Breeding compatibility issues
Studying the issue of compatibility of blood groups in cats helped solve the problem of sudden death of kittens, the so-called slow extinction. Breeders have faced this problem before, but could not find a scientific explanation. Within a few days after birth, seemingly healthy kittens weaken and die. They cannot be saved with pills or injections, because this happens due to the incompatibility of the blood type in the mother’s cat and the kitten.
When a cat and a cat have a different blood group, then kittens born from such a pair can inherit either the maternal or paternal group. At the same time, kittens whose blood type is incompatible with the mother’s, without special help, are doomed to death or serious health problems.
When mating a cat and a cat, it is necessary to take into account not only their blood group, but also the blood group of the parents. Inheritance follows the following rules:
The variant in which there is an incompatibility between a cat and a kitten.
Why is this happening? During pregnancy, incompatibility does not manifest itself in any way, since the blood of the mother and baby does not mix, and antibodies do not penetrate the placental barrier. But everything changes immediately after birth. A newborn kitten with colostrum receives maternal antibodies that enter its bloodstream and destroy red blood cells.
In the first hours after birth, the kitten looks absolutely healthy, but the condition worsens very sharply. Such manifestations are possible:
- Sudden death (most often on the first day);
- Refusal of a kitten from mother’s milk (without human intervention, this also leads to death);
- The kitten survives, but the tip of the tail dies off (the most favorable of all possible outcomes).
The tip of the tail suffers due to the fact that blood is supplied to it through small vessels. Even after going through a critical period, such kittens have serious health problems. Metabolic disorders affect not only the circulatory system. Often these kittens have severe kidney damage.
You can avoid such consequences. If there is a possibility of incompatibility, newborn kittens are taken from the mother and immediately transferred to artificial feeding. You will find a detailed description of how to feed a newborn kitten on our website. Naturally, the cat also needs special care during this period, as it will form colostrum.
As a rule, the process of milk burning takes several days. At the end of this period, the babies can be returned to their mother by continuing to bottle feed.
Important! You can do everything right and save the kids only if you understand in advance what you need to fear. But it is even better to plan pregnancy and childbirth, choosing the most compatible partner for your pet.
Why is it important
In the 50s, British scientists examined the blood of cats and determined the presence of groups and the pattern of inheritance. But then, for 30 years, practically no one dealt with this issue, they did not consider it important. And only in the early 80s will zoologists return to research.
Blood is red in color due to blood cells called red blood cells. In addition to the fact that these blood elements carry oxygen to every cell of the body, they are also responsible for the blood group. The erythrocyte carries a protein. an antigen, and in the blood plasma there are antibody proteins. They are responsible for the destruction of foreign antigens.
Knowing exactly which group your pet belongs to is important in such cases:
- If the animal needs a blood transfusion;
- When choosing a breeding partner.
Veterinarians strongly recommend an analysis to determine the blood group at an early age. This will save valuable time if your pet suddenly needs emergency medical attention.
Do you know your pet’s blood type??
Everyone knows that human blood is divided into 4 types. Did you know that animal blood is also divided into groups. Until recently, this was not given importance, but today every owner should know the blood type of his pet. What do you know about blood types in cats??
Blood transfusion incompatibility
Unfortunately, any animal may need an urgent transfusion due to injury or illness. Before starting the procedure, the doctor will definitely carry out the necessary tests. But if you know the blood type of your pet, it will help you find a donor sooner.
Blood transfusion (blood transfusion) may be urgently needed in such cases:
- Serious trauma with great blood loss;
- Prolonged although not severe bleeding;
- Difficult childbirth;
- Extensive surgical intervention.
Also, the procedure is indicated for anemia, a decrease in the immune status, blood clotting disorders, as well as chronic inflammatory processes and very severe poisoning.
Important! In the case of a blood transfusion of an incompatible group, antibodies will attack donor blood cells foreign to them, which in most cases leads to death.
How many and what blood groups do a domestic cat have??
In humans, 4 blood groups and Rh factors are distinguished. For mustaches, only 3 groups are currently defined, which are inherited according to Mendel’s laws.
Scientists talk about the possible existence of the 4th, but at the moment this fact is being investigated and needs to be confirmed.
When groups are inherited, gene A is dominant and gene B is recessive, so most cats are owners of group A blood.
Important! When choosing an animal for breeding, be sure to ask what blood groups its parents had, as this will allow in the future to choose the most correct partner for it.
The table of cats officially recognized in veterinary medicine is:
A / A or A / B or A / AB
Very rare (less than 1%)
Group A blood contains antigens to group B and vice versa. This is where incompatibility problems emerge. There are no antigens in the AB blood, making it compatible with the other two.
The number of individuals with group A and B for different breeds is significantly different:
Percentage of animals with group B
Siamese and mongrel
Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon
Scots, Persians, Burmese, Abyssinians, Somali, Kurilian Bobtails
British, rex, shorthaired exotic
How the blood type is determined
There are tests that can instantly identify blood types in cats. They are available in all veterinary clinics, as well as in free sale in specialized zoo pharmacies. If desired, any breeder can purchase such an express system and independently perform the analysis at home. But if you do not have the skills, it is better to go to the clinic, where all the manipulations will be performed quickly and as sterilely as possible.
Antihelminthic drugs for cats
Anthelmintic drugs are prescribed for medicinal purposes by a veterinarian after all tests, determination of the type of parasites, localization and degree of helminthic invasion.
