What is heat?
How do you know if heat is coming soon? Under this term, it is customary to understand the period when the female is ready for mating and procreation. The duration of estrus depends on the state of health, physiology of a particular pet, characteristics of the breed, and it lasts on average from 20 to 30 days. The frequency of estrus is 1-2 times a year.
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Signs and Phases: Dog Behavior and Physiology
It is not difficult to determine the onset of estrus in a female: during the period of sexual heat, she becomes overly active, restless and disobedient. Before the onset of estrus, blood is released from the genital tract. After about 10 days, the bloody discharge is replaced by light and thick. the animal’s body prepares for ovulation and fertilization.
- swelling of the genitals;
- bloody marks in the dog’s habitat. on the floor, on the litter, near the bowl;
- frequent urge to urinate;
- constant licking of the genitals;
- excessive interest in males and aggression towards other bitches while walking;
- change in eating behavior. the dog may constantly demand food or, conversely, completely refuse to eat for a while;
- when trying to stroke, instantly arch its back and raises its tail up.
On average, the female’s “critical days” last 3-4 weeks. Estrus in an adult is repeated every 6–12 months. Pets have their period 2-3 times more often than stray animals. they do not have to adjust to weather conditions.
Estrus lasts longer in young females than in mature females. In the latter case, sexual activity gradually dies out, but does not completely disappear. Animals, unlike humans, do not have menopause. a dog can become pregnant at 10 years of age or older. It must be remembered that pregnancy and childbirth in older pets negatively affect the health of the animal.
How often are bitches in heat??
A healthy dog has a lifelong chance of becoming a mother. In mature females, the sexual cycle does not stop; maturity only affects the quality and quantity of eggs produced. In young females, the optimal frequency of the onset of leaks is twice a year; as the animal ages, their number is halved.
The owner of the dog throughout the life of the pet needs to mark the dates of the onset of leaks in the bitch. this will help determine their frequency and regularity. If the number of leaks unexpectedly decreases or increases, it is necessary to take the dog for examination to the veterinary clinic.
Duration of sexual activity in dogs of small and large breeds
How many days is the duration of hunting for the German Shepherd and other breeds? An adult female lasts an average of 20–28 days, but the chances of pregnancy during this period may fluctuate. The first 7-8 days the bitch is not ready for sexual intercourse and tries in every possible way to avoid attention from the opposite sex.
With the onset of estrus, the dog begins to experience sexual attraction and is in a state of sexual activity for a week or two. During this period, ovulation occurs, the egg released from the ovary is ready for fertilization, the chances of pregnancy are extremely high. If the owner intends to mate his bitch, the optimal period for a successful conception is considered to be the second week from the moment of estrus.
How does the time of the onset of the first estrus depend on the breed of the dog? Small pets start showing signs of puberty as early as 6 months. By the end of the first year of life in miniature females, the sexual cycle is already fully formed, and the dog is ready for mating. In the German Shepherd, the first estrus occurs at 8-10 months. The characteristic manifestations of estrus become noticeable closer to one and a half years.
The duration of estrus is directly dependent on the breed and size of the animal. in representatives of large breeds, estrus lasts a little longer than in small dogs. In this case, the nature and intensity of secretions are also related to the size of the individual: the larger the dog, the more abundant secretions are observed during the period of sexual heat. Some pets may not show clear signs of estrus.
Why heat lasts too long or starts too early?
If heat goes on for a long time, how dangerous is it? This is an extremely alarming situation that requires an immediate examination of the dog in the veterinary clinic. There can be several reasons for this phenomenon. from a simple hormonal disruption to a malignant tumor. The doctor, on the basis of instrumental and laboratory examination, will determine the cause of the failure and prescribe treatment. Prolonged estrus is common in mature dogs. Juveniles rarely face this kind of problem.
What is the normal flow rate? It all depends on the size of the individual: large females can leave small pools of blood behind them on the floor, while small dogs secrete scanty drops. The smell of discharge during estrus is specific, without signs of decay.
Another abnormal phenomenon is the complete absence of estrus in the pet. If for 12 months the dog has not had any discharge, you should not panic. sometimes heat can be bloodless. In such cases, ovulation occurs, but without any characteristic symptoms. Owners planning to breed offspring are recommended to undergo an examination in the veterinary clinic to confirm ovulation in the pet.
