home Aquarium How an external aquarium filter works

How an external aquarium filter works

What is an external aquarium filter

There are two types of filters: external and internal. How to choose the one that is right for you?

First of all, pay attention to the size of your tank. If it’s big enough, then there isn’t much of a difference. But we usually have only limited areas that can accommodate either a small or medium aquarium. It is in this case that the use of an external filter will be appropriate.

Unlike the internal filter, the external filter is not installed directly in the aquarium, but outside it. This saves a lot of space.

The external filter does not take up space in the aquarium and does not spoil its overall appearance

The work of such a device is as follows: water from the aquarium enters the device, passes through the filter elements, and then returns back to the fish.

An external filter has the following advantages:

  • it does not take up useful space inside the aquarium;
  • the contents of the aquarium look more aesthetically pleasing without such devices;
  • filter media purify water better.

How to care for your aquarium filter?

In order for the filter to function properly, it must be cleaned regularly. Otherwise, it will start to work worse, and then completely pollute the water environment (the latter concerns internal filters).

The smaller the filter area and the larger the volume of water, the more often the filter needs to be cleaned.

To determine the regularity of cleaning the filter, it is worth not only carefully reading the manufacturer’s instructions, but also observing the filter in operation. If it starts to work weaker, then it’s time to flush it. Small filters may need weekly cleaning, while larger models may need one cleaning every 2 months.

To avoid killing the beneficial bacteria colony, wash the filter with water at room temperature and do not do it too thoroughly. In addition, you should not wash the filter if you change the water in the aquarium, add new fish, introduce new food, otherwise you will upset the established balance in the aquarium.

Replacing the sponge in the filter is another important point. Don’t do this too often. Wait until it begins to lose its filtering ability and shape. In addition, the washcloth in the internal filter consists of several parts, and you only need to change one of them at a time, so that later beneficial bacteria from the “old” parts quickly spread to new ones.

Remember that the filter in the aquarium should work constantly and without interruption, so choose the right model responsibly and do not go after the cheapest option. Stop your choice on quality equipment that has proven itself well and will serve you for a long time.

DIY external filter for aquarium

Homemade external filter for aquarium.

As a novice hobbyist, I found that the internal filter in my tank was not up to the task. And from the frequent maintenance of the filter, only the inhabitants of my aquarium suffered.

Having studied the information on filters, I came to the conclusion that the unambiguous correct solution is to use an external filter. Biofiltration is extremely effective, and no method of water purification can even partially replace it.

The composition of water purified by an external filter is approximately similar to that of slow-flowing natural reservoirs. With a weekly refreshment of a third of the volume of the main aquarium, it can be assumed that the ichthyofauna and hydroflora are contained practically in flowing natural water. hence all the successes achieved in systems with biofiltration.

Not pleasant news for me was that the cost of the external filter turned out to be commensurate with the cost of the aquarium itself.

Having familiarized myself with the design of the external filters, I decided to make an analogue of the external Eheim filter with my own hands.

For the production of a homemade external filter, the following was purchased:
– Pump (fountain pump), RESUN company, Chinese production 30 W, 2000 l / h
– PVC connector for a sewer pipe d = 200 mm. 2 plugs for it,
– cranes, corners, sagons, etc.,
– PVC pipe d = 20 mm. for receiving and delivering water to a 4 m aquarium.,
– a flask from a household filter,
– filter fillers.

For insertion into the plugs, the following construction was used.

My choice in this pump was due to the fact that the filter has a lot of bends in the pipes, and the final results eventually dropped by half.

Drilled holes in the top and bottom covers for water inlet and outlet. When installing the fittings, I used rubber gaskets with an additional application of silicone-ion sealant.

I tried to insert the plug into the rubber seal grip and I couldn’t, it worked too tight. I understand that if I can insert the plug, I will not remove it from there. Moving away from this, I cut off the edges of the connector to remove the filter, if at all, the rubber could be removed and thereby relieve the pressure in the filter. At the bottom of the coupling there is a seat for the inlet fitting.

The clutch edge trim will later be installed inside the clutch and hold the grille.

The bottom cover has a grid above the nozzle level. To do this, we had to pull out a box of vegetables.

Then, with a clear conscience, we can fit the bottom cover into the connector. Since no sealing rubber will be used here, it is necessary to cover the entire area of ​​the plug with silicone. After installing the plug, additionally seal the connections inside and outside with a sealant.

