 weeks before delivery with drugs that contain fenbendazole (Dirofen, Prazicid, Febtal).

    Parasites in adult animals are eliminated with anthelmintic drugs aimed at fighting roundworms. These include: Drontal, Helmintal, Dirofen, Milbemax, Prazitel, Kanikvantel, etc.

    The preparation for helminths should contain one of the active ingredients: fenbendazole, benzimidazole, nitroscanate, mebendazole.

    Toxocariasis in dogs: infection, signs, treatment, danger to humans

    Toxocariasis is an infection of a pet with helminths. These worms are dangerous not only for dogs, but also for humans. How does toxocariasis become infected? How to recognize in time the presence of worms in the pet’s body, and how to get rid of these parasites?

    Prophylaxis

    There is only one effective measure for the prevention of toxocariasis in dogs. regular deworming of both puppies and adult animals (every 3-4 months).

    Attention. Do not allow your pet to drink water outside, pick up pieces of food, or hunt rodents (they are carriers of Toxocaracanis larvae). Eggs may be in feces, so make sure your dog does not come into contact with them.

    Is the disease dangerous for people

    Toxocaracanic larvae parasitizing dogs can cause wandering maggot visceral syndrome in humans. This phenomenon is more often observed in children, since they closely communicate with animals and play on playgrounds and in parks (there are a large number of viable eggs of the parasite in the soil).

    Toxocariasis is dangerous for people and most often children are susceptible.

    After entering the human body, the larvae with blood move to the liver, which leads to the development of eosinophilia and hepatOmegalia (the liver increases in size). In some cases, the larva moves to the eye (or other organs), where a granuloma forms around it, leading to partial or complete blindness.

    Toxocariasis is a disease caused by roundworms and their larvae. The disease is dangerous not only for dogs, but also for people, so do not forget to regularly worm your pets. Dogs are not recommended in areas where children often play.

    Symptoms of mastitis in a dog

    Mastitis is a dangerous disease that, without timely treatment, can lead to death of the animal. The cause of the development of pathology is always pathogenic microorganisms. They enter through the nipple channels, microcracks on the chest.

    False pregnancy also causes mastitis. Milk begins to be produced, and no one eats it. As a result, dense stagnation forms in the milk ducts, an inflammatory process develops.

    Mastitis in dogs is manifested by the following symptoms:

    • the animal becomes less active;
    • refuses to eat;
    • body temperature rises;
    • breasts may swell, one or even several enlargement;
    • the mammary glands will be very hot to the touch.

    Treatment can only be prescribed by a veterinarian. It is very important to seek advice in a timely manner. It is categorically impossible to use folk methods on your own.

    At home, you can only slightly alleviate the condition of the dog before prescribing a course of treatment by a veterinarian. To do this, it is recommended to rub the pet’s chest with camphor oil to slightly warm it up. Then you need to express the milk. After that, the affected chest is bandaged.

    Important! It is possible to heat the mammary glands only with serous or catarrhal mastitis. If the pathology is purulent, this is strictly prohibited, since purulent inflammation will begin to actively spread further.

    The essence of the condition, the reasons for the occurrence

    The main reason why a dog has swollen nipples is a false pregnancy. A physiological phenomenon can also be observed after unsuccessful mating. There was no fertilization, but at the same time, the dog’s body began to produce hormones that appear during a real pregnancy.

    The animal begins internal restructuring, which is characterized by the following symptoms:

    • manifestation of the desire for nesting, arrangement of the place;
    • swelling of the mammary glands;
    • colostrum begins to flow from the nipples.

    In dogs, the reproductive cycle is divided into four stages. Disorders in which breast swelling occurs begins in the third stage. It is called metaestrus. This is the period of time after estrus in which the corpus luteum begins to regress if fertilization has not occurred. This phenomenon means that the corpus luteum will fully function, as in pregnancy, for another two months. It doesn’t matter if there is fertilization or not.

