Diseases and their prevention: how to care for sick animals?
Many people ask the question. what diseases are inherent in chinchilla and what control measures, prevention should be used to prevent? In the list of the most common diseases, veterinarians identified the following:
- Upset gastrointestinal tract. The root cause is poor-quality feed, with an expired shelf life, improper feeding regime, when there is an excess of dry or juicy food, a sharp change in diet and diet. As a result, the animal is diagnosed with constipation or diarrhea, inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, when the feces come with blood blotches. Be sure to show the animal to the doctor. he will examine your pet, recommend a course of treatment and diet.
- The chinchilla gnaws at its own fur, or if there are several animals in the cage, then each other. The reasons for this behavior are different. itchy skin or harmful insects, a lack of certain vitamins in the diet, especially protein. Show the animal to a doctor who will conduct an examination and take tests, or change the diet by introducing vitamin supplements into it, and also clean the cage more often.
- Dystrophy of liver cells due to its obesity. here liver cells are replaced by adipose tissue. The reason is rancid, poor-quality food, when the chinchilla’s body does not absorb carotene, excessively fatty food, a large amount of nuts and seeds. The animal was simply fed. reconsider the diet, minimizing fatty foods, choosing only high-quality, fresh food, and also put the wheel in the cage for your pet’s sports activities.
- The formation of stones in the genitourinary system. the cause may be an improper diet. It is possible to identify stones by means of ultrasound. if they are small, when it is rather sand, then it will leave the body itself, if their size is larger, they are removed surgically.
- Sunstroke or hypothermia. the reasons are the wrong temperature regime for keeping the animal. Accordingly, remove the animal from a room that is too hot for it, from the sun, or transfer it to a warmer room. With such a problem, the animal will constantly lie down, its breathing becomes intermittent and difficult, loss of consciousness. if this does not help, then it is worth showing the chinchilla to the veterinarian who will prescribe drugs that increase blood flow and respiration.
- Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyes of a chinchilla. The reason may be trauma or chemical irritants, bacteria. show the animal to a doctor who will prescribe treatment. In addition, clean it in the cage and treat it with antiseptics, and as a preventive measure and treatment, rinse the eyes with a 3% solution of boric acid, or with a decoction of chamomile, plus drops, which include antibiotics.
- Catarrh of the nose. this disease in chinchilla manifests itself when the weather changes, with sharp fluctuations in temperature, if there is a strong draft in the room. In this case, mucus will flow from the nasal passages of the animal, the eyes are watery, and white or yellow discharge accumulates in the corners, the chinchilla eats little, frequent breathing and an increase in temperature aggravate its condition. In this case, keep the animal in a dry room, rinse the eyes with a solution of boric acid, give food rich in vitamin C, consult a veterinarian.
- Wounds that occur as a result of trauma to animals between themselves during a fight, or in contact with the sharp edge of the shelf in the cage. If the wounds are superficial, they heal on their own, without assistance, but if this is a deep wound, consult a doctor for washing and processing, in order to avoid infection and inflammation.
- Dental problems. As the animal grows, chinchillas may develop dental problems. overgrowth and periodontal disease. The growth of teeth and the inability of the animal to grind them down leads to problems with bite and nutrition, chewing food and, as a result, problems with the gastrointestinal tract. Remember that chinchillas’ teeth have an open root. so they grow constantly, and if there is a lack of vitamins A and D, calcium in the diet, teeth will grow too quickly. In this case, it is worth correcting the teeth. simply by cutting them off in a medical facility and constantly giving the animal hard twigs and products for grinding teeth.
Cage equipment: how to keep it clean?
With regard to the equipment of the cage and what should be in it, it is recommended to put in it a small house where the animal can retire, wooden shelves and ladders for games, a hanging drinking bowl and a feeder, which are attached from the outside.
It is recommended to put salt and mineral stones in the cage. they serve the animal as a natural sharpener for teeth and source of salt and vitamins in the body, sennitsa with dry hay and grass, and it is recommended to cover the floor of the cage with a special filler made of wood and does not stick to the animal’s legs.
If the size of the cage allows, you can install a running wheel, toys made of wood, preferably birch, but not pine or spruce, rings and a hammock. It is also worth learning the rules regarding what cannot be done with chinchillas.
What can not be done to extend the life of the animal?
First of all, it is worth remembering that it is forbidden to bathe chinchillas in the water, since there is special sand for this, in which the animal splashes with pleasure. You should not keep it in a tight, small cage. this is an active rodent and a sedentary lifestyle will lead to obesity and death.
At the same time, it is important for the chinchilla to move upward, move from the upper to the lower shelf and vice versa, and therefore it is optimal to choose a high cage shape rather than an oblong.
You should not let this handsome man walk around the apartment on your own. as a result, spoiled furniture, wiring and books are provided to you.