External Filter Set Up Guide 1000EF & 1400EF. All Pond Solutions

A hole has been drilled in the cover for the mains cable and air outlet. There was no need to attach the pump to the plug, and even without it, it is securely attached to the length of the hose and power cord.

A connector similar to that used in streetlights was used to seal the power cord. Flip the switch where the wire breaks.

A household glow filter is installed under the handle of the inlet pipe, which will serve as a coarse filter for coarse cleaning. Without this, this would be possible, but then I would have to install a sponge on the inlet pipe directly in the aquarium or wash the canister every month (in my plans, the canister will be flushed at least every 6 months).

For pre-production. a PVC sewer pipe filter d = 32 mm is required. In which many holes have been drilled. It would be possible to use additional in the previous. filtered activated carbon or zeolite, but first decided on foam with a sponge.

When all parts of the filter assembly go through to fill with fillers.

1st layer. At the bottom, first of all, we place the material for dense filtration. Large-cell foam is most suitable for these purposes. Unfortunately, I could not find rubber foam for the correct size aquariums. Instead, he used something like a line ball.

3 layers. We apply a layer of foam using a small cell. In my case, I used a synthetic winterizer.

Every aquarium should have a filtration system that will purify the water to keep fish and plants healthy. As you know, the waste left by the inhabitants of the reservoir, as well as food debris, suspended soil particles are very harmful to fish. Unwashed food is oxidized to toxic ammonia. In order for the water to pass through all the stages of cleaning at the right time, it is better to make an external filter for the aquarium with your own hands. This prevents the appearance of harmful substances that can poison living things.

Then place the tube in the neck of the bowl so that it seals into it. After the procedure, do not notice any gaps or holes between the tube and the neck. The length of the tube itself is selected taking into account the projection onto the structure by 2-3 cm, while it should not touch the bottom of the bottle. If a step is performed incorrectly, water will not be able to enter the mechanism.

Take the gravel and place it on top of the bowl 6 cm thick and cover with a piece of polyester lining. Install the hose into the aerator pipe and repair it. When the mechanism is ready, place it in the aquarium. Then turn on the compressor to start the filter. Preferred microorganisms will appear in existing equipment that will process ammonia into nitrates, which create a beneficial microbial environment in the water.

How does a manual external filter work?

The self-propelled external filter is built on the basis of an air duct: air bubbles exiting the compressor rise up the pipe from which they reach the top and reduce the flow of water from the filter. Clean and oxygenated water enters the top section of the glass and passes through the gravel. Then the water enters the bowl through the hole, goes down to the pipe and enters the tank. Synthon works like a mechanical filter here. This material prevents silting of the gravel base.

It cleans water chemically and mechanically. Such structures should be installed in a large aquarium with a volume of 200-400 liters. In the case of larger aquariums with a capacity of 500-1000 liters, several such devices are needed. Branded outdoor water purification systems are expensive, so it’s best to do it yourself. Materials are affordable and accessible to everyone.

Another way to create an external filter

For the next external filter, you need to prepare the following data:

  • A plastic container with a tight lid (you can take a box for storing cereals);
  • Sponge or thick porous material;
  • Sealed water pump and connector for attachment to the lid with a container;
  • Biological filtration material (medical cotton, ceramic granules);
  • Multiple suction cups, resin adhesive structure.

See how to make an external filter yourself.

Instructions for creating a filter:

  • You need to take a thin file and make cuts around the bottom compartment of the plastic container. The pieces will go through the water.
  • Place a sponge. cotton wool or other biofiltration element in this plastic container.
  • Make holes on the reservoir lid to match the diameter of the pump nozzle.
  • Insert the attachment into the hole and secure it with an aquarium with resin or silicone.
  • Install the pump on a nozzle that can build up pressure inside the container.
  • On the wider side of the container, attach some homemade suction cups.
  • The internal filtration system can be considered complete. Suction cups can hold the device on the wall of the aquarium.
external, aquarium, filter, works

Such a home filter can be installed not on the wall, but placed on the bottom of the container. The soil also acts as a biological filter. The plastic nozzle can be attached to the plastic outlet as a long tube that extends outward. Then, after purification, the water will be saturated with oxygen.

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Instead of a small plastic container, you can use a non-toxic stainless steel plastic container or canister. This design is suitable for large aquariums and can accommodate large cassettes and filter cartridges. You must keep your home filters at the same frequency as your brand name filters.

