### Formulas

- V = abh, where:
- A. base length (m),
- B. base width (m),
- H. height (m),
- V. Volume (m3).

Using the formula for calculating the volume of a box, we get:

V = abh = 0.30.250.15 = 0.0112 m 3.

This method can be used when calculating the volume of a parallelepiped, that is, for rectangular and square boxes.

## How to **calculate** the volume of a box

To correctly determine the capacity and the required container dimensions for the cargo, you should **calculate** the **volume** of the box.

## Counting the volume of a box in liters

We find the cubic capacity V = abh = 0.30.250.15 = 0.0112 m 3;

Knowing the equality: 1 m 3 = 1000 l, we translate the resulting value into liters: V = 0.0112 1000 = 1.2 l.

## How to **calculate** the volume of a box in M 3

How to calculate the volume of the box? In order for the load to fit into the box without problems, its **volume** must be calculated using the internal dimensions.

Use an online calculator to **calculate** the volume of a cube or parallelepiped box. It will help speed up the settlement process.

The cargo that needs to be placed in a container can be of a simple or complex configuration. The dimensions of the box should be 8-10 mm larger than the most protruding points of the load. This is necessary so that the item can easily fit into the container.

The outer dimensions are used when calculating the volume of boxes in order to competently fill the space in the body of the transport for transportation. They are also needed to calculate the area and volume of the warehouse required for their storage.

First, we measure the length (a) and width (b) of the box. For this we will use a tape measure or a ruler. The result can be written down and converted into meters. We will use the international measurement system SI. According to it, the volume of the container is calculated in cubic meters (m 3). For containers whose sides are less than a meter, it is more convenient to measure in centimeters or millimeters. It should be borne in mind that the dimensions of the cargo and the box must be in the same units. For square boxes, length equals width.

Then we will measure the height (h) of the existing container ─ the distance from the bottom valve of the box to the top.

If you made measurements in millimeters, and the result must be obtained in m 3. We translate each number in m. For example, there is data:

- A = 300 mm;
- B = 250 mm;
- H = 150 mm.

Considering that 1 m = 1000 m, we translate these values into meters, and then substitute them into the formula.

- A = 300/1000 = 0.3 m;
- B = 250/1000 = 0.25 m;
- H = 150/1000 = 0.15 m.

## Box base area

The above formulas are used to calculate the volume of a parallelepiped container. For non-standard forms, the area of \ u200b \ u200bthe volume of the box is calculated by the formula:

- V = Sh, where:
- S. base area (m 2)
- H. height (m),
- V. Volume (m 3).

The formula for the area S of the base of the box (container) must be changed depending on the shape of the container.

S = ab; S = a 2 = aa we take in the case when we have a cardboard product of a rectangular or square shape.

You can use this formula to **calculate** the base area of your container if it is in the shape of a triangle. By multiplying this value by the height, you get the value of the volume of the box in the form of a prism.

In other cases, see which shape is at the base of a particular box, take the formula to find its area, and then multiply the result by the height.

### Wall and bottom thickness

You need to choose pots with thick walls and a bottom. This guarantees uniform high-quality heating of food. Thick-walled dishes are perfect for soups and stews. It is necessary to pay attention to the shape of the bottom. Bulges indicate a short lifespan, and dents indicate poor quality. It is desirable that the product has a non-stick coating. so the food will not burn and stick to the bottom.

### additional characteristics

Modern manufacturers equip cookware with additional options. They facilitate the cooking process and expand the functionality of the products:

- Measuring scale in the form of a centimeter. indicates the number of milliliters;
- Water drain spout;
- Steam outlet;
- Pressure regulator. helps control the cooking speed;
- Funnel in the center of the lid for safe and even seasoning;
- Thermocontroller in the lid. helps to set the required temperature mode.

### Material features

The material should be given special attention. For each type, special raw materials are used in accordance with the purpose of the dishes. You can understand which pan you need only after familiarizing yourself with the features of different materials.

## Optimal set

It is optimal to have large pots of 3 and 5 **liters**. Medium and small is better to duplicate close in size.

However, this set may not be sufficient. You can supplement it:

- A stewing pan. A cast iron product will cope with the task. Thick walls and bottom provide a unique taste of dishes, which only a cauldron can give.
- Gravy boat. For fans of peppercorns and bright flavors, it is important to complement dishes with exquisite sauces. A special product in the form of a bucket is an irreplaceable assistant in this matter. The saucepan features a long handle and non-stick coating.
- Stewpan. The cookware combines a frying pan and a saucepan in one. It is used for dishes, during the preparation of which it is necessary to keep the fat content. It is convenient to sauté, stew and even cook spaghetti in a stewpan.

The volume of the largest pot is selected based on the number of people in the family. For one person, two **liters** are enough, for a couple. three, for a family with one child. four, for a large family. five **liters**.

### Cover tightness

The lid should be heavy enough to seal the pot tightly. This makes the food cook faster. It is important that the lid has a steam outlet so that the lid does not have to be constantly moved. Pay attention to the material of the item. Glass is considered the most suitable. It practically does not heat up and allows you to control the cooking process without opening the container.