Also, do not give the chinchilla often eat a lot of nuts and fresh feed. the optimal diet is granulated feed, hay. Nuts, fresh fruits, seeds should serve as such a delicacy, rather than an everyday diet.
If you have purchased a pair of chinchillas, then never place a female with a male, especially if the boy is older and the girl is less than 6 months old. At this time, the female is not yet ready for childbirth, and therefore early pregnancy will only lead to problems with her health.
Organization of a place for chinchilla
Try to travel less with chinchillas. for them the slightest noise, squabbles and moving are another stress that does not affect the pet in the best way.
Chinchilla does not tolerate cold and therefore keeping it in a room where it is below 14 degrees is fatal, although you should not overdo it with heat either, since these rodents react very painfully to overheating, as well as the sun’s rays, which can lead to heat or sunstroke.
How to feed a chinchilla and how many times a day?
Chinchillas belong to the order of herbivores, they are real representatives of the rodent family. at home, this moment should be taken into account and the appropriate diet should be selected.
Many experts do not recommend buying and giving vitamins to chinchilla separately, although during pregnancy and feeding the offspring, the female can be transferred to a vitamin-enhanced diet.
As an additive, you can also add birch or willow twigs, raspberry twigs or apple, currant or linden. In no case do not give branches of oak and cherry, as well as trees that emit resin. pine, spruce.
Clean, boiled or filtered water must be present in the cage. in nature chinchillas get it from food, but due to the fact that at home the animal receives dry food, moisture is simply necessary for it.
Correct organization of food chinchilla
You can feed the animal with flax seeds or corn grains, leaves of fresh and young nettles or dandelion, strawberries, also periodically give it pieces of dried sweet apple and carrots, pears, a few raisins. But to introduce fresh apple, cabbage and nuts into the diet is undesirable and even contraindicated.
Speaking about what should be excluded from the diet of chinchillas, in addition to all of the above, never give your pet fried seeds and grains, nuts. they are served fresh, but not fried. You should not give food from your own table. Loafs and biscuits. it is optimal to give wheat croutons and even then infrequently.
How to keep a chinchilla at home?
A couple of centuries ago, chinchillas were on the verge of extinction. it was destroyed because of the very valuable fur, but gradually the situation changed for the better for the animal, and from the status of a hunting trophy, this rodent migrated to our homes into the status of a pet and everyone’s favorite.
But in order for the animal to feel comfortable, healthy and cheerful, it is worth knowing how to properly feed it, how to feed it and whether it is possible to breed it at home?
And caring for your chinchilla at home
So, how to keep a chinchilla at home, for example in an apartment? The lifespan of a chinchilla at home for this cute rodent can be 25 or more years, which distinguishes it favorably from the usual hamsters and guinea pigs that live no more than 5 years.
It is best to buy a chinchilla at the age of 2 months. the animal will get used to the new environment and owners faster than an adult and matured one.
If you have purchased a small rodent and wondered. is it possible to tame it, then, of course, you can. In the early days, just leave the animal alone. it will get used to the new home, smells and you.
Gradually begin to tame him, to your hands. go to the cage and in the palm of your hand in front of the open door of the cage offer the chinchilla a treat, such as a piece of sweet apple.
The animal will certainly take it from its hand, even if not immediately, so in a few days. a tamed chinchilla will often sit on your shoulder and joyfully react to your attention to its person. Trust me, caring for her is not that difficult.
There are rules and recommendations regarding the choice and arrangement of the cage. At the very beginning, the size of the cage per animal is 60 by 50 cm, with a height of 60 and more cm.All locks and locks are durable, preferably not wooden, but metal, since the chinchilla is a rodent and soon only wooden rods can remain some sawdust.
It is best to place the cage away from central heating batteries, while the temperature in the room should be within 20-22 degrees, without draft and away from direct sunlight.
Chinchillas of different colors
The animal bathes in special sand, but not in water. it is not recommended to put a font with sand in a cage, but it should be kept separately, giving the animal a so-called “bath day” at intervals of 2-3 days.
Breeding animals at home in an apartment
How to keep a chinchilla at home? If you want to support a family of chinchillas and start breeding them, it is worth taking into account a few points and rules. First of all, in chinchilla families it is matriarchy, the supremacy of the female, and therefore it is recommended to plant the female to the male on his territory, but if the sharing takes place on its territory, the couple should be given time to get used to each other, so to speak.
In this case, put the cage with the male next to the cage with the female for a couple of days, and only then put them together. If the animals behave aggressively, separate them into the cages for a while and so on until they peacefully coexist in a pair. The main thing is to carry out everything under your own control, so that the animals in the fight do not hurt each other.
The male reaches puberty at the age of 8-9 months, the female. at 7-8, while the duration of the female’s sexual cycle is about 40-50 days, while estrus lasts 3-4 days. The female bears offspring for 105-110 days. during this period it is recommended to give her enhanced nutrition, especially if the animal’s first pregnancy.