The doctor must choose the brand and form of the targeted action agent that acts on a particular type of worms. Or prescribe a medicine of complex action, if the cat has been infected with several types of helminths or the type of worms could not be determined.
For the purpose of prevention, anthelmintic drugs for cats are prescribed 2-4 times a year. It is mandatory to carry out antiparasitic treatment before mating, before vaccinations and simultaneously with anti-flea drugs.
Medicines for helminths
In veterinary pharmacies, preparations for worms for cats of targeted and complex action in various forms of release are widely presented:
- Drops on the withers are the most popular products that are fast acting and easy to apply. Drops are applied to the withers and between the shoulder blades of the animal. no need to force the cat to drink bitter medicine.
- Profender (Bayer). price for 1 pipette 350-450 rubles / in Ukraine 110-230 UAH);
- Dironet Spot-on (Agrovetzashita). price 350 rubles / in Ukraine 160 UAH.
- Stronghold (Pfizer). price 1150 rubles / in Ukraine 550 UAH.
- Tablets for worms. given to the animal with food or “in pure form.” Preparations with high efficiency of a complex and directed (for one type of worms) means. Individual selection is possible, taking into account the type of parasites, the degree of invasion and the condition of the cat.
- Kanikvantel plus. the price is 195 rubles / in Ukraine 70 UAH;
- Envair. the price is 165 rubles / in Ukraine 78 UAH
- Drontal (Bayer). price 320 rubles / in Ukraine 179 UAH;
- Milbemax. the price is 330 rubles / in Ukraine 145 UAH;
- Pratel. price 38 rubles / in Ukraine 6 UAH;
- Troncil. the price is 215 rubles / in Ukraine 15 UAH;
- Febtal. the price is 150 rubles / in Ukraine 71 UAH.
- Suspensions or pastes are given to the animal orally with a syringe dispenser. Convenient to dose and give to cats that refuse to eat pills.
- Prazicide for adult cats. price 108 rubles / in Ukraine 45 UAH;
- Prazicide sweet suspension for kittens. price 127 rubles / in Ukraine 38 UAH.
- Sugar cubes are given to the animal as a treat, with food, or dissolved in water and fed to the animal through a syringe. Animals willingly eat medicine.
- Polivercan. price 605 rubles / in Ukraine 310 UAH.
Types of worms
The following types of worms are parasitic on cats. Each of the species has its own symptoms and routes of infection.
Long and flat worms can grow up to 70 cm in length.The body of these worms consists of many segments, in each of which larvae mature.
When the larvae mature, they separate and, together with the feces, go outside, while the segmented body of the parasite grows continuously, new segments with larvae appear to replace the separated segments.
Cats become infected with this type of worms by eating raw meat and fish. Stray animals are often infected with cestodes by eating rats or mice. Infection is also possible through the carriers of larvae. fleas. Helminths parasitize the walls of a cat’s small intestine.
Signs of a tapeworm infection:
- Changes in the pet’s body weight (the weight either increases sharply, or the cat, on the contrary, is rapidly losing weight);
- Change in appetite (the cat is insatiable or, on the contrary, refuses food);
- Large, “inflated” belly;
- Hair loss;
- Excessive licking in the anal area.
A cat’s gastrointestinal tract becomes clogged with worms, causing intestinal obstruction. Possible death.
As you can see
It is very common to see tapeworm segments around the anus of a sick animal. these segments resemble grains of rice or sesame seeds. Also, some parts of cestodes are found on the litter of the animal. In a more severe form of infestation with worms, parasites can be seen in vomit.
Where did the cat get the worms??
Worm larvae and adult parasites are found in the environment: in the soil, on the grass, in water bodies. Therefore, it does not mean at all that if your cat is home and does not go out, then he cannot become infected with worms. You yourself can bring maggots on the soles of your shoes or on your clothes.
Other sources of infection:
- When a cat eats raw fish, meat, tap water;
- When fleas appear, there is a possibility of infection of your pet and worms;
- Contact with sick animals, contaminated objects (sand, earth) and faeces;
- Possible intrauterine infection of kittens from a pregnant cat.
Traditional medicines for worms in cats have no proven effectiveness and are presented in the article for informational purposes.
- Give a decoction of chamomile or fennel to drink instead of water.
- Cut the onions into 4 parts and pour a glass of warm boiled water. Give this water to the cat in the morning on an empty stomach for 7 days.
- Common tansy. Pour 1 tablespoon of flowers with a glass of boiling water and leave for 1 hour, then strain. Give the cat this infusion 2-3 times a day, then feed it no earlier than 30-60 minutes.
- Alcohol tincture of wormwood is applied 10 drops 2 times a day. Feed the cat no earlier than 30-60 minutes.
- Carrot juice enemas (20 ml) once a day for a week.
Parasites that can be localized anywhere: in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, in the bile ducts, on the respiratory organs. These are flatworms with suction cups, with which they are firmly attached to the tissues of internal organs, most often the liver. With these suckers, hermaphrodite worms attach to the tissues of the internal organs of the cat, eating and destroying them.
Infection occurs when eating raw fish, seafood or raw water.
Symptoms of a trematode infection:
- Weight loss;
- Painful stomach
- Depressed state.
The activity of parasites disrupts the patency of the bile ducts, causes cirrhosis of the liver and liver failure. It can cause lethargy and death.