## Selection rules

It may seem that choosing a pot is easy, but there are a number of guidelines to consider.

### Teflon

The most popular non-stick option. The material does not react with the food being cooked, which makes them safe to eat. You can fry in such a bowl without adding oil, so the dish turns out to be healthier. The bottom of the pan heats up quickly. this helps to reduce the time spent at the stove.

It is necessary to take care of the product carefully, cleaning it only with soft sponges. Damage to the coating renders the dishes unusable. Food will be filled with carcinogens that are dangerous to health.

### Calculation methods

It is not always possible to determine the volume by eye. When buying, it is recommended to pay attention to the bottom diameter. This will allow you to choose the perfect product for the size of the burners.

The volume must be selected based on the number of people in the family and the amount of food consumed. How to calculate the volume of a saucepan in liters by its size:

- The first method involves having a measuring container at hand, for example, a glass or jar. By filling a pot with water, you can calculate its volume. You need to multiply the
**volume**of the measuring container by the number of glasses or cans of water that fit. For example, 5 cans of 0.5 liters fit. Therefore, the volume of the pan is 2.5 liters. - The second method involves the use of weights. Weigh an empty pan, then fill it with water and place it back on the scale. The difference in mass will be the desired volume.
- If the pan has a round bottom and smooth walls, you can use the cylinder volume formula: V = πr²h.

### Fastening and material of handles

The handles are placed not only on the container, but also on the lid. It is necessary to check the fasteners. It is desirable that these were rivets. they will provide reliability and durability. The material of the handles must be resistant to heat. The heat resistant material can be used on the stove and in the oven. The number of handles also plays a role: two for a large pot and one long for a small one.

### Task # 3. calculating the required length of PP pipes

You can get the value of the fragment length using an ordinary ruler or tape measure. Minor bends and sagging of polymer pipes can be neglected, as they will not lead to a serious final error.

To be accurate, it is much more important to correctly determine the beginning and end of the fragment:

- When connecting a pipe to a riser, you need to measure the length from the beginning of the horizontal fragment. It is not necessary to grab the adjacent part of the riser, as this will lead to double counting of the same
**volume**. - At the entrance to the battery, you need to measure the length up to its tubes by gripping the taps. They are not taken into account when determining the volume of the radiator according to its passport data.
- At the entrance to the boiler, it is necessary to measure from the jacket, taking into account the length of the outgoing pipes.

Roundings can be measured in a simplified way. they are considered to be at right angles. This method is admissible, since their total contribution to the pipe length is insignificant.

The volume of the warm floor is calculated by the footage of the installed pipes.

If there is no data on the length or a diagram, but the pitch between the tubes is known, then the calculation can be carried out using the following approximate formula (regardless of the method of laying):

L = (n. k) (m. k) / k

- N is the length of the heated floor section;
- M. width of the heated floor area;
- K is the step between the tubes;
- L. the total length of the tubes.

Despite the small cross-section of pipes that are used for a water-heated floor, their total length leads to a significant volume of the contained coolant.

So, to provide a system similar to the one in the above figure (length. 160 m, outer diameter. 20 mm), 26 liters of liquid will be needed.

### Task # 1. calculating the volume of the required coolant

For a country house for temporary residence, you need to calculate the volume of purchased propylene glycol. a heat carrier that does not solidify at temperatures up to 30 ° C. The heating system consists of a 60 liter jacketed furnace, four aluminum radiators of 8 sections each and 90 meters of PN25 pipe (20 x 3.4).

The volume of liquid in the pipe must be calculated in **liters**. To do this, take the decimeter as a unit of measurement. The formulas for the transition from standard lengths are as follows: 1 m = 10 dm and 1 mm = 0.01 dm.

The volume of the boiler jacket is known. V1 = 60 l.

In the passport of the Elegance EL 500 aluminum radiator, it is indicated that the volume of one section is 0.36 **liters**. Then V2 = 4 8 0.36 = 11.5 l.

Let’s calculate the total volume of pipes. Their inner diameter d = 20. 2 3.4 = 13.2 mm = 0.132 dm. Length l = 90 m = 900 dm. Consequently:

V3 = π l d 2/4 = 3.1415926 900 0.132 0.132 / 4 = 12.3 dm 3 = 12.3 l.

Thus, the total volume can now be found:

The percentage of the amount of liquid in the pipes in relation to the entire system is only 15%. But if the length of the communications is large or a “water-heated floor” system is used, then the contribution of pipes to the total volume increases significantly.

## Geometric parameters of pipes

To determine the volume of a pipe, it is necessary and sufficient to know only two of its indicators: length and internal (actual) diameter. It is important not to confuse the last parameter with the external dimension, which is given for the correct selection of fittings and connecting elements.

If the wall thickness value is not known, then DN (bore diameter) can be used instead of the calculated inner diameter. They are approximately equal, and the DN value, as a rule, is indicated on the marking, which is placed on the outside of the product.