1-2 cubs are born, less often. 3 or more, and in caring for the offspring, the male manifests itself as a rather caring dad. But if you do not want the chinchilla to become pregnant again, it is recommended to move the male to another cage for the period of caring for the offspring.
Chinchilla in a properly equipped cage
Babies are born already covered with wool, with open eyes and can move themselves. their weight varies from 30 to 70 grams and their weight depends on the number of cubs in the litter.
If the female gave birth to 2, then there is no need to feed them, but if 3 or more, artificial feeding from a pipette with milk mixtures will save the babies. In order for the female to release more milk. give 1-2 raisins a day, and after 2 months, the babies can be removed from the mother.
As you can see, caring for a chinchilla at home is not that difficult. Chinchilla in the house, caring for it and reproduction is an activity that everyone can do. And the joy of caring for a small, fluffy animal, you will get a lot.
How much feed does a rabbit need, feeding regimen
Features of the structure of the digestive tract of rabbits are that the muscles of the digestive system are poorly developed. For the full advancement of a portion of food through the intestines, the animal needs to absorb new volumes of food, which push the previously eaten food. The process of complete digestion of food takes 5-7 hours, which means that it is necessary to feed the rabbits several times a day.
Winter and summer diet
The difference between the animal’s diet in summer and the menu at other times of the year is the presence of fresh grass, which is replaced by roughage. Due to the large amount of moisture in the grass and the low nutritional value (100 g of grass contains only 22 feed units), the daily menu of the animals requires adjustment. Root crops are removed from the diet, and the amount of grass, in comparison with hay, is increased.
An example of a summer menu for an adult male weighing 5 kg:
- Lightly dried grass. 600-800 g;
- Oats and barley grains. 100 g.
For lactating females, the following diet is offered:
- Withered grass of legumes and cereals. up to 1500 g;
- Compound feed. 200-300 g;
- Table salt. 2 g.
The nutritional value and fodder value of leguminous plants (alfalfa, sainfoin, timothy) is much higher than that of meadow grass. Forest is considered the most “empty”, it is required for the animals to saturate most of all.
It is recommended to feed rabbits at least twice in summer.
In addition to grass, branch feed is used in feeding the livestock. young leafy shoots of trees and shrubs. Their nutritional value is approximately equal to that of medium quality herbs. In addition to saturation, twigs provide fun for rabbits and help to strengthen teeth.
Norms in different physiological stages
If rabbits in a state of rest need to be fed twice a day, then females and mothers with calves are offered food 3-4 times a day. In this case, the total amount of food that the rabbit is supposed to eat per day is divided into parts. In the morning, at lunchtime and in the evening, the animals are fed equal amounts of food, and at night they are given a third of the daily norm. Rabbits are nocturnal animals should be able to eat as much as they need.
During lactation, a female with 7–8 calves should receive from 320 to 350 g of feed units, about 40 g of digestible protein. Usually, lactating rabbits are given daily:
- Hay. 250-350 g;
- Grain mixture or mixed feed. 200-280 g;
- Juicy feed. 300 g.
At night, the animals are given half the norm of hay and grain, 20% of root crops.
It is recommended that rabbits, which were transplanted from their mother at the age of 60 days, be given 180 g of feed units. This means that for each animal it is supposed to issue:
- Hay. 70-90 g;
- Grain mixtures. 110-120 g;
- Root crops. 100 g.
Dry compound feed does not deteriorate, animals themselves regulate the consumption of the product during the day. Water is supplied to drinking bowls. Juicy feed in this case does not give.
Subtleties of meat feeding
An animal that is required to quickly build muscle mass needs highly nutritious food. The diet uses:
- Hay of legumes;
- Special compound feed for fattening or grain mixture (barley, corn, peas, wheat);
- Boiled potatoes. in the final stages of growing.
These foods are high in energy and contain more protein than other foods.
A young fattening rabbit eats 80 to 250 g of compound feed per day. To save time, you can feed the livestock once a day, pouring the entire daily rate at once. To prevent the animals from scattering food, use bunker feeders “non-sprinkling”.
How many times a day to feed the rabbit
To maintain the health of the animal, you must adhere to the feeding regime. It consists of a constant time for giving food and the same number of meals from day to day. On a home farm, the animals are given food 2-3 times a day.
Each individual needs a different amount of food depending on age, size and physiological condition. The calculation of the need for food is made based on the nutritional value of different types of feed: hay, grain, root crops. The nutritional value is usually expressed in feed units. One feed unit is nutritionally equivalent to 1 kg of oats. The amount of protein, fat, minerals and carbohydrates in the feed is also important, as well as energy. Energy value is expressed in kilo or megajoules.
An average adult rabbit weighing 5 kg needs to consume daily:
- For 160 g of feed units;
- 1.67 MJ energy;
- Digestible protein. at least 22 g.