If the filter leaks, check all of its components:

  • Whether the clamping mechanisms are tightly sealed. You can inadvertently secure parts with glue or resin. You can fix the problem by reattaching the clamps.
  • A sponge or suction cup can get dirty in the flow filter. Slime and dirt can be cleaned with water. Check the cleanliness of the project every month.
  • Damage to the plastic container, which will have to be changed by tinkering with the filter itself.

I’ll start with a short introduction. Although I have a 140 liter long aquarium, I consider myself only an amateur. Because he kept the fish purely for the soul (something must be done). In the winter I managed to take care of my animals, but in the summer it was not so, so I will start by saying that I need to catch skeletons. Sitting on the next winter evening, I looked at my aquarium and decided that it was necessary, something like this would continue, no more. I wanted to achieve clean, lush vegetation all along, but it only worked partially. Even after replacing the internal Atman F-102 filter, I purchased a more powerful Atman F-104.

The results of those I wanted didn’t work. So I decided or thought that I visited, I don’t remember, but went to the Internet and started looking for a way to achieve a normal state and found that in addition to internal filters, there are external filters. In short, after reading them, I came to the conclusion that I need it, but here the are a little bit bitter (on the Internet are Kiev 800-1400 grams, the cheapest Chinese Atman CF-800 is 600 grams).

After a lot of thinking, I came to the conclusion that I need to do my homework. Why I decided, firstly, the availability of spare parts included a crane, went, bought and even an engine from an internal filter, we have them in stock, we bought a filter, the engine tuned it and no problems. And so, to go to Kherson, there is something or not, and the fish will not wait all the time. But since we simply do not supply 200 pipes, we do not use them, we only needed 160 and 100. When I returned home, I was even a little nervous, but I measured the pump from the Atman f-104 filter (by specifications, Description: Power. 38 W Productivity. 2000 l / h. Increase in water. 2 m.) I was convinced that everything should be very firmly in the ass. Since there were no connectors 350 mm long, I took a meter long pipe 160 mm and a plug. I decided to combine everything with plastic compounds. He prepared a list of necessary things and, having bought all the necessary things, got down to work.

Once again, after reviewing the internal filters, I took the filter as a basis for the Eheim Classic 2213

Technical data: For aquarium: up to 250 l.
Productivity: 440 l / h.
Lifting capacity: 1.5m.
Filter capacity: 3 l.
Dimensions: 160 x 160 x 355mm.
Power consumption: 8W.
The height of the Atman f-104 pump was 10 cm, then I added it and it turned out to be 160x160x450mm. I started thinking about how to make the bottom, first cut out a thick plastic circle on the silicone and knock on the ends myself, but then it dawned on me, but what if you heat up the pipe and put on a hat. I made a cut from the main one and went to experiment. On the gas stove (the largest burner) I started to turn the flame over (I had to wear gloves, my fingers were hot), over time the tube softened, it became flexible rubber and I was able to insert the stopper. Realizing that everything will work very well, I did the same with the main object (if someone wants to do this, do not lower it in the flame so as not to damage the plastic, you should rewind the tube evenly and try it for flexibility,

I made the bottom, I decided on the top, everything worked, even better than I could imagine, the pump spout went right to the 20th corner, all that was left was to lubricate the plastic with a silicone aquarium and everything was fine. The engine had a shelf in the back, I decided to make a retaining bar so that the engine not only hangs on the nose, but also rests on the stem (everything also lacked silicone), because this entire part of the plug had to be completely inserted into the pipe so that it would pull out in the future him, cut out a segment 24 mm wide from the experimental tube on the branch pipe, which would serve as a stop.

When installing the Mayevsky crane, I decided to drill a hole so that Mayevsky, when screwing on, cut off the thread with a bloom and everything worked (also planted on silicone) I bought a wire tape on the market (there are different diameters used for street lamps or electric motors)

I cut a 3mm thick strip and glued it. She put it on silicone and twisted it on four sides, also made grooves and drowned. Then the bottom of the silicone was planted. The handle is also made of a tube. You can use pin screws, but I took a rod from a plastic pin (using foam attached to the wall) cut into 2cm barrels and with a screw heated on a stove burned in a hat.

Yes, Tati, when the pipe is cold, I gently knocked on the cork from the pipe, I inserted two plates into the cork to secure the baskets against it. I drowned them equally with the edge. After installation, the plug is covered with silicone and planted until it stops.

By the way, if you use a home filter, try to take the Mayevsky faucet from above, and not from the side, as I did for better air outlet, I had to drill a small hole and tighten the screw with an elastic band, I showed the arrow in the figure. I screwed the flask to a special clamp, the figure shows a device to which four screws with a sheep were attached, which squeezed the top cap from the hole. Thanks to this, I can independently open the lid without touching the flask from the home filter.