    It is at this time that the active production of the same hormones begins as in a full pregnancy. Progesterone begins to appear vigorously, followed by prolactin, which is responsible for the arrival of milk. The dog’s body begins to prepare for feeding the puppies.

    Important! This condition is common in all dogs regardless of breed, age, size and weight.

    False pregnancy is a normal physiological phenomenon

    The dog has swollen mammary glands after estrus

    Pet owners may experience a situation where the dog’s mammary glands swell after estrus. This is a fairly common occurrence that occurs in pets older than six months. There is no reason for panic, but it is important to constantly monitor the condition of the mammary glands in order to prevent the development of malignant formation.

    Why do mammary glands swell in a dog?

    It is not uncommon for dog owners to notice after the first estrus that the pet has enlarged mammary glands. You should not immediately take measures to eliminate this phenomenon, cover with compresses. This is a natural process that, under normal conditions, will go away in a few weeks.

    Often, after the first heat, the dog’s breasts begin to swell

    What causes a canine false pregnancy

    False pregnancy in dogs occurs as a result of hormonal disruption that occurs after estrus. Most often this is characteristic of the very first estrus. In the dog’s body, the production of progesterone and prolactin begins, which are characteristic of the period during pregnancy. Your dog will feel like it is waiting for puppies.

    The reason for this phenomenon is the fact that the corpus luteum does not disintegrate within two months. Because of this, hormones do not stop being produced. This condition is not considered a disease. This is a close connection with the wild world.

    There is a very interesting fact. In a pack of dogs, everyone gets pregnant synchronously. This is necessary for survival. Bitches with false pregnancies will help feed the puppies. This will ensure maximum survival.

    For reference! Many veterinarians believe that this process should not be interfered with. The phenomenon will disappear by itself in a few weeks. All symptoms will go away on their own.

    Disease Symptoms: Signs of Danger

    If a dog’s mammary glands begin to swell, this is not always a harmless phenomenon. Such a manifestation may indicate the development of breast pathology in a pet.

    When to see a doctor

    If your dog’s breasts begin to swell, don’t worry right away. Veterinarian consultation will be required in the following cases:

    • The false pregnancy symptoms did not go away after three weeks. The dog will need to undergo a thorough examination. She may need hormone therapy. Only a doctor can prescribe medications and a treatment regimen.
    • An animal’s nipples may turn blue. This suggests that mastitis began against the background of a prolonged false pregnancy. As a treatment, you can lubricate the papillae with camphor oil. Compresses help well. It is important that access to the nipples is blocked for the dog during the process. To do this, the pet’s belly is pulled with an elastic bandage.

    The false pregnancy itself is not considered a pathology. This is a deviation in the hormonal background. The danger to the animal is represented by the possible consequences that can arise from a prolonged condition. Such a phenomenon in nature is characteristic of many animals, but in dogs it is most pronounced.

    Important! If a false pregnancy occurs too often, while it always proceeds in a very severe form, the veterinarian may recommend sterilizing the dog.

    With a protracted state of false pregnancy, you must consult a doctor

    Long-term consequences

    It is not always possible to say that a false pregnancy does not threaten a pet at all. There are cases when this pathology develops into mastitis or abscess. These are dangerous phenomena that further lead to breast cancer.

    Against the background of hormonal disorders, the development of another common pathology can be observed. pyometra or purulent endometritis. Due to the excessive production of hormones, mucus is formed, which accumulates in the uterine cavity. As a result, the walls are stretched. The cervical canal is not closed. Pathogenic bacteria and microbes penetrate through it. In the uterine cavity, they begin to actively multiply, which leads to serious infection.

    False pregnancy has one plus. Such a dog can save puppies who are without a mother. She will feed them easily.

    Thus, the situation when the dog’s nipples are swollen requires careful monitoring. It is only necessary to take measures, show the pet to the veterinarian, and start treatment if this manifestation does not pass for a long time.