As you can see
Moving parts of flukes can come out through the cat’s anus. If you look closely, you can see tiny translucent parts of the parasite around the anus of the animal, on its bed.
The disease is easier to prevent than to treat, and therefore, in order to minimize the risk of your cat getting worms, we do the following:
- Prophylactic use of antiparasitic agents for fleas, ticks, worms once every 3 months. First, we apply anti-flea agents, after 3 days. against worms.
- Do not feed the animal with raw meat, drink only boiled / settled water.
- Avoid contact with street animals.
- Regularly carry out antiparasitic treatment of the cat’s place, scratching posts. Keep cat care items clean.
- Regularly clean the house / apartment, take off your shoes in the corridor.
Remember that most of the worms that cats infect are dangerous for humans, so if your pet has parasites, worry about your health too.
The most common type of internal parasite that cats infect. There are many varieties, but the most common in our pets are roundworms. By their appearance, the parasites resemble spaghetti, from which they get their name “round”. Ascaris length usually reaches 5 cm, but there are also longer individuals.
Kittens can become infected with roundworms through their mother’s milk. The danger of infection lies in wait for an adult cat when eating rodents, raw meat and in contact with an infected animal.
Signs of ascaris infection:
- Weight loss;
- Enlarged belly
- General weakness.
Worms accumulate in the small intestine, injure the stomach lining, and can block the bile ducts and intestines. They can parasitize practically in all organs of the animal, exerting a strong toxic and allergic effect on the body.
As you can see
With intense helminthic invasion, nematodes can be seen in sputum after coughing or in vomit. Roundworm eggs can accumulate in the folds around the animal’s anus.
To understand whether cats have a navel, you can refer to the school course in zoology. The navel, in one form or another, is present in all mammals. When a female bears a baby, he develops inside her womb, and through the umbilical cord receives all the substances necessary for the full formation of a new life.
After the kittens are born, the cat gnaws the umbilical cord and licks this area, thus healing it. The saliva of cats contains several B vitamins, so it has a healing and antiseptic effect. After the gnawed umbilical cord heals and falls off, the trace from it is almost invisible. It does not differ in color from the entire surface of the skin of the tummy, and, moreover, is covered with wool. Knowing where a cat’s belly button is located can be tricky.
Why does this question arise?
Do cats have a navel? This question may surprise many. Why does it arise? There are two reasons for this:
- The most common reason is simple curiosity. Many owners love their pets so much that they want to know absolutely everything about them and their body. And human nature is such that we always compare something new with what we already know and look for analogies. Therefore, looking at your beloved pet, the question may arise. does the cat have a navel. It’s so nice and interesting sometimes to find similarities with your favorite furry animal.
- Another reason also stems from a great love for the cat. Many owners are so worried about his health that they try to find all kinds of problems in order to warn them in time. Such owners regularly examine the animal, and if they find something that, in their opinion, is different from the norm, they begin to be alarmed and look for ways to treat diseases. Therefore, after the discovery of a small receding hairline on the stomach, attentive owners have assumptions about diseases. scabies, lichen, other skin diseases, hernia.
It may seem that the question of whether a cat has a navel is an idle curiosity. But in fact, it is important to know about the physiological characteristics of your beloved cat. This will help avoid many problems in the process of his life. For example, you can notice in time the presence of a disease such as an umbilical hernia. But you should not engage in self-diagnosis and search for non-existent problems. Small bald patches on the cat’s belly are traces of the umbilical cord that connected it with the mother’s body.
Do cats have a navel
Cats are capable of evoking feelings in their owners, comparable to love for small children. And, as is the case with children, I want to observe all their habits, and study them in detail. Having familiarized themselves with all the noticeable features of a beloved cat, many people have a question. does the cat have a navel. After a careful examination of the tummy, you may get the impression that it is not there. Therefore, there is a common misconception about the absence of a navel in mustachioed pets.
How to find a cat’s navel
If the processes of bearing and giving birth to humans and cats are so similar, then why do they not have a navel in the form we used to see on our body? The answer is simple enough.
A person’s navel looks the way we are used to seeing it, for one simple reason. After the baby is born, the obstetrician cuts and bandages the umbilical cord. Cats gnaw at it, and then lick it to heal the gap. There are several B vitamins in their saliva, and the healing process is quick.
A few days after birth, the remains of the umbilical cord completely disappear, and the mark on the kitten’s tummy heals and almost completely disappears. At first, you can easily notice it. it will be bright pink. Over time, it fades and becomes light. In addition, this area is covered with hair and the navel is difficult to see. A cat’s navel looks different from that of a person, but he still has one.
To find where the cat’s navel is, you need to put it on its back and examine the belly. You should look for it in the area between the ribs and the beginning of the pelvis. The location of the navel may differ slightly in kittens. It can usually be found between the lower pair of nipples.
You can determine the approximate location of the navel by examining the fur on the tummy. Where it is least of all, there you should look. It looks like a small white scar.
Of course, if the cat is fluffy, finding the navel can be quite problematic. It is most easily found in hairless or shorthaired cats. But, regardless of breed, you can be sure. cats have a navel.
Do cats have eyelashes in 2019. Cat eyes. sight
If we compare a cat with other mammals, then its main difference is its eyes. they are quite large in a cat compared to body size.
The majority of cat breeds do not have eyelashes.
It is not entirely true that cats are perfectly oriented in a dark room: if the darkness is solid, then she will not be able to see anything. Her excellent ability to see at night is manifested perfectly if there is a small glimmer of light in the room. hitting the retina, the reflecting layer of the eyes enlarges it many times, due to which she can see perfectly in such conditions.