How to make an aquarium filter with your own hands and organize the filtration of your own aquarium? Regardless of whether it is outside, inside or below. What tools and equipment do you need? The answers to all these questions can be found in this article.

There are many options to make different types of filters. We will cover the main.

External Vs Internal Aquarium Filters What’s Better?

  • interior
  • hinge
  • external
  • bottom

This is the simplest type of filter. That, it purifies water quite well (by its type). It is very easy to create an internal filter with your own hands. To do this, you will need: a plastic bottle (small)

  • a piece of sponge
  • filler (pebble, “passing” in size in the neck of the bottle)
  • compressor, hose and one suction cup

We make four large holes in the lid. In the neck, under the lid, we make a hole in which one end of the hose should be “tight” (the other end is connected to the compressor). At the bottom of the bottle, in the wheel, we make holes for the outlet of purified water. Remember to make another hole for the suction cup just below the bottom of the plastic bottle.

Fill our filter (bottle) with pebbles (or other filler), tighten the nut. Then we put a piece of sponge on the neck (it is desirable that it be of the correct, slender shape). this will be the lower part of our device. Insert the hose and suction cup into the corresponding holes. Place the filter in the aquarium and turn on the compressor. Done!

Schematic diagram of the internal filter

A hinged aquarium filter is also not complicated. But the “game” has more than inwardly.

  • any plastic, glass, plexiglass (every neutral material is at hand)
  • compressor
  • sponge (synthetic winterizer), hose

We make a container or find it ready (something like a long plastic pot for plants, we make plastic walls (this can be clearly seen in the diagram). Fill the first compartment (where the water is supplied) with a piece of polyester lining, the rest of the sections with another or the same Filler In the last compartment, at the top, we make a hole and a groove for the discharge of purified water and hang the structure itself on the back of the aquarium.

Water is supplied by a compressor, similar to an external filter.

DIY external or external aquarium filter. which will complicate. To make it, you can use a plastic round tall container or a plastic barrel with a lid. If it is not there, you can use a large diameter garden pipe. The truth is that in this case, the cover and the bottom must be attached independently of each other.

  • pump
  • plastic canister
  • synthetic cuminizer, filler
  • hoses, pipes

A plastic or metal sleeve with a one-way inlet valve is screwed into the bottom of the container. There are two holes in the lid. One for mounting with an exhalation valve, the other for an electric pump, which in turn is attached to the inside of the cover.

Now you need to make the refill cartridges. Plastic pots that have the same diameter as the inside of the container are suitable. At the bottom of these pots, we make many holes for water circulation.

The first layer of the insert is located just above the input connector. And fill it with polyester lining. Apply any other filler in subsequent layers. You can use different ones: pebbles, coal fillers, volcanic rocks and others. It is imperative that the last insert does not touch the pump.

The pump power depends on the volume of the aquarium. The higher the volume, the stronger the pump must be.

Bottom filters are worth mentioning. Filter element, which is the soil of the aquarium. Water flows through it, which causes a rough cleaning. The best cleaning is achieved when using sandy soil. This type of filter is practically not used, but we will consider it anyway.

  • pump
  • pipes pipes with holes at the bottom, underground
  • compressor (in one of the options)

We are laying pipes with holes underground. A plastic mesh with small holes should be inserted at the top so that soil does not clog the holes in the pipe itself. The pump is closer to the surface. Done!

In the case of a direct underflow filter, we use a compressor. clearly, the design can be seen in the diagram.

Let’s say that all types of filters are fairly easy to manufacture and at the same time save a significant amount of money. And with a denser approach, you can improve and enhance these filter options.

Fillers for external filters

The external filter, due to its design, allows you to organize a multi-stage purification of aquarium water. Mechanical water purification. removal of suspended particles from water. Biological filtration is the decomposition of hazardous, toxic substances that accumulate in the aquarium, during the life of the inhabitants, to compounds that are safe for organisms. This process is called the nitrogen cycle. In this article, we will not go into details, I will tell you in detail about this most important cycle in the aquarium in a separate article. Chemical filtration. removal of hazardous or unnecessary substances from water using special adsorbents. Depending on the specific tasks, it is possible to select the fillers of the external filter so as to maximally load the canister with filter material.