The tables showing the nutritional value and energy value of the feed will help you to independently compose a diet for each animal.
How many times a day do you need to feed decorative rabbits
Dwarf domestic animals are given food 2-3 times a day, although one-time feeding can be done. But the process of dispensing food is one of the stages of communication with a pet, contributing to the taming of the animal to the owner, therefore, this mode is rarely resorted to.
Rabbits weighing 1.5–2 kg eat 40–60 g of a special grain mixture, about 150 g of hay and 30–50 g of vegetables and fruits per day. This amount is distributed throughout the day as follows:
- In the morning, give half the feed rate and a third of hay;
- For lunch. juicy food;
- At night. leftovers of grain and hay.
How much to feed rabbits at one time
The rabbit eats almost constantly during the day. this is its physiology. He cannot overeat, therefore, it is allowed to set food once a day. An exception is the introduction of new products and the habit of fresh grass after hay. In this case, the animals are fed into the diet gradually.
With two meals a day, the amount of concentrates and juicy feed is divided into two equal parts. A third of the daily amount of hay is set in the morning, and two-thirds at night, when animals eat rough food especially actively.
It is important to give the animals enough food to keep their digestive system working properly. The feeding regimen and a full-fledged diet are the key to the health of rabbits and good weight gain in the livestock.
Meat breeds are grown according to a specific pattern. It is important not only to gain weight in a few weeks, but also to get an excellent ratio of meat and body condition. Experienced breeders recommend starting the process 42 days before the intended slaughter.
What and how many times a day to feed rabbits? than 50% of the menu consists of concentrates, and to increase fat, it is recommended to give boiled potatoes, corn and barley. Sometimes peas and oats are allowed, and parsley, dill are mixed with hay.
The animals should move less and gain weight faster. To do this, their movement is limited to a cage in which no more than 6 eared heads sit. They are sent for slaughter after individuals become lazy and have little interest in food.
Features of the menu of young animals
Feeding rabbits has its own subtleties. It is better to plant babies in the period from 30 to 45 days after birth. If breast milk is deprived at an earlier age, the digestive system of young people will not have time to form properly. Any “adult” diet is not suitable for eating crumbs, so everything new is introduced gradually.
Feeding young rabbits
Experienced farmers prefer to use granular concentrate. The daily feed rate for young rabbits is (in grams per head):
- Up to 2 months. from 85 to 125;
- Up to 90 days. from 130 to 170;
- From week 13. from 180 to 200.
By the way, the menu can be diversified with herbs and hay. The compound feed is reduced to 85%, and the remaining 15% is used for grass. In the morning they give half the daily allowance of dry food, and in the evening root vegetables are added to the remainder. During the day, it is recommended not to forget about silage. Wet types of food are given in such a way that they are eaten for 1.5 hours.
In cold seasons, animals are often deficient in vitamins. Trace elements A, D, E and B12 must be added to the daily feed requirements for rabbits. High-quality hay and fermented green fodder will provide the body with important components. Fish oil is added once a day (in grams per head):
- For rabbits. 0.5;
- Lactating females. 3;
- Pregnant women. 2;
- Other animals. 1.
Sprouted grains are rich in vitamin E, so they are regularly given to both toddlers and adults. If you don’t have time to grow greens, then sometimes it can be replaced with yeast. Within 5 days, one individual is fed up to 6 g of bakery product. Then they take a break for 72 hours and repeat again.
How to feed rabbits in winter
Turnips, cabbage and dry grass are fermented in barrels for the winter. Add carrots and salt (1% of the total weight). For an adult animal, such food should be no more than 300 g, and for young animals, 100 g per head is enough. To prevent vitamin deficiency, experienced farmers sometimes give needles of coniferous crops.
How much should a rabbit eat in winter? During this period, 50% of the total diet consists of concentrates, and the rest is silage and juicy foods. Excellent digestible carbohydrates that can be obtained from boiled root vegetables.
How many times a day should rabbits be fed
To raise healthy and strong animals, you need to know the characteristics of their diet. How many times a day to feed rabbits? We will analyze what and in what quantity should be given to the eared, so that there are no problems in the future.
Rabbit feeding rules
Rabbits eat very often, so it seems to beginners that the animal is constantly chewing something. Farms prefer two meals a day: morning and evening. At home, three times a day feeding is practiced:
- In winter. at 8, 12 and 17 hours;
- In the summer. at 6, 15 and 19.
In cold weather, in the morning and in the evening, give half the ration of the concentrate (grain) and the same amount of silage. At noon it is better to feed with root vegetables. In warm seasons, dry food (50%) and grass are preferred at the beginning and end of the day. Dried greens are divided into 3 servings and added each time.
This diet will help to quickly build muscle mass in animals. Always check for drinking water. In cold weather, the liquid must be warmed up to room temperature.