Under normal conditions, it is often possible to observe that cat’s eyes shimmer with a greenish light: this can be observed even at a distance of up to 80 meters. This is due to the fact that when light hits the retina, the cat’s eyes reflect it in such a way that some of the rays return in the opposite direction along the same trajectory along which they entered the eyes.
The cat is unable to see what is under its nose. Therefore, if you give her something tasty on the floor, then she needs time to find it.
American scientists have achieved an unprecedented result before the village. they were able to look at the world as a cat sees it. For this, an experiment was carried out with the cat: electrodes were inserted into its brain, which were connected to 177 neurons. The data obtained from these electrodes were read and deciphered, as a result of which they depicted the following picture on the computer: for a cat, the whole world is presented in vague colors, however, it can recognize various objects and human faces quite clearly.
Newborn kittens are usually born with their ears closed. When kittens first start to open their eyes, they always have a bluish color at first. However, then as the kittens grow, the eye color becomes normal and does not change anymore.
All cats have eyelashes. Distichiasis in cats and dogs, or extra cilia
In this article, the conversation will focus on developmental deviation, which is expressed in the appearance of an additional row of eyelashes behind naturally growing ones. Almost always, a second row of cilia appears on both eyes, at the edge of the upper eyelid. Although there is a possibility of affecting other areas.
Causes of distichiasis This disease is hereditary. In the case of short and soft additional eyelashes, there are no special signs of anomaly. This is possible in Golden Retrievers. If the animal has hard and long eyelashes, then they will cause irritation, inflammation, profuse lacrimation, strabismus, erosive damage to the cornea.
In some cases, the development of mixed cilia occurs. Their growth through the conjunctival membrane contributes to the occurrence of severe pain, erosion and corneal ulcers. A similar variant of the development of the disease is manifested in poodles, dachshunds, Scottish shepherds. As a rule, young animals are susceptible to diseases.
What is distichiasis?
The need to remove eyelashes in animals arises if the hairs above the upper eyelid do not grow correctly (in other words, they grow towards the cornea and injure it). This phenomenon is called ectopic cilium or distichiasis. In this case, it is possible to heal the eyelashes by removing the hairs of the upper eyelid.
Modern science provides an excellent chance for the fairer sex, not having beautiful eyelashes by nature, to multiply them. Animals, on the other hand, in most cases require eyelash removal.
Removing hairs that protect a pet’s eyelids is a common procedure that is often used by owners of various breeds of both cats and dogs.
Distichiasis is a disease characterized by incorrect growth of eyelashes: they are directed not upward, but parallel to the cornea, thus in contact with it.
Animals prone to distichiasis
Dogs of the following breeds are more susceptible to distichiasis: pug, Pekingese, dachshund, Shih Tzu, miniature and decorative poodles and some others.
Cats. Persian cat.
Common signs are:. increased lacrimation;. light, but almost constant, squint of the eyes;. conjunctivitis;. pain (perhaps this can be seen on the dog / cat);. reddening of the cornea;. inflammation of the cornea, followed by suppuration;. photophobia.
Distichiasis is of several types: ulcerative (an ulcer forms on the cornea), pigmented (after an inflammatory process, a pigment epithelium appears on the cornea), vascular (blood vessels appear deep in the cornea).
How to treat distichiasis?
Symptomatic dogs and cats are not treated. In animals with pronounced symptoms, treatment is most often performed by surgery, that is, part of the mucous membrane is removed and the hair follicle is removed.
A reactionary cure is carried out in animals if they have several incorrect eyelashes, with negligible signs, and in animals with a contraindication for general anesthesia. Then it is recommended to regularly (approximately 1 every 3 weeks) removal of cilia with tweezers to relieve symptoms and the use of point moisturizing drops that form a protective film on the surface of the cornea several times a day. Operational methods of treatment include cryoepilation and electrolysis, as well as mechanical hair removal.
Mechanical epilation allows the doctor to remove the cilia under local anesthesia. But this procedure has one significant drawback. there is no effect on the follicle from which the cilium grows. This means that you will have to resort to this procedure more often than cryo- or electrolysis (the approximate frequency of the procedure is every 4 weeks).
Cryoepilation gives excellent results, but can lead to depigmentation of the eyelid margin. This must be borne in mind when carrying out this manipulation to animals that have a pigmented edge of the eyelid and take part in special exhibitions, since the pigment disappears for up to six months, and in special situations the eyelid can become depigmented forever. It is also possible to remove wedge-shaped areas of the eyelid.
The course of the postoperative period
In the period after the manipulation, it is supposed to use drops with antibiotics to prevent secondary infection, and put on a protective collar in order to minimize self-injury to the eyelids. You also need to take into account the possibility of secondary appearance of cilia. Duration of the postoperative period up to 14 days.
Prevention of distichiasis It is necessary to exclude the influence of pathogenic factors on the operated eyelid and regularly conduct an ophthalmological examination by a veterinarian.
By conducting regular check-ups with a veterinarian, and following the recommendations received, you can completely cure your pet of this ailment.
What to do if a cat has a volvulus?