For mechanical water purification in filters, sponges of different density and porosity are used. The finer the cells of the sponge, the smaller particles of dirt it will retain. They also use a synthetic winterizer to purify water from the smallest particles of dirt. If the presence of filter sponges is provided in the use of an external filter. Then it is advisable to arrange them in this way. A sponge with large cells is placed in the first or second basket, then other fillers come, and a synthetic winterizer is placed on top for final fine cleaning. It is only necessary to take into account the fact that the synthetic winterizer quickly clogs up and the filter with the synthetic winterizer has to be serviced more often.

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There are a wide variety of fillers available for biological filtration. These can be ceramic rings, ceramic balls, and similar materials. Sometimes expanded clay is used as filler in homemade external filters. As a rule, they have a porous structure; their main task is to provide an area for filtering bacteria to colonize. This condition is necessary for the efficient operation of the external filter. There are also ceramic rings, in which the surface is smooth and they have no pores, the task of such a material is to break the flow of water entering the filter. In order to ensure the maximum, uniform distribution of the filter material over the entire area. It is advisable to place such a substrate in the first filter basket.

Chemical filtration is provided using fillers such as activated carbon, zeolite, and ion exchange resins. Activated carbon has a highly porous microstructure. Thanks to this, it effectively removes (adsorbs) toxins, acids and trace elements. Most often, activated carbon is used in filters after treating fish in an aquarium in order to remove drug residues from the aquarium water. Zeolites are also powerful adsorbents due to their structure.

For example, I never use a synthetic winterizer with my filters. Which, retaining small particles, clogs up very quickly and requires replacement. Accordingly, it is much more often necessary to open and close the filter, which leads to wear of its elements, in particular the O-ring. In my opinion, to remove suspended matter in the aquarium, you can simply put a pump with a fine sponge. Although this is my personal opinion. Also, I do not use activated carbon in the external filter. When it is necessary to remove, for example, the remaining medicines from the water, after the treatment of the fish, I put the coal in the waterfall filter and remove it after a few days of weeks. In any case, please note that activated carbon, unlike fillers intended for colonization with bacteria, requires periodic replacement. The term of use of coal does not exceed four months, zeolites also require restoration.

Below is a video about the arrangement of filter elements in an external filter from AQUAEL, model Unimax 700. Please note that this filter model uses a UV lamp for additional sterilization of water in the aquarium.

Filter general information

A filter in an aquarium is primarily needed for high-quality water purification. The density of the aquarium dwellers is usually very high. In addition, it is difficult to maintain the correct balance of the ecosystem in a small closed container. And precisely so that the fish do not swim in a mixture of their own excrement instead of water and do not die, an aquarium filter is needed.

Of course, a water change method can be used instead of a filter. But in this case, the aquarist will have to make a change every day or every other day, changing about 25-30% of the water. The filter saves both time and effort for the aquarium owner.

Connecting an external filter for the first time

I think it makes no sense to describe in detail the process of connecting a canister filter, since each specific model has its own nuances and if you follow the instructions, there should be no problems. Let me just draw your attention to the following general things. Rinse with running water before filling in fillers. The filter is much easier to start if it is pre-filled with water, and not using the start button (pumping water). When installing the baskets, check the order of their arrangement. Incorrectly installed external filter baskets can cause distortion and malfunction. The hoses should only be cut off after trying them on at the place where the filter is permanently installed. The first time after switching on the filter can make a very noticeable noise. This will pass over time. As soon as all the remaining air comes out. You can shake the filter a little, as a rule, this helps to quickly get rid of accumulated air.

External filter

External filter. Hello dear readers of the Aqua-As Aquarist Blog. I want to devote this article. One of the main devices of a modern aquarium is an external filter. I hope the article will be useful for both beginners and experienced aquarists. Let’s talk about the device of the filter, the principle of its operation, fillers for it. And of course. How to choose the right filter model for your aquarium.

How to choose an external filter. What to look for

The choice of an external filter should be approached very carefully. The filter you buy for a long time and all the time. During operation, it should function normally and perform its functions. Agree. Few people want to constantly run in search of spare parts or have trouble in the event of a leak. On aquarium sites and forums, issues related to external filters, their reliability, ease of use, quality and quantity of fillers, price, etc.