Diet during mating
To get healthy and strong rabbits, you need to take care of the condition of future parents. The thin are provided with enhanced nutrition, and the fat ones are transferred to a diet. Lack or excess of fat leads to stillbirth, and males have reduced sperm quality.
Enhanced feeding of emaciated individuals begins one month before the mating period. It is necessary to increase the daily ration, bringing it closer in nutritional value to the menu of foster ladies. Abundance and variety complemented by multivitamins.
To improve the quality of sperm in males, you need to use protein foods. For enrichment, oilseed cake, meat and bone meal and fish meal are added to food. During the mating period, products that promote obesity cannot be used, therefore, exclude:
The vitality of the rabbits depends on the health of the producing animals. It is advised to provide a complete and varied diet with a sufficient amount of useful trace elements. Veterinary supplements can be used at this stage.
What should the rabbit eat during the resting period? The usual diet consists of a third of grain and 70% of hay. They add to food (in grams per head):
- Salt. 1;
- Bone meal. 4;
- Ground shell. 2.
It is difficult for novice livestock breeders to understand the intricacies of breeding, so they often make certain mistakes. You do not need to calculate the ratio of proteins to carbohydrates per month on a calculator. Knowing the basics of feeding can help you avoid trouble.
- Quality products. It is forbidden to give rotten and moldy food. Damp, frozen or frosty food is source of disease.
- A varied menu. Even the most delicious diet quickly becomes boring. Rabbits are more sensitive to food, so it is important to offer them different types.
- Water. Dry food is better absorbed only with an abundance of fresh liquid. The lack of an important element is first of all reflected in the form of constipation and lack of milk in lactating females.
- Food is served at a specific time. Animals quickly get used to the schedule and wait for food.
- You cannot feed all groups equally. The daily allowance for each type of rabbit is different.
The Eared Ears eat at least 30 times in 24 hours. According to Mikhailov’s system, animals have regular access to food. In nature, the rodent constantly finds twigs or grass, so the body receives nutrients in sufficient quantities. In this case, the livestock grows up healthy and strong, without a single hint of obesity.
With cellular maintenance, it is imperative to receive not only plant food, but also animal products. Experienced breeders provide fish oil, bone meal and whole milk with whey. It is useful to give silage with the addition of beets, potatoes and concentrate. Necessarily include trace elements.
Features of the female menu
A pregnant rabbit has a lot. Obese moms find it difficult to give birth. Before okrol, the daily rate is reduced, but starvation is not allowed. Lack of nutrients leads to a delay in the natural development of the fetus.
One rabbit eats 60 to 100 g of vegetable feed (oats, concentrate, legumes) per day. Additionally, sunflower or soybean meal is added. no more than a third of the norm. Since there is no lactation yet, half a kilogram of grass is enough.
Do not forget about carrots and potatoes: 250 g for each head. Fetal females must be given minerals and vitamins, and fish oil and meat and bone meal are suitable as natural supplements. It is important to monitor water quality.
After giving birth, you need to increase lactation. The lactating rabbit eats green grass in summer, and in the cold seasons it is better to give root crops, hay and silage. Feeding rates are increased from 20 to 45 days (in grams per individual):
- Compound feed. 150;
- Juicy menu. 300;
- Grass. 1000.
The little ones watch their mother and soon begin to taste adult food themselves. To prevent the rabbit from starving, it is necessary to add to the daily dose 30 g of concentrate and hay in winter, and in summer. 25 and 60. In this case, you can not worry about the lack of food and a decrease in lactation.
Warm seasons are a great time to diversify the animal menu. The basis of the diet is both grass and leaves of radish, carrots. Eared well absorb branches of fruit tree varieties. It is not forbidden to offer apples, cabbage and their waste.
Sugar and red beets should not be given in large quantities. Foods cause gas to build up, which can lead to bloating. It is allowed to use fodder types of root crops. To improve digestion, give aromatic herbs:
Dried garlic stalks are used to prevent dental problems, and plantain is a natural antibiotic. Young nettle will become a natural source of vitamins. By the way, such a delicacy can be given to both a nursing rabbit and meat species.
How much greenery is allowed per pet? On average, adults eat up to 600 g of grass, rabbits. from 150 g or more. Lactating mothers allow you to double the rate. Using this type of diet reduces dry food intake and saves concentrates.
The puppy needs a special diet that changes as he grows up. He grows 12 times faster than a child.
In the first 3-4 weeks, babies feed on mother’s milk, and there is no need to follow the diet. Dog’s milk is richer in fat and protein than cow’s milk:
- Dog milk: protein 8.1%, fat 9.8%;
- Cow: protein 3.3%, fat 3.8%.
Starting from 1 month, babies are given complementary foods. food granules soaked with water. At the age of 8 weeks, (about 2 months), weaning from breast milk occurs, then the pet switches to the intended diet.