As you know, human eyebrows are unique and not found in other mammals. Our eyebrows protect our eyes from water and other debris getting into them, hence their location on the face is clear. Our smaller brothers have deeper-set eyes or fur on their faces, so they don’t need eyebrows like humans do. However, most mammals have a few whiskers or a thick patch of fur over their eyes, which can be called eyebrows. Cats are a prime example of this. Almost all felines have a mustache above their eyes. Their purpose is not so obvious, they are far from beauty.
A cat’s whiskers are a kind of sensor that picks up the slightest vibrations in the air at a short distance. However, since the muzzle protrudes more than the browbrows, cats only use their brows when they are moving into some narrow and dark place.
Also, cats’ whiskers are located on the wrists, cheeks, chin. In addition, you can see that a cat’s whiskers. vibrissae. are thicker and longer than the wool, because they have a large number of nerve endings. By the way, the whiskers on the cheeks of the cat grow in proportion to the width of the body. That is, an obese cat has a long mustache, while skinny animals cannot boast of it. In the dark, whiskers help cats to hunt, avoid obstacles, and navigate. Although these animals have excellent night vision, vibrissae allow you to navigate in the dark even better. When an object moves, a stream of air is created. The cat can feel this flow and react in time. Thanks to the mustache and eyebrows, domestic cats can easily move around the apartment in complete darkness, without bumping into furniture.
So, the so-called “cat’s eyebrows” and whiskers complement the function of touch in cats and their purpose is different from that of humans. They help to better navigate in space, are interconnected with the sense of smell. Therefore, in no case damage the vibrissae of the animal! This can even lead to a loss of scent, as a result of which the cat will not be able to eat normally.
Rubric Interesting facts and stories about cats.
They are found in the form of a wound, inflammation, twisting and eversion of the eyelids, adenoma of the third eyelid, incorrect position and direction of the eyelashes with the normal location of the edge of the eyelid (trichiasis) and others.
Eyelid wounds can be caused by protruding nails, wire in the walls, feeders, coarse forage awn, grazing through bushes, and animals falling on solid objects. Can be applied by animal horns and teeth.
Blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids) it is superficial, when the edge of the eyelid is inflamed, and deep. A special form of inflammation of the eyelids is barley. a purulent inflammation of the meibomian glands and scalp. The reasons are very diverse: mechanical, thermal and chemical, various complications of wounds, bruises. Predisposing factors: metabolic disorders, exhaustion, vitamin deficiency, especially A and C.
Simple (scaly) blepharitis is characterized by hyperemia, thickening of the edges of the eyelids, and the appearance of scales at the base of the eyelashes. Yellowish crusts (dried secretion of the sebaceous glands) may appear, under which the skin is hyperemic. often this form is combined with conjunctivitis.
Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by swelling of the edges of the eyelids, which are covered with purulent crusts, under which there is a bleeding ulcerative surface. The hair follicles of the eyelashes can also be involved in the process, so the latter often fall out. As a result of cicatricial changes in the eyelids, smoothing of their edges, abnormal growth of eyelashes, eversion and curvature of the eyelids can occur. This form is accompanied by severe itching and watery eyes.
Meibomian blepharitis develops as a result of hypersecretion of the meibomian glands. The edges of the eyelids are greatly thickened. When a purulent infection penetrates them, purulent inflammation of the eyelids develops.
Clinical signs and treatment depend on the form of blepharitis. Eliminate the cause of the disease, remove crusts, scales, having previously softened them with fish oil or vaseline oil. Various eye ointments (xeroform, sodium sulfacyl, ditetracycline), emulsions (synthomycin) are used. A positive effect is observed from the use of an alcohol solution of brilliant green with daily lubrication of the edges of the eyelids.
Inversion of the eyelids. The disease is characterized by an incorrect position of the eyelids, in which the free edge and skin of the eyelids are wrapped inward towards the eyeball, while the eyelashes and skin hairs injure the conjunctiva and cornea, causing their inflammation.
The main causes of the disease are chronic forms of conjunctivitis, the ingress of foreign bodies into the conjunctival sac, amputation of the third eyelid, which leads to spastic volvulus. Cicatricial volvulus occurs with eyelid wounds, burns, blepharitis. The volvulus can be on both eyes at once, on the lower or upper eyelid, or on two at the same time, it can be accompanied by external adhesion of the eyelids.
For medicinal purposes, urgent surgical intervention is recommended with the removal of a skin flap according to Freener (volvulus of the lower eyelid), Frick (lower and upper eyelids), Schleich (upper, lower eyelids and with external adhesions of the eyelids). Operate under anesthesia with the imposition of intradermal sutures or adhesive plaster. Excision of the eyelid skin folds is possible. A suture is applied to the edges of the wound
Inversion of the eyelids (entropion). When everted, they are completely or partially turned outward and move away from the cornea (droop). The reasons are varied: wounds, burns, dermatitis, eczema; conjunctivitis; paralysis of the facial nerve; neoplasms; senile eversion, hereditary factors (often congenital).
Clinical signs. When the eyelids are twisted, the conjunctiva is exposed and is constantly exposed to external influences and contamination. Eyelashes irritate the mucous membrane of the eye (cornea), leading to inflammation (keratitis, ulcers). The eye gap is narrowed, there is lacrimation, conjunctivitis and corneal opacity. With eversion, the edge of the eyelids is turned outward, while the conjunctiva of the eye is exposed, inflamed, hypertrophied, and a corneal ulcer may develop.
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# Most cats lack eyelashes. # Cats’ eyes are positioned so that both look in the same (.)
How to strengthen eyelashes:
Beautiful, lush, long eyelashes are everyone’s dream. After all, it is they who give (.)