Each external filter model has its own specifications. Manufacturers indicate for what volume of the aquarium this filter is suitable. Here it should be noted that the power of the filter, the amount of pumped water in liters per hour can be indicated for an empty filter without fillers. It is clear that by loading the canister with filter material, this figure will be lower. And over time, when the fillers become clogged and the hoses will overgrow from the inside. The power rating will be even lower. Somehow, for the sake of interest, I measured how much the external filter actually pumps. Here’s what happened. I have an Atman DF-1000 external filter, the indicated power is 1500 l / h, in a just started aquarium with clean fillers, the filter pumped about 1000. 1200 l / h. After three months of operation, this figure was already about 700-800 l / h. In any case, you should choose, if possible, with a certain margin. For example, you have a 200 liter aquarium. It is worth buying a filter designed not for a 150-200 liter aquarium, but for a 200-350 liter one.

Biological method

Colonies of beneficial bacteria always settle on glass, snags, decorative elements. There are especially many of them in the ground. These bacteria convert ammonia compounds into less hazardous ones. Biological method. Used for filtering. Based on the same principle. Large colonies of such bacteria that colonize the filter material. In the process of life, they break down compounds toxic to fish.
With proper use of the filter apparatus, all fillers will soon be colonized with beneficial bacteria. You can also use specialized biofilters. In which these bacteria are much more.

Adsorption method

In this case, activated carbon is used as a filler. It removes visible impurities and harmful gases from the water. Makes the water clear, helps well to cleanse the water from drug residues after fish treatment.

External filter small introduction

In the modern aquarium, external filters have firmly taken their place. Previously, the external filter could only be seen by aquarists who were professionally engaged in fish breeding and very rarely by amateurs. In those days, airlift filters were used, usually powered by a compressor, as well as, mostly home-made hinged filters, or as they are also called, backpack filters or waterfalls. I still remember my feelings when I was a ten-year-old boy, together with a well-worn plexiglass aquarium, assembled on screws. I got a hinged filter made by a skilled aquarist. Then it seemed to me that I became the owner of some fantastic miracle of the unit and was very proud of it. By the way, that aquarium served me for about five more years. It felt great neons, gourami, barbs grew echinodorus and a number of plants.

But time does not stand still. With the development of aquarism, the approach of the aquarium has changed. They began to use more and more various technical devices. The composition of fish and plants in the aquarium has changed. Many species demanding water quality have appeared, and the stocking density of fish has also increased. Accordingly, more and more sophisticated and technological devices began to appear to help the aquarist. Of course, all these useful devices will certainly make life easier for the aquarist and expand the possibilities for keeping more demanding inhabitants of the aquarium. Only all the same, it is necessary to strive to understand the essence of the natural processes taking place in an artificial reservoir, and not to rely only on the modern technical equipment of the aquarium. Technical means are help to the aquarist. But they will never replace the aquarist himself. There should not be such an attitude as “I bought a cool external filter, installed it and all the problems were solved”. Such an attitude would rather lead to big problems than to success. I apologize for the small lyrical digression.

Types and brands of canister filters for the aquarium

German, Polish, Korean, Chinese companies produce a variety of models for aquariums, which are primarily divided by pump power and, accordingly, performance. The more powerful the pump, the more water it can pump over per unit of time.

There are devices with an external pump location, and in many recent models of external filters, the pump is located inside the housing. This arrangement of the working device reduces noise to a minimum level.

Also, filters differ in overall dimensions, in the capacity of the body and even in their shape. There are canisters not only of a classic shape, but also of a cylindrical and square shape. Of course, different models of devices have different costs.

Is there an alternative to the bottom filter?

Many aquarists argue that bottom filters are a thing of the past. Of course, they are quite effective in cleaning the aquarium from contamination, but additional maintenance methods are still required to maintain cleanliness. There are alternative devices: external and internal filters.

Each model is designed for a specific volume of the aquarium. Also filters can include a device for air aeration. a compressor. Such devices are able to pass the entire volume of the aquarium through themselves in literally 10-15 minutes.

The advantage of these filters is quick installation and easy maintenance. To clean it, it is enough to disassemble it and rinse all structural elements under the tap.

How to put internal filters?

Internal filters are installed inside the aquarium. The most popular are internal pump filters and airlift filters. They are inexpensive, easy to install on your own, and convenient to use during operation. However, these mechanisms have their drawbacks. they need to be cleaned of dirt almost daily, they are oversized and noisy. Before purchasing such a water purifier, determine if it will fit in your aquarium.

Can you install the internal filter correctly the first time? Quite if you read the instructions carefully. The machine should be placed in the tank when it is half full of water, when there are plants planted in the ground. Before connecting the filter to the network, it should be assembled in parts, and fixed on the wall or above the aquarium.

Water purification devices such as internal filters must be completely submerged in the aquatic environment. There should be another 3 cm of water above the filter. The device itself should not touch the bottom. If you bought an internal filter, or made it yourself, then it is correct to attach it with suction cups to the glass wall.

