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How to identify a broken paw in a dog

How to recognize a fracture in a dog and how to care for an injured pet?

Our dogs delight us not only with their devotion, but also with their activity, when they happily rush for a walk or show wonders of understanding in training. But both activity and training can become a factor when a paw fracture occurs in a dog, which is a rather serious condition for the animal and a great risk to its health. And it can’t be ignored!

In the article we will tell you what knowledge will help to provide first aid so that the treatment is effective and the prognosis is favorable.

A little bit of anatomy or which parts of the paws are at risk

identify, broken

4 paws are involved in the movement of dogs. The forelimbs are:

The hind limbs have a slightly different structure, and consist of:

It is the hind legs that are much stronger and stronger than the front ones. With their help, a push is performed for a snatch or jump.

Paw fracture symptoms. What to look for

Randomness is a major factor when various bone fractures occur in dogs. Therefore, when walking with his animal, the owner should carefully monitor the behavior of the dog so as not to miss a fracture of any of the dog’s paws and the symptoms that appear. The behavior of an injured dog is manifested in the following signs:

  • an open fracture of a paw in a dog. skin damage occurs at the site of the fracture, a bone peeps out of the wound;
  • closed fracture with displacement. damage to the anatomy of the bone;
  • crack or linear closed fracture. edema;
  • the pet keeps the front or hind leg hanging;
  • may limp or not step on the injured leg at all;
  • the site of injury begins to swell and thicken;
  • the natural state of the foot is absent: dangling or bent;
  • when you touch the limb, you can hear strange friction in the area of ​​the fracture. This is how the broken bones rub;
  • if you touch a sore spot, the dog whines and tries to avoid touching.

Also, when a paw is broken, a dog may show other symptoms: general lethargy, it reacts little to what is happening nearby, refuses “snacks” and food, the temperature rises. Symptoms of fractures of any bones in different dogs are quite eloquent, and an attentive owner will immediately pay attention to this. How to identify a fracture in a dog yourself? Monitor the behavior of the animal!

IMPORTANT! The manifestation of even a single symptom is a reason to immediately go to a veterinary clinic. Do not try to self-medicate, and do