How to strengthen eyelashes:
Beautiful, lush, long eyelashes are everyone’s dream. After all, it is they who give the look a special expressiveness. What tricks women do not go to to make their eyelashes longer and more voluminous. And if they (God forbid!) Began to thin out, fall out and thin out, then their owner sheds many tears and makes great efforts to restore their former beauty.
There are many reasons for this behavior of eyelashes. Starting from improper care and the use of low-quality cosmetics, and ending with various diseases. In any case, this problem is purely individual. And, if, along with the loss of eyelashes, you have any other unpleasant symptoms, then it is better to consult a doctor in time. When we are not talking about diseases, you can resuscitate eyelashes on your own.
Menu for eyelashes First of all, for normal growth, eyelashes need nutrition. They, like all other hairs, are 90% keratin. Therefore, for them, you can use almost the same products based on plant extracts and vitamins as for the hair on the head. This refers, of course, to homemade masks. You can make massage oil. By the way, it will be useful not only for eyelashes, but also for the skin of the eyelids. Add finely chopped parsley and aloe juice to the vegetable oil. Mix everything well and massage onto eyelids and lashes.
And, of course, eyelashes are very fond of a variety of nutritious oils: olive, castor, burdock, almond. They can be applied to the lashes individually or mixed into different blends. For example, such a composition is very effective: any vegetable oil, oily solutions of vitamins E and A (they are sold in capsules at the pharmacy). And to make it more convenient to use and store the mixture, you can adapt an empty bottle from under the mascara for this purpose. But before that, thoroughly wash and dry it. Now taking care of your eyelashes is easy. Dip the brush in oil, let it drain, and comb your eyelashes from root to tip.
In this case, you need to correctly understand the meaning of the word “eyebrows”.
Causes and treatments for volvulus in cats
Eliminate the cause of the disease. In case of eversion of the eyelids, the main treatment is also carried out by removing a skin flap in the inner or outer corner of the palpebral fissure. With slight eversion, Dieffenbach surgery is performed (removal of a skin flap in the form of a triangle); with a significant inversion. according to Shimanevsky. Knotted sutures are applied to the wound. We will apply a massage along the nerve, followed by rubbing in irritating eye ointments.
Prevention. Minimize animal injuries, observe the rules of zoo hygiene in livestock facilities, prevent the causes of these diseases.
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The cat’s eyes are arranged in a rather unusual way:
When looking, the cat directs them to the object of interest in one direction, which makes it look like people and distinguishes it from dogs. For us, such a facial structure is more familiar, maybe because of this we are not indifferent to these rather cute creatures.
In bright light, a cat’s pupils may dilate. The only explanation for this is that the cat is in the mood to play, or she is interested in something.
To see well and clearly distinguish objects, a cat needs 6 times less light than a person. The cat’s ability to see perfectly at night is simply amazing! The main thing, due to which she has such vision, is the light that is reflected, falling on the retina.
Vision of cats differs from vision of dogs in the following way: cats cannot concentrate their gaze on objects that are close enough, i.e. In cats, farsightedness is developed, in dogs, on the contrary, myopia is clearly observed. The optimal distance at which the cat can clearly distinguish objects is the range of 0.75-6 meters.
The maximum distance at which cats can see clearly is the 60 meter mark.
When hunting for mice, a cat displays a unique ability: it is able to simultaneously guard several burrows due to the fact that it immediately responds to the subtle movement of mice. The cat has a large field of view: it is 200 degrees.
Previously, it was widely believed that cats lack color vision: they see the whole world around them in black and white, which is similar to what we see on a TV screen. Now it has been proven that cats have the ability to perceive surrounding objects in several colors, but they do it much worse. However, their main advantage over humans is their better ability to recognize gray tones, the range of which can reach 25 shades.
If a cat or kitten plays with a ball tied by a string, the following fact is observed: when the ball moves in the horizontal direction, this causes a more active reaction to the game. For example, if you just roll the ball on the floor, the cat will overtake it more actively than if you move the ball vertically. In this case, her desire to play will not be so strong. This is due to the fact that it behaves in a similar way when hunting: mice and voles behave in the same way and move on a horizontal surface. Also, vision in cats allows you to effectively hunt for an object moving only in a given direction. It is scientifically proven that objects moving horizontally allow the cat to concentrate on them more closely than objects moving vertically.
Close up, cats are able to recognize objects and territory quite well, but at a great distance, the outlines of objects acquire blurred shapes. The cat’s eyes are designed so that when directed to a certain object, they create a field of view, and they are directed only forward. In the process of such concentration on an object, a stereoscopic effect of binocular vision often occurs. one image is superimposed on another, as a result of which a picture of the surrounding space is formed in three-dimensional format. Stereoscopic vision is very important for a cat: thanks to it, it can more accurately determine the location of its prey and correlate with this the expected option of future actions.
In the cat’s eyeball, in its outer part, there is a protein membrane, which forms the front of the vitreous cornea, and in its other parts. the sclera of an opaque structure. The central part of the iris (iris) has a variety of colors, which makes the cat’s eyes even more expressive. It is in this place that the pupil is located. It has a vertically stretched shape and thanks to it there is a regulation of how much light enters the eyes. Due to the different effects of light in the eye, as well as from the emotional mood of the cat, its eyes become especially beautiful. Looking into these bottomless and amazingly beautiful eyes, it seems that they contain some kind of witchcraft power and then the thought of a feline intelligence immediately comes to mind.