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See how to disassemble, assemble and install the internal filter.

Included with branded filters is an air supply hose. In a homemade device, it should also be present, however, the principle of fastening is the same for them. Take one end of the tube and attach it to a special hole in the filter, bring the other end over the water and fix it with a fastening material to the upper edge of the tank wall. The tube must be above the water level, otherwise the air will not be sucked in correctly.

There must be an air regulator on the tube or directly on the filter. Its location affects the strength of the water flow in the aquarium. After installing the device for water purification, the regulator should be correctly set to the middle position. Then observe the behavior of the fish. some will love the flow of water, others will avoid it. Adjust the water flow to keep the fish comfortable.

Internal cleaners should be installed after being completely submerged in water. Before removing it from the water for cleaning, the device must be disconnected from the power supply. Also, you cannot leave the turned off mechanism in the water, and turn it on after a long period of stagnation (if you did not manage to clean it).

The first selection criterion is price

You should know that external filters of the German brand Eheim have the highest price. Accordingly, their quality and reliability are also at their best.

The middle price position is occupied by products of the brands Aquael (Poland), Sera, JBL, Tetra and Hagen (Germany), Ferplast (Italy). True, almost all products of these brands are assembled in China.

The budget option is the models of the Chinese brands Atman, Resun and some others. By the way, Atman canisters are quite worthy and reliable products, the design of which was developed by American engineers, and produced by the Chinese company Chuangxing Electrical Appliances Co.

Advantages and disadvantages

Before installing the bottom filter, you should familiarize yourself with its features. Of course, the first minus will appear immediately. To install the system, it is necessary to completely drain the water from the aquarium, remove the soil and all decorative elements, which takes a lot of time.

The indisputable advantage of just such a filter is:

  • continuous circulation of water throughout the aquarium;
  • when passing through the ground, it excludes stagnation at the bottom;
  • such a water cycle avoids rapid contamination of the aquarium and the appearance of various kinds of infections.

Aeration of the soil helps the algae to strengthen and develop their root system, however, when the soil is oversaturated with oxygen, the growth of leaves slows down. In addition, no nutrients for algae remain in the soil; they leave along with the water. Therefore, such a constructive solution is not recommended for use in an aquarium where a lot of greenery grows.

Even when using a bottom filter, dirt particles still remain on the surface of the soil. They do not pass through it due to their large size. Therefore, as mentioned above, you have to wash the pebbles. But you can avoid unnecessary fuss with changing water and flushing the soil.

To do this, you need to install an additional filter element, which will have time to drive all the water through itself. Or you can purchase a device. a siphon, which removes large particles of dirt from the surface of the soil (it is advisable to carry out this procedure weekly).

Another disadvantage of the system is that the holes in the tubes are quickly clogged with debris. To clean them, you need to completely pour out the water from the aquarium and disassemble the entire structure. For a small tank (up to 50 l) this will not cause much problem, but for a large aquarium it is very difficult and tough work.

Aquarium bottom filter

The bottom filter is a complete water purification system that is used in aquariums of various sizes. Its main principle is water filtration in a natural way, that is, through the soil. However, about this method, many questions and disagreements arise, because the main debris remains on the surface of the soil, so it has to be washed periodically. So, let’s look at everything in order.

Mechanical filters and aquarium filtration

If you have a small aquarium and not very large fish swim in it, such a mechanical filter will be enough.

The best filter for an aquarium: types of filtration, photo-video review

Glad you looked at this page! This means that you are approaching this issue correctly. first you read, learn, and then you make a decision. After all, such an approach to business neutralizes almost all the risks of acquiring not a good aquarium filter.

So, before choosing a filter, you must understand which filter is good for your aquarium ?! To do this, you need to think about which fish, which plants will live in your reservoir, how many there will be. If the aquarium is large, there will be a large number of large fish swimming in it, there will be many plants, then the filter must cope with this and remove all the “impurities” from the aquarium water as efficiently as possible. But, if this is a small aquarium, and you are not going to breed “sharks” in it, then I personally do not see the point in taking a powerful filter, you can get by with a “standard” filter and thereby save a significant amount of money.

I think everything is clear here, so let’s move on to the next question.

Before buying an aquarium filter, you must find out what kind of filtration mechanism it uses.


Let’s take a quick look at how each filter works with a specific type of water filtration.

How does it work?