What to do if during the period of sexual activity the dog has ceased to control urination? This condition is not a pathology. during critical days, the synthesis of estrogens in the pet’s body increases, as a result of which a decrease in the sensitivity of the bladder sphincter is possible. After the sexual hunt is over, the problem of incontinence should be resolved without medical intervention.
When dogs start to estrus and how many days it lasts, how often does it occur in small and large breed bitches?
A dog under 12 months old is considered a puppy. During this period, the owner does not have any special problems with the pet. the main thing is that the little four-legged friend is healthy, well-fed and vaccinated. Approximately 1 year after birth, the female puppy reaches puberty. the first estrus begins. This means that the bitch is ready to mate. How to properly care for an animal during the estrus period? What should the owner worry about when a shepherd or husky asks for a walk? Are there ways to prevent heat and how to do it??
The sexual cycle in dogs, the place of estrus in it
The sexual cycle of a dog includes 4 phases, each has its own name and characteristic features:
- Proestrus (forerunner). The first phase of a dog’s sexual cycle lasts about a week. During this period, the female’s body prepares for the onset of estrus. the genitals swell, red discharge appears. The behavior of the animal changes: the dog becomes incredibly active, begins to show interest in males during a walk, can react aggressively to the commands and actions of the owner. While walking, he tries to mark every item on his way. To prevent the pet from staining furniture and walls in the house with secretions, it is advisable to purchase special underpants for dogs.
- Estrus (stage of the sexual hunt). Comes after proestrus and lasts from 5 to 15 days. Ovulation occurs 48 to 72 hours after estrus begins. At this time, as well as 2-3 days before ovulation, the chances of pregnancy in the female are very high. Bloody discharge is replaced by transparent, and when trying to stroke the pet in the tail area, she takes a characteristic pose and freezes in anticipation of sexual intercourse.
- Metaestrus. The duration of the third phase is 2-3 months. During this period, the female’s sexual activity decreases. The behavior of the animal also changes. the pet is aggressively disposed towards other animals.
- Anestrus. The fourth phase of the sexual cycle is the interval between estrus. The duration of this phase is 6–8 months, the duration depends on the breed and size of the female. The animal’s body is being restored and prepared for the beginning of a new cycle. When anestrus ends, the dog is ready to reproduce again.
How long does estrus last for small and medium-sized dogs: duration, tips and tricks
If you are a happy owner of a dog. a girl, then you should understand that her puberty is necessarily accompanied by such a process as estrus.
The owner must understand that this process can lead to an unwanted pregnancy of the pet.
You should also understand how long dogs are in heat, what behavior of a pet is normal during estrus, and what is not very good.
Learn from this article the features of this process.
Heat in large breed dogs
Heat in large breed dogs usually begins between 12 and 18 months of age. But the time of the onset of estrus is purely individual and there is no specific period.
A favorable time for conception in large breeds of dogs is considered to be 10-15 days of estrus. The sexual arousal of the female during this period is at the maximum level and it is at this time that it is recommended to bring her with the male.
Stage 1. Proestrus
From the 1st to the 8th day of estrus. The bitch is not ready to accept a dog. she can be either aggressive or too shy.
The discharge is bloody and watery, quite abundant, the dog needs to wear panties or diapers. By the way, you can make them yourself.
Heat in small breed dogs
Heat in small breed dogs begins after about 6 months of life. Usually, the first heat occurs between 6-12 months, for example, in a Yorkshire Terrier, heat begins about a year.
But there is no hard and fast rule. Each animal is individual. At this time, owners of small dogs on walks need to be especially vigilant so that a huge dog does not “roll up” to the bitch, otherwise it can cause serious damage to health.
This is usually the ninth day after the first blood appears.
The female shows signs of sexual prey, but the male will not let the male approach her.
The female shows the greatest sexual activity during the period of estrus from the 10th to the 17th day, and after the 17th day of estrus it becomes more and more calm to the molestation of males and by the end of estrus does not react at all to them.
When does the first heat in dogs begin??
In bitches, puberty begins at the age of about 7 months. 1.5 years (depending on whether the dog is a small or large breed), and is expressed by the fact that the bitch begins to shed heavily.
The first heat, unlike the next, is the shortest. Often only a weak manifestation of it is noted, the so-called hidden puddle. this is a slight release of blood, which attracts little males.