Before trying to calculate the volume of any pipe, you must avoid a common mistake and bring all parameters to a single measurement system. The fact is that the length is usually expressed in meters, and the diameter. in millimeters. The ratio of these two units is as follows: 1 m = 1000 mm.

In fact, you can bring the parameters to intermediate values - centimeters or decimeters. Sometimes this is even convenient, given that in this case the number of decimal places or, conversely, zeros will not be very large.

For pipes produced not (and not for Russia), the diameter can be expressed in inches. In this case, it is necessary to recalculate, taking into account that 1 ″ = 25.4 mm.

## Calculation of pipe volume: principles of calculations and rules for making calculations in **liters** and cubic meters

When finding the amount of the required liquid in the heating system, it is often necessary to solve a separate problem. to calculate the volume of the pipe with the given parameters. The calculation formula itself is simple. However, in practice, to obtain an accurate result, it must be applied carefully.

We will show you how to calculate the internal volume of an important communication system. In the article presented by us, the options for carrying out calculations for the pipeline and heating devices are analyzed in detail. Taking into account our advice, you will quickly solve the problem.

### Task # 2. calculating the volume of a homemade radiator

We will analyze how to calculate a classic homemade heating radiator from four horizontal pipes 2 m long.First, you need to find the cross-sectional area. You can measure the outer diameter from the end of the product.

Let it be 114 mm. Using the table of standard parameters of steel pipes, we find the wall thickness characteristic of this size. 4.5 mm.

Let’s **calculate** the inner diameter:

D = 114. 2 4.5 = 105 mm.

Let’s define the cross-sectional area:

S = π d 2/4 = 8659 mm 2.

The total length of all fragments is 8 m (8000 mm). Find the volume:

V = l S = 8000 8659 = 69272000 mm 3.

The volume of vertical connecting pipes can be calculated in the same way. But this value can be neglected, since it will be less than 0.1% of the total volume of the heating radiator.

The resulting value is not informative, so let’s translate it into liters. Since 1 dm = 100 mm, then 1 dm 3 = 100 100 100 = 1,000,000 = 10 6 mm 3.

Therefore, V = 69272000/10 6 = 69.3 dm 3 = 69.3 l.

Large radiators or heating systems (which are installed, for example, on farms) require significant amounts of coolant.

Therefore, since it will be necessary to calculate the volume of pipes in m 3. Then all dimensions, before substituting them into the formula, will have to be immediately converted into meters.

## Formula for a single pipe

From the point of view of geometry, the pipe is a straight circular cylinder.

The volume of such an object is equal to the cross-sectional area multiplied by the length:

V = l S

- V. volume (m 3);
- L. length (m);
- S. cross-sectional area (m 2).

The cross-sectional area of a circle-shaped pipe with a known diameter is calculated by the formula:

S = π d 2/4

- Π = 3.1415926;
- D. circle diameter (m).

The final formula for the **volume** of a pipe with a known inner diameter and length will be as follows:

V = π l d 2/4

If the unit of measurement for the length and diameter of the pipe is another value (dm, cm or mm), then the **volume** will be expressed in dm 3. cm 3 or mm 3, respectively.

Also, I wanted to show you a simple way to measure the outer diameter of a pipe (D) without a caliper. D = L / π, where L is the circumference:

To correctly calculate the volume of pipes, it is necessary to substitute two parameters into a simple formula: length and inner diameter. How accurately they are measured or calculated, the more accurate the result will be.

## Obtaining the result by an experimental method

In practice, problematic situations arise when the hydraulic system has a complex structure or some of its fragments are laid in a hidden way. In this case, it becomes impossible to determine the geometry of its parts and calculate the total volume. Then the only way out is to conduct an experiment.

It is necessary to drain all the liquid, take a measuring container (for example, a bucket) and fill the system to the desired level. Filling takes place through the highest point: an open-type expansion tank or an upper drain valve. In this case, all other valves must be open to avoid the formation of air locks.

If the pump moves water along the circuit, then you need to give it an hour or two to work without heating the coolant. This will help flush out residual air s. After that, you need to add fluid to the circuit again.

This method can also be used for individual parts of the heating circuit, for example, underfloor heating. To do this, you need to disconnect it from the system and in the same way “spill”.

## Applied examples of calculations

Significant help in the analysis of the principles of calculations and the sequence of actions when performing calculations will be provided by specific examples, which are worth familiarizing with interested visitors.

Despite the fact that the network offers us a huge selection of software products for calculating the displacement of the coolant, there are gost tables for determining the internal volume of pipes, you need to know the principles of “manual” calculations.

They are necessary for those who are independently engaged in the construction and repair of communications, and those who use the services of design and construction organizations. Useful information will help determine the material consumption before the system device, accurately calculate the estimate and get an idea of the upcoming operating payments.

Do you want to talk about how the volume of the coolant was calculated for an autonomous heating system in a country house or in a country house? Do you have information that might be useful to site visitors? Please write comments, post a photo on the topic of the article, ask questions in the block below.