Depending on the brand and model of the manufacturer, the design may be different, but the general principle of operation remains the same: the pump pumps water from the aquarium through the hoses into the filter, into the canister. It can contain either baskets with filter material or special bags. After cleaning, the liquid returns through the same hoses back to the aquarium.

How to install and run?

The nuances of the installation may be different for each manufacturer, but the general algorithm is as follows:

  • Prepare a soft pad and a pair of rags in case of leaks.
  • Carefully check the contents of the purchased box: it must contain internal sponges, the device itself, fillers, plastic water outlets.
  • Follow the manufacturer’s instructions when assembling the filter. The taps on the lid are the last to open. The filler is correctly placed as follows: bio balls or ceramics on the bottom, sponges on them, then a synthetic winterizer, the last top layer is peat or coal.
  • Prepare the parts for the intake and release of liquid: a long rounded pipe takes water in, a short curved pipe removes it, it is installed at the other end of the aquarium. Do not forget to calculate the length of the hoses in advance so that they will be sufficient.
  • Before starting the structure, fill the filter with aquarium water by gravity (for this, connect the intake hose with a threaded clamp). Water will flow as soon as you turn on the tap. Make sure that no liquid flows out of the second hole. As soon as the device is completely filled, close the inlet hose.
  • Connect the outlet hose to the filter, shut off, then pour water into the free end and finally connect to the plastic outlet.
  • The last step: open both taps on the filter and plug the structure into an outlet.

When buying, pay attention to the following nuances:

  • Does the brand have its own service center? If so, you will be able to efficiently and quickly purchase the necessary parts, troubleshoot, and have service under warranty.
  • The rate of pumping fluid or its power. There must be a balance between three things: the type of aquarium, the number of fish in it and the volume. The power indicated in the characteristics is the operation of the equipment in ideal conditions, i.e. without taking into account the contamination of the fillers, the height of the pipes and other things. And in working condition, the filter pumps much less. Therefore, you need to take equipment with a significant margin.
  • How noisy the filter is. To avoid this, buy a design that will have a ceramic rather than a metal rotor axis.
  • What kind of filtering do you want to get. It can be biological, chemical, mechanical or mixed.

Most of the existing filters are focused on the first option, but the bulk of the beneficial bacteria of nitrifying agents live in the right soil. This is what you need to build on first.

It will be very convenient to install the filter if the taps on its adapter are rotating, and the hoses are stiff enough (this will save them from kinking and deteriorating water flow). Buy a special small pipe brush. it will facilitate the cleaning process, and also think about an additional portion of filler (there is always not enough of it in the standard configuration).

Outdoor device alternatives

If a person does not have the ability or desire to spend money on a purchased filter, which is really not cheap, he can try to make such a cleaning system with his own hands from scrap materials.

On the forums of aquarists, craftsmen share their best practices, for example, fill a bottle with ceramics of a suitable size, connect it to a pump with a sponge attached to the inlet. An impromptu filter is located right under the aquarium lid.

Atman (atman)

Powerful, efficient, completely sealed filters. Easy to install and maintain. Quiet thanks to the ceramic rotor shaft. Ready to connect with standard fillers. Suitable for both saltwater and freshwater aquariums.

Hagen Fluval

All models are easy to disassemble and assemble, have an attractive design, are durable and are highly effective in cleaning aquarium water. The latest released models are equipped with displays that show basic process data, warnings about the need to change or rinse the fillers.

Perfectly sealed and reliable in operation. Of the minuses: large dimensions and fast clogging of filter elements. Average per copy.

Advantages and disadvantages


  • The external filter does not take up space in the aquarium, which means that it is possible to install other equipment or decorative elements.
  • It is absolutely safe for the inhabitants of the aquarium and does not take away their inner space.
  • The filter can be converted into a combined filter by adding filter and absorbent materials to its container.
  • Outputs better performance than the internal filter.
  • Long service life. up to eight years.
  • It is required to clean external filters much less frequently than internal ones, and you can choose any place for such manipulations as you wish.
  • External filters are much more expensive than internal filters.
  • Not all owners like to contemplate equipment that is in a conspicuous place, so you have to think in advance where you can hide it.
  • Such filters leak many times more often than internal filters and cause a lot of inconvenience to the aquarist.
  • If the filter has a high power, and there are small fish in the aquarium, put on a mesh at the end of the tube.

What is this device and what is it for?

Few fish will withstand the harsh tap water, so installing a filter is a must for aquariums of any size. It is a container (often referred to as a “bucket” by aquarists) with a cleaning system inside.