Young bitches, which are close to puberty, have the likelihood of false heat, in this regard, allowing mating, heat can suddenly interrupt without ovulation. But after a few days the bitch can go hunting again and already with ovulation. Signs of heat in a bitch are spotting from the noose, which is attractive to males.
Stage 3. Diestrus
This period is also called metaestrus. from the 17th to the 23rd day of estrus. The bitch still admits the male, but the discharge from the loop is less intense, the desire for mating in the bitch is also less pronounced.
At this time, mating is possible, but it is not recommended to carry out it. Offspring may not be as healthy, not as purebred as expected.
Factors affecting the duration of estrus
How long the estrus phase of an animal will last depends primarily on the breed. In addition, the duration of this period is influenced by:
- hormones. The more often the bitch was in contact with males (or lives in the same room with them), the longer the estrus will be;
- heredity. Like many other traits, estrus depends on a set of genes derived from ancestors;
- lighting. The longer the daylight hours, the longer heat will last.
How dogs are in heat
The first estrus in dogs occurs between the ages of 6 months and even up to 2 years. This is influenced by the breed of the animal and genetic inheritance. Most often this is a period from six months to a year. Heat is the period of sexual activity in females during which the animal can become pregnant.
The estrus period is very important for every dog.
Important! It must be remembered that the appearance of estrus in a female does not indicate her readiness for mating. Experienced breeders and veterinarians advise not to rush into the procedure and not to mate with dogs younger than 14-15 months, as well as older than 7 years.
According to its characteristic features, the estrus period is divided into several periods:
- Proestrus. duration from 7 to 10 days. It is characterized by changes in both the behavior of the animal and specific physiological processes. The animal begins to demand increased attention to itself, to put marks during the walk, however, the males are not yet allowed to come near it. During this period, the bitch’s loop is characterized by swelling, then bloody discharge begins.
- Estrus is the period during which there is the greatest likelihood of conception.
- Metestrus. At this stage, the state of the uterus and the loop is normalized, returning to natural. The discharge disappears, and the behavior becomes characteristic of the animal. Sometimes there are cases that a dog, upon completion of the estrus process, even if fertilization has not occurred, may show symptoms of a false pregnancy.
During estrus, the character of the animal changes.
How long does estrus last for small breed dogs and how often does it happen?
The estrus period is very important in the life of any dog breed. It is at this time that an unwanted pregnancy, an unforeseen health problem, can occur. Therefore, owners of dogs of all breeds, especially small ones, should have information about the signs, duration of the period and characteristics of estrus in different breeds of dogs.
Duration of estrus in different breeds
It is difficult to answer the question how many times a year a dog is in heat and how long this period lasts. The process is influenced by a large number of factors, both external and related to the individual characteristics of the animal. The formation of the cycle occurs after 2-3 estrus. Therefore, owners need to keep appropriate records to control the process.
A dog’s heat: how long does it last and how often it happens
How often dogs are in heat depends on the conditions in which they live. So, in adult animals living in the house, it occurs twice a year. But for dogs leading a more active lifestyle in a private home, one estrus per year is characteristic.
Important! The same applies to service dogs, which get a lot of physical activity during frequent training.
Small dogs start earlier in heat.
How long does estrus last in a dog?
Estrus usually lasts an average of 3-10 days. The first heat is characterized by its faster completion. During this period, the behavior of the animal changes dramatically, which is impossible not to notice. Even the most modest and calm dogs begin to show signs of attention to males, take a characteristic pose, arch their tail.
Note! The animal begins to place marks literally at every step, and some bitches may even lick the marks left by the dog.
Physiological changes consist in the fact that the discharge loses its intense color, becomes more scarce (it is a smeared discharge of a slightly pink color), or even disappears altogether. The loop becomes loose and soft. It is during the estrus period that ovulation occurs. the eggs leave the ovaries and mature in the uterus.
What to do during heat: rules for the owner
Owners of Yorkshire Terriers, Cocker Spaniels, Pomeranians, Dachshunds, Miniature Schnauzers, French Bulldogs, Yorkies and other small breeds most often prepare in advance for the upcoming estrus of their pets and look for a suitable groom for them. Therefore, at the onset of the expected period and in the absence of contraindications, animals are mated.
Given the considerable cost of many small breeds, with insufficient experience of the owner of the dogs in this matter, they often resort to the help of professional breeders and mating specialists in order to avoid undesirable consequences.
During estrus, animals are advised to wear special panties.