Number of feedings for puppies under 1 year old:
|Puppy age||Feeding schedule|
|up to 1 month||They feed on breast milk on request in any quantity|
|from 1 to 2 months||They are taught to solid food, 5-6 times a day after 3-4 hours, large breeds. 4 times|
|from 3 to 4 months||4 times every 4 hours (1 in the morning, 2 times in the afternoon, 1 in the evening)|
|from 5 to 6 months||3-4 times (1 feeding is gradually removed)|
|from 7 to 10 months||3 times|
|11-12 months||2 times in the morning and in the evening|
As long as the puppy is small, the night break between feeds should be minimal. In the morning they feed for the first time at 6-8 in the morning, and in the evening between 19-22 hours. As a rule, the baby is taken from the mother at 2-3 months. Therefore, a 2-month-old puppy should be fed the last time at 22 pm, and in the morning at 6 am. General rule of thumb: the older the baby, the less frequent his meals.
If the puppy is not ready to cancel 1 feed intake, and by all means shows that he wants more, there is no need to cancel complementary foods. Usually he himself begins to ignore one of the meals, this will be the signal to cancel the portion.
When feeding with natural products, the calculation of the daily food intake is calculated by the formula:
Up to 6 months. 5-7% by weight, of which ½ meat, ½ dairy products, vegetables, cereals. A puppy weighing 10 kg should eat 350 g of meat and offal per day, 350 g of additional products. If the dog missed 1 lunch, you do not need to add an additive to the next feeding, otherwise overeating is possible. For puppies of large breeds, the daily allowance is divided into small portions: too fast weight gain provokes the risk of problems of the musculoskeletal system.
Rates and times of meals
A domestic dog, like a wolf, is capable of absorbing 1/5 of its own weight for 1 meal. A dog’s stomach can stretch significantly. But a domestic dog does not live like a wolf, which feeds for future use, until the next prey. Therefore, the owner must monitor the diet and calorie content of the lunch consumed, since all dogs eat quickly, not noticing the filling of the stomach. According to veterinary statistics, about 20% of domestic dogs aged 1-4 years are overweight.
When the animal grows old, it is fed with the same portions in the same regime, only the calorie content of the diet is reduced. Large individuals need more food to be satiated, but to prevent obesity, they also intentionally reduce the calorie content of portions.
It is better to give food according to the regimen at certain hours, or according to the schedule established by the veterinarian in individual cases. As a rule, pets are fed in the morning 7-8 in the morning, and in the evening, 19-20 hours.
How many times a day should a dog be fed
The features of the dog’s body have long been known, so there is no disagreement on how many times a day to feed the dog among veterinarians.
A healthy adult dog should eat 1-2 times a day.
- Rates and times of meals
- Feeding an adult dog
- Puppy nutrition
- Nutrition for a pregnant dog
- How to tell if your dog has enough food
Nutrition for a pregnant dog
A pregnant and lactating animal should eat in increased portions at a set time. The frequency of feeding is also increased: about 5 times a day. The first 3 weeks of pregnancy do not change the diet of the pregnant bitch. Starting from 4 weeks, the feed volumes increase by 15% of the daily requirement: mainly due to protein supplements of animal origin. Puppies grow intensively in the womb, so the diet of a pregnant woman is supplemented with vitamin supplements. Before the onset of labor, the pregnant woman eats 50-60% more than the usual daily dose. It is important not to overfeed the animal as this will lead to obesity. 2 days before giving birth, the pet may refuse to feed, you should not rape the animal. 2-3 days after giving birth, appetite is restored.
Feeding an adult dog
Pets over 1 year old are fed with food 1-2 times a day, depending on the size. For large animals, it is better to divide food into 2 servings, for medium and small animals. 1 intake is enough.
The amount of food consumed per day depends on the weight of the animal. Manufacturers usually indicate the exact daily dosage on the packaging of dry food.
Large individuals require about 1 kg of food per day, medium-sized ones. To calculate the daily rate, you need to multiply 1 kg of weight by 3.5%. For example, if a dog weighs 20 kg, then he needs 700 g of natural food per day. The animal should not be given sweets, fed with fruits, except for unsweetened apples, tubular bones. Only mushy soft food is suitable, special hard biscuits, dog biscuits are useful from treats for teeth.
If the ward eats quickly and licks the bowl with appetite, it will not be harmful for him to have dinner more than 2 times a day. It is important not to increase the daily allowance, but to divide it into 4 doses instead of 2. In addition, when calculating the daily allowance, it should be borne in mind that you feed the animal with treats during training.
What should be avoided is haphazard, on-demand feeding when the animal has a constant bowl of food. In this case, due to physiology, the dog sometimes cannot comply with the norms, and, therefore, receives a whole set of diseases due to overeating.