The cat’s eyes are protected by eyelids. They, just like in humans, are lined with a mucous membrane. However, unlike humans, the third eyelid is located in the cat’s eye, with the help of which the tear fluid moves through the eye, which acts as an additional sutured eye. The main function of the eyelids is to regulate the amount of light that enters the cat’s eye. The cat’s eye has a greater number of perceiving cells compared to small primates, similar to the number of neurons located in the visual regions of the brain.
Feline vision is much sharper than human vision. it exceeds it 6 times.
A cat’s eyes react differently to environmental conditions: in sunny weather, the pupils narrow to narrow slits, if there is not enough light, or the cat is in the dark, then its pupils increase and become round. This is where the protective reaction of the eyes manifests itself.
The cat’s eyes are full of secrets and mysteries that are difficult to comprehend. they are simply wonderful, in the dark they illuminate with a barely noticeable light, due to the fact that small nerve endings located in the retina, similar to sticks, show a good reaction when a small amount of light enters the eye.
Cat’s eyes are large enough. No other pets have eyes that big in relation to their own body size. If you project a similar size of eyes in relation to the body onto a person, then his eyes would have a diameter equal to 20 centimeters!
Cat’s eyes can shine in a variety of colors: from yellow with a “pirate” tint, green, full of mysteries, and ending with blue, full of thoughtfulness, and orange, which contain some kind of unknown cunning inherent in all cats. However, despite the fact that cat’s eyes have such a diverse range of colors, their eyesight is just as sharp. At any time of the day, they see equally well. both day and night.
In a cat, nerve endings are located in the retina of the eyes, which are called rods, the number of which exceeds human ones. For example, in relation to rods and cones, which act as a different type of nerve endings, a cat is several times larger than a person: he has this ratio of 4 to 1, while a cat has 25 to 1. Despite the fact that rods do not have the ability to reproduce sharp images they have an excellent response to small amounts of light. This type of nerve endings allows cats to see perfectly at dusk.
The area behind the retina of the cat is called the tapetum lucidum. When light enters through the cones and rods, the tapetum reflects it and the light comes back, and then again begins to affect the nerve endings and irritate them. Thus, under the influence of light, the irritation of rods and cones in the cat’s eye occurs twice, which allows the animal to perfectly distinguish objects in the twilight. Because of this, cats do not like too bright lighting.
When jumping, the cat can distinguish from a distance of one meter how far the platform is located, to which it is going to jump. over, this accuracy is quite high and is 3-5 cm.
If in childhood, as a result of any incident, a cat becomes blind, then certain changes will occur in the cerebral cortex: the area of neurons responsible for vision will decrease, and the number of neurons that provide exposure to skin and auditory stimuli will increase. In blind cats, the length of the whiskers increases by about 30%. Loss of vision in a cat is compensated by an increase in the role of other senses: hearing, smell, touch and others, while these organs function so well that it is difficult to distinguish a sighted cat from a blind cat when performing normal actions.
One very useful procedure for the health of a cat is rinsing the eyes: during this procedure, various foreign substances are removed from the eyes: sand particles, pollen of flowers and plants, as well as various secretions that are formed naturally.
Coronavirus in cats
Against the background of the information frenzy on the topic of the Chinese coronavirus transmitted from animals, I would like to finally make a little clarity and tell what coronavirus is in cats and cats and how it manifests itself. Marina Mikheenko, the veterinarian of the Ace Ventura Zoo Center, will help you figure it out.
This topic is special for me, since I had to face the coronavirus and its satellites in full size.
Reading how people in China go crazy with fear and throw completely healthy animals into the trash, only one thought comes to my mind. This is how to be afraid for your own life. If the cats are not thrown away, then they are packed in polyethylene and masks so that the poor animal gets puffy eyes from stress. Thanks to the Chinese epidemic, the whole world learned the word coronavirus and got hold of hundreds of horror stories, bringing dogs, cows, cats and even hamsters here. And now. Exhale. Coronavirus in cats and cats. A completely different story and symptoms. It is not transmitted even to dogs from cats, let alone to humans. And yes, he is not so deadly scary (although there are some unpleasant moments).
Meet this is Hardyusha. And he had coronavirus infection for a whole year, with high titers. But the body outgrew and won, although I had to make efforts and money to treat this cat disease.
Again. I am not saying that the coronavirus in cats. This is a trifling matter. But in most cases this is not fatal (depending on the type of virus) and is not transmitted to people, even if you kiss the cat on the nose. Into snotty and coronavirus.
Are you wondering why the coronavirus is called??
Symptoms of the coronavirus in cats
The worst option, which, thank God, has passed us. This is a mutation of the coronavirus called Fip. Fcov. When coronavirus enteritis progresses to coronavirus peritonitis. It is this variant of the disease that is considered fatal. Liquid accumulates in the abdominal cavity, the cat lies on its stomach and does not stand up, pressing its paws. Breathing is impaired, appetite is absent, and the cat develops a fever. Unfortunately, coronavirus peritonitis is in the top three in terms of mortality in cats. Along with panleukopenia and immunodeficiency (feline AIDS). BUT. Even this variant of the disease, which is dangerous for a cat’s life, is not transmitted to people.
So, as a result, we donated blood, and now we have two patients with coronavirus. As the saying goes. Mother in tears, children in the toilet.