If the owners’ plans do not include breeding offspring, then the bitch during this period will have to be very carefully monitored, literally without taking his eyes off her. It is imperative to walk on a leash, limiting contact with males as much as possible. Also, dogs should not be allowed to sit on a dog, since in this case it will be almost impossible to interrupt sexual intercourse.
How and when to breed your dogs
Note! The estrus period can go unnoticed if the dog is a small breed. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor whether slightly distinguishable pink discharge appears.
What to do in case of complications
During and after estrus, the likelihood of various health problems in your dog increases. This is due to the fact that during this period the animal’s body is more susceptible to many infections, since pathogenic microorganisms can penetrate deep into the tissues through the opening channels.
- other animals;
- walking down the street;
- contact with the ground and grass;
- active games.
To avoid unpleasant situations and prevent the development of possible complications, the owners need to pay attention to:
- the nature of the discharge;
- features of the color of the discharge and their possible change;
- their frequency and quantity;
- the appearance of an unpleasant odor.
Important! If the condition of the animal raises questions, and this is accompanied by loss of appetite, increased thirst, rapid fatigability, then you need to urgently consult a veterinarian.
It would be much better if the fears are not confirmed than to miss the onset of a serious illness, which can have serious consequences for the pet’s health and may even cause its death.
During estrus, the animal must be carefully observed and not bathed in a river or lake.
How long does estrus last in small breed dogs depends on the heredity and characteristics of the breed. The term when it appears for the first time is also individual. Every dog owner, regardless of whether it is Amstaff, Husky, German Shepherd, Labrador or Chihuahua, needs to know about the main symptoms of estrus and how to behave. After all, such a state is a very important period in the life of every animal. You should especially be wary of possible complications during estrus, as they can have serious consequences for the pet’s health. And for owners of small breed dogs, be sure to remember that their animal’s heat can pass imperceptibly.
When dogs are in heat
The time of the onset of the first estrus in dogs depends on such nuances as breed, conditions of detention, nutrition, heredity.
Small breed dogs (Yorkies, Chihuhua, Toy Terrier, Spitz, Pekingese, French Bulldog) first begin to show readiness for reproduction at 7-8 months. Sometimes the symptoms of sexual desire may start sooner or later.
In medium-sized breeds (spaniels, American bulldogs, pit bull terriers, etc.), the puddle begins a little later than in small or dwarf breeds. The optimal onset time is 7-10 months. If the female is not in heat by the age of 1 year, she should be shown to the veterinarian.
The first estrus in dogs of large breeds (alabai, husky, husky, shepherd, labrador) occurs at 1-1.5 years.
Despite the fact that young bitches show a desire for mating, their body is not yet ready to bear puppies. Mental and physiological maturation, when the dog is ready to become a mother, he comes on 2 or 3 estrus, regardless of breed.
At what age to knit an animal depends on its breed and the time of the onset of the first estrus. For representatives of small and medium-sized breeds, it is advisable to carry out the first mating only on the 3rd heat. By this time, animals have reached the age of 18-20 months.
Large pets can be knitted with the onset of 2 pets. It is important that by this time the dog is at least 18 months old. Experienced breeders recommend mating bitches of large breeds no earlier than the age of 2.5 years.
It is important for the owner of the pet not to miss the beginning of the first estrus, if in the future he wants to receive offspring from the dog. It is sometimes very difficult to determine the beginning of a puddle for the first time. an animal may not show obvious signs of sexual heat.
You can find out about the onset of estrus by symptoms such as frequent licking of the noose, a playful mood. During the first heat, bitches often experience so-called juvenile vaginitis, in which scanty purulent discharge flows from the vulva.
How often bitches are in heat
The frequency of leaks is 1 time in 6-8 months. A deviation from the norm is the absence of estrus for more than 9 months.
If estrus is frequent (once every 12-16 weeks), the female should be shown to the veterinarian.
How to tell if a dog is in heat
The behavior of the dog before estrus (proestrus) changes. She urinates frequently and is restless. The animal’s appetite increases. An additional sign of the onset of sexual heat is excessive molting.
During proestrus, the female flirts with males and even with other bitches, wags her tail, crouches her chest to the ground, presses her ears. However, he does not admit males to himself. Discharges from the loop (especially in small breeds) may not be noticed by the owner, since a clean animal often licks them.
The behavior of a dog during estrus (estrus phase) also has its own characteristics. The female looks active, but at the same time loses her appetite (eats poorly or refuses to eat at all), may whine.