How to tell if your dog has enough food
Dogs love to eat, eat quickly, and slowly get satiated. Normally, the pet should quickly eat what was offered, lick the bowl and, looking a little offended at the owner, calmly go back to the place. If he leaves food in a bowl, refuses an additional treat between meals, then the portion can be reduced.
When the pet begins to look around the feeding place with a hungry look, look into the owner’s eyes, and at night rattle bowls in the kitchen: the portion should be increased.
It is possible to determine whether a four-legged friend is well-fed by probing his ribs in a sitting position. Normally they are palpable, do not stick out or hide under a layer of fat.
The puppy must not be fed at the same time as the owners. Food means a lot in the life of an animal. The owner should be the authority, the leader, and the leader, as a rule, dines first. With regular feeding during family meals, the dog is subsequently able to take food from the hands of diners. It happened that animals snatched food from children: these were those to whom the owners threw pieces from the table. The dog is known to protect its food during a meal: it growls, driving everyone away. Therefore, the four-legged friend should be fed after the whole family has eaten and the children should not be allowed near it at that time. Raise the puppy, feed him correctly, and then he will delight you with health, cheerfulness and well-mannered behavior.
A chinchilla’s diet should consist of:
- 20-25 g of finished feed or from the same amount of concentrated feed (grain feed, legumes, oilseeds, bran, cake);
- 20-30 g of hay;
- 4-6 g of green food;
- 4-6 g of additional feed (tree branches);
- 2-4 g of treats;
- 10-25 g water.
From time to time, you can feed the rodents and ready-made rabbit food. In principle, feeding chinchillas is not much different from feeding rabbits. In the summer, the same green grass, vegetables with tops, plant seeds, fruits. In the cold season. hay, twigs of trees (birch, apple, linden, pear, hazelnut, willow, willow), dried fruits (apples, raisins, dried apricots, nuts). Dried fruits are offered to the animal without seeds, finely chopped. The fruits of barberry, rosehip and hawthorn are very useful. They are given one berry 1-2 times a week.
Treats for chinchilla
Now about what can be considered a delicacy for these animals. The thing is necessary. after all, chinchillas are not exactly trainable, but they are quite capable of recognizing the owner and walking into his hands. So, you need an incentive tool.
Fresh vegetables and fruits are a delicacy and should not be substituted for the main feed. The intestines of chinchillas are designed so that juicy feed in large quantities is contraindicated for them. The main thing is not to feed your pet with goodies. A slice of fresh apple or pumpkin, a slice of tangerine, a couple of grapes per week. this is enough to pamper the ward. Once a week, you can give 1-2 raisins and a special supplement with vitamins.
Animals love pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, almonds, peanuts, walnuts. Pumpkin seeds are used not only as a delicacy, but also as a prophylaxis against worms. Pine nuts are high in fat and therefore not recommended. You can offer your pet dry tea leaves or rose petals.
Each time you can diversify the delicacy for the animal: on the first day, give a nut, on the second day. dried apricots, hawthorn fruit or chokeberry, on the third. a slice of apple or melon.
After feeding any new type of sweets, you need to monitor the reaction of the pet’s body. If the animal feels well, it is not tormented by diarrhea or constipation, then this food is not contraindicated for it. It happens that after eating fresh vegetables and fruits, a rodent has a digestive upset. So, you need to give up juicy feed.
Fried seeds and nuts, citruses, cabbage and potatoes, meat, eggs, mushrooms, chips and pastries cannot be used as delicacies! Firstly, all this can cause allergies (up to the loss of hair). Secondly, lead to bowel problems. Thirdly, it contributes to the obesity of the animal, which can be very dangerous for it.
The water in the chinchilla’s drinker should always be fresh with no signs of flowering. It is better to give spring water, but not boiled, since it does not already contain those beneficial trace elements that the body needs. Many breeders and hobbyists use bottled water from companies such as Shishkin Les, Nestlé and others. And, of course, the water must be still.
How to feed a chinchilla?
The basis of the diet of chinchillas as herbivores is plant food. In nature, these rodents feed on herbaceous, cereal and leguminous plants, seeds, fruits, twigs, moss, and roots. That is, those where cellulose is contained in large quantities. Therefore, your pet’s diet must certainly contain hay and twigs.
Green food, vegetables and fruits
The warm season makes it possible to significantly expand the menu of chinchillas. In the spring, the first greens are given very carefully, starting with servings of 1-2 well-dried dandelion leaves per day. So that the animal does not have a swelling of the tummy, the stems of legumes and clover are always used dry or wither. You should not feed the chinchilla only green feed, forgetting about hay. It can lead to gastrointestinal upset.