So, the symptoms of common coronavirus in cats are:
- Lethargy, poor appetite.
Coronavirus peritonitis (FIP, a mutated form of the virus):
There is also a dry form of coronavirus peritonitis. Some of the symptoms are the same as described above, but without fluid in the abdominal cavity. But there are spasms, urinary incontinence and an enlarged liver.
Of all cats infected with coronavirus, no more than 10% fall ill with peritonitis. That is, there is 90% that the disease will not turn into this critical stage.
What the doctor says:
In most cases, the coronavirus is asymptomatic, but it can also show symptoms of enteritis (and often they are mild). Very often, the detected coronavirus is blamed for the causes of chronic diarrhea, but often the doctor needs to look for other reasons or conduct symptomatic treatment, the guilt of the coronavirus in the development of symptoms of enteritis has not yet been proven and it is a concomitant factor in other causes of the development of enteritis.
No reliable factors have been found as to why the coronavirus can mutate in FIP (factors with which a person could influence the mutation and prevent it).
In other words. If your cat has a coronavirus, it can live with it all its life and not die from it at all, without giving any symptoms, and you may not even suspect that it is infected with it.
And only in the case when the virus infects not only intestinal cells, but mutates into FIP, affects immune cells, poses a threat and danger.
Coronavirus infection, in addition to enteropathy (change / upset stool / vomiting), can also manifest itself as lethargy, apathy, and decreased appetite. FIP: fever, jaundice, impaired coordination, ascites, dyspnea, heart failure (if there is chest effusion), etc. With the dry form of FIP, not only internal organs can be affected, but also the eyes.
Infectious viral peritonitis is of 2 forms. Dry and wet. When wet. The virus infects immune cells, small vessels and causes the appearance of exudate into the abdominal or chest cavity. When dry. Changes occur in internal organs (granulomas appear, etc.) without effusion.
It is easier to suspect a wet form than a dry one, since as a rule the first sign is an increase in the abdomen in volume, frequent breathing, an ultrasound scan reveals ascites fluid. Where further it is necessary for the doctor to understand whether ascites is associated with FIP or there is another reason for this (and there are many of them).
The structure and function of the nipple in a cat
An adult cat has multiple mammary glands. Normally, they end with eight nipples, which are located in pairs along the midline of the sternum and abdomen according to the scheme:
- 4 abdominal. in the abdomen;
- 4 thoracic. near the xiphoid process.
Feline nipples are cone-shaped and hairless; in a resting state, their height is only 1–3 mm. In animals with thick hair, mammary glands can be detected only by feeling.
During pregnancy and lactation, the nipples intended for feeding the offspring increase to 5–8 mm and become visible visually. Each nipple has 4 to 8 milk ducts that open during feeding, giving newborn kittens access to breast milk. Outside feeding, the free flow of milk to the outside is blocked by smooth muscle sphincters around each nipple.
Cat’s nipples swell during pregnancy
The most “mammary” glands are those located in the abdominal zone. kittens are attracted to them first of all.
Lactation in cats lasts 4–5 weeks, milk secretion increases until the 25th day of feeding, and then gradually decreases. At the same time, the nipples are reduced.
Possible deviations from the norm
Anomalies of the mammary glands in cats include the presence of additional nipples or their absence. Abnormalities not to worry about:
- An extra pair of nipples in the groin area;
- The nipples are not parallel to each other;
- The number of mammary glands is 6, instead of 8;
- An odd number of nipples.
Single nipples are usually underdeveloped and are not a continuation of the mammary glands. During pregnancy, they do not swell and remain invisible.
Excess underdeveloped nipples can be located between the main pairs or behind them, closer to the groin area
Changes in the mammary glands for which you should contact your veterinarian:
- Increase in size, swelling;
- Discharge that is colorless or bloody;
- Blackening of the skin around the nipples is a sign of a fungus, flea infestation, or subcutaneous tick.
Diseases causing mammary gland tumors:
- Lactostasis. milk stagnation;
- Mastitis, mastopathy;
- Mammary cancer;
- Hyperplasia, hormonal disruptions;
- Disruption of the lymphatic system.
If you notice swelling on the nipples, take the cat to the vet. this may be the first stage of mastitis
If you find a tumor on your cat’s nipple, visit your veterinarian. He will determine the cause of the enlargement of the gland and prescribe medications.
Number and function of nipples in a cat
A cat’s nipples are formed at birth and last a lifetime. Their number may vary, but does not depend on the breed, type of hairline or age of the animal.
How many nipples do a cat and a cat have. their structure and function
Owners rarely think about the number of nipples in a cat before the animal’s pregnancy, when the mammary glands noticeably swell. During this period, the first questions appear about the normal number and location of cat papillae, their functioning and possible deviations.
Does the cat have nipples
Cats also have nipples, but they are in their infancy and the mammary glands are undeveloped. Nipples in cats are rudimentary organs of no benefit. They appear at the birth of embryos in the womb, and the genitals and mammary glands of females begin to form at a later date.
The number of nipples in a cat is from 4 to 10, normal sizes are 1–2 mm, the shade is pale pink for any coat color. The facts of the existence of cats without nipples are not officially recorded.
Both cats and cats have nipples that are the same in shape, color and structure. In females, they play a role in raising offspring, while in males they do not perform any functions. It is impossible to determine the sex of the kitten by the nipples. for this it is better to look under the tail and try to make out small tubercles, from which the testicles will form later in the male.