If they touch the croup of the animal (near the root of the tail) and move the finger of the other hand in the vulva area, the bitch assumes a posture typical for mating:
- falls on the front legs;
- takes the tail to the side;
- a wave of muscle contractions passes along the back.
The animal stands firmly on its hind legs and twitches the loop, lifting it up. With estrus, the discharge is pale pink or colorless. The female allows the males to come to her and is ready to mate. During this period, there is a high probability of pregnancy.
Sometimes bitches have latent heat, in which the animal does not have a discharge. Often arises in the first puddle. In this case, the female is capable of conceiving.
It is possible to understand that the dog is out of heat by the following signs: the animal becomes calm, does not allow males to come, appetite returns, the discharge completely stops.
What is estrus in dogs
Heat in dogs is a physiological process that takes place in the body of a bitch, during which she shows readiness to reproduce. Occurs at the age of 6 months to a year. depends on the specific breed (read more below).
- metaestrus (diestrus);
Proestrus or forerunner is accompanied by a thickening of the uterine lining. In this phase, the first signs of estrus appear in the dog: there is spotting, the loop looks swollen and tense. The bitch becomes playful, but does not let the males near her. The duration of proestrus is 1-1.5 weeks.
Estrus, or heat, is the phase of the estrous cycle when the uterus is ready to receive an embryo. The color of the selection changes from red to yellow. The swollen loop noticeably increases in size, becomes lethargic (see photo). The female is ready to mate.
The estrus stage in dogs lasts on average 2-4 days. Sometimes it lasts from 9 to 16 days, which is the norm. There is a high likelihood of puberty in case of mating.
Metaestrus or post-flow is accompanied by attenuation of sexual activity. The uterus at this time is waiting for the embryo, the loop becomes smaller. The female loses interest in the opposite sex, but she can still attract males to her. The bitch does not allow males to approach her and is aggressive towards them. Post-production ends after 8-12 weeks.
Most often, during the metaestrus phase, a false pregnancy is ascertained in dogs, which is associated with an increased amount of progesterone in the blood.
Anestrus, or sexual rest, lasts 3 to 6 months. Its duration largely depends on factors such as the time of the year, health status, conditions of detention, and nutrition of the animal. Then the estrous cycle resumes.
How to help your dog
If the owner does not plan to mate the dog, medications are used to interrupt estrus:
- Sex barrier;
- Sex Control;
To interrupt estrus, the remedy is given no later than the second day after the start of sexual estrus within 5-7 days. You cannot give drugs in the first pause.
To delay estrus before the expected onset of sexual heat, sex barrier agents are given in 1-2 weeks.
Veterinarians do not recommend overusing hormonal drugs and advise using them in extreme cases. Regular use of remedies for estrus leads to hormonal disruptions in the dog and the development of pathologies of the reproductive system: polycystic ovaries, neoplasms, inflammatory diseases of the endometrium, etc.
The use of sex-barrier drugs will be relevant when visiting exhibitions during the onset of estrus, or if the dog behaves very restlessly these days: whines, completely refuses to eat, behaves inadequately during walks.
How many days do dogs have estrus?
Signs of sexual heat begin to appear 2 weeks before the onset of the estrus cycle, when the dog is ready to mate and may become pregnant.
The duration of the heat itself is from 2 to 4 days. In some cases, estrus lasts up to 14-16 days. How long hunting lasts also largely depends on the length of daylight hours, age, care and nutrition.
In time, the cycle takes no more than 1 month, after which sexual rest occurs. The “rest” phase lasts from 4 to 8 months. For the first time, the sexual hunt can last only 1 week.
Calm behavior of the pet, restoration of appetite and lack of interest in the opposite sex indicate that estrus has passed.
Prolonged estrus is considered when estrus occurs for more than a month. The condition is often caused by hormonal disorders or internal pathologies. In this case, it is necessary to examine the dog in a veterinary clinic.
How old is sex hunt for bitches
The estrous cycle in a female does not stop throughout her life. In older bitches, the signs of sexual heat may be less pronounced and less frequent. Nevertheless, the dog retains reproductive ability. Therefore, the owner needs to monitor the animal: walk with the pet on a leash, keep the males out, use protective equipment against unwanted mating.
Complete cessation of leaks in a female “aged” indicates the presence of pathologies of the thyroid gland or genitourinary system.