Here are the characteristics of some plants that will be useful to include in the diet of chinchillas:
- Salad is a storehouse of vitamins and mineral salts. The pet can be given 1-2 leaves a day;
- Spinach is rich in easily digestible iron, contains sodium and lime. Spinach is thought to increase fertility in rodents. You can give 3-4 leaves a day;
- Chicory. contains a lot of phosphorus, which is especially needed by growing organisms. The cleansing plant acts on the stomach, regulates the liver, increases appetite;
- Strawberry leaves. have a diuretic effect, help with diarrhea. May be given for indigestion;
- Celery. contains vitamins A, B, C. Very useful for lactating females, 2 leaves 2 times a week;
- Wormwood. increases appetite, strengthens the nervous system. The pet is given several branches per week.
In addition, the animals are happy to eat plantain leaves, yarrow, burdock, young nettle, horse sorrel, dandelion.
From vegetables and fruits, you can give carrots, pumpkins, squash, apples, pears, bell peppers, bananas, grapes, figs, zucchini, potatoes, tomatoes, peaches, apricots, melons, watermelons, etc. Fresh cabbage leaves are not recommended for chinchilla.
Grain feed in the chinchilla diet
From grain feeds, chinchillas can be given the following:
- Oats. contains proteins, fats, vitamins B1, B2, B6, K, carotene. With indigestion, mucous substances contained in broth and oatmeal are useful. Usually oats are used as the basis for a grain mixture;
- Barley is a valuable grain product; contains vitamins A, D, E, PP, B vitamins, as well as calcium, zinc, potassium, phosphorus, iron, copper, manganese, iodine, etc. It consists of 6% fiber, necessary for animals. It is given to adults and is better ground;
- Buckwheat is a valuable dietary product. Rich in amino acids, vitamins (B1, B2, B6, PP, P) and trace elements. As a complex carbohydrate, buckwheat gives a feeling of fullness for a long time;
- Corn is rich in protein, but it is worse in composition than oat protein. It should be given carefully, in excessive quantities, it can cause bloating;
- Wheat. contains enough protein and carbohydrates and little fat. Also, the animals can be offered wheat bran mixed with grain;
- Millet. especially useful red varieties containing a large amount of carotene. However, chinchillas do not like it too much.
You should not constantly give one type of grain feed, it is better to feed the chinchillas a grain mixture (various types of grain, legumes, seeds).
You can offer pets and cereals (oat, corn, rice, millet). Young individuals grow well on porridges (they absorb them better than whole grains).
Very useful for rodents and sprouted grain, especially during the breeding season. Usually sprout barley, oats, wheat.
With great pleasure, animals eat seeds. They contain essential fatty acids that have a positive effect on the skin and fur of animals. However, due to its high fat content, it is not recommended to give too much of them. The proportion of sunflower seeds should not exceed 20% of the total grain feed. They are only given raw.
Legumes. Beans, lentils, peas, soybeans contain more protein than all grain products. They need to be included in the diet of chinchillas, but not in pure form, but as part of a grain mixture. The share of legumes should be 10-15%. They are given in a ground form.
Nuts are very nutritious food. Chinchillas love them. But you can give them quite a bit and no more than twice a week, otherwise digestive upset cannot be avoided. Of course, the nuts must be raw.
Rodent feeding: hay for chinchillas
Hay is the most important part of the chinchilla’s diet. Most experts believe that there should always be hay in the cage of these rodents so that the animals can eat as much as they wish. It is rich in fiber so necessary for animals.
Properly prepared high-quality hay smells good, without sticks, debris and other impurities. Wet and moldy animals are not suitable for food.
The best is hay made from leguminous herbs (clover, vetch alfalfa). It contains vitamins and minerals (phosphorus and calcium) necessary for animals. Plus, it is very nutritious and contains ample amounts of digestible protein. Leguminous grasses should be mown in the budding phase, or at the beginning of flowering.
The best time for mowing cereals is the heading phase. Grain hay (meadow fescue, timothy grass, hedgehog, meadow bluegrass) is somewhat inferior to legume hay (it contains less protein and minerals).
Forbs hay is very nutritious if it contains legumes and grasses, as well as bird buckwheat, meadow goat, etc. Before flowering, herbs are especially rich in vitamins and nutrients. Therefore, the hay should consist of forbs cut before the first flowering of the grasses. Late cut grasses have low nutritional value.
In hay for chinchillas, fern, rush, dope, black nightshade, euphorbia, horsetail, white hellebore, henbane, cornflower, raven eye and other poisonous plants should not get into the hay.
What you can’t feed chinchillas?
Rodents should not be given:
- Food from the human table with salt, spices, sugar, animal products, fats, etc.;
- Baking, loaf;
- Roasted nuts, grains, seeds;
- Rye grain;
- Spoiled foods.
And finally, we note that the stability of the diet is important for the well-being of the animal. It is not necessary to change the feed that the ward is used to very often. It is better to transfer the pet to new food gradually, within 1-2 weeks. Do not forget, chinchilla is a delicate animal. And above all, it concerns feeding. The stomach of a fluffy pet is very sensitive to dietary disturbances. And feeding errors can lead to serious health problems for the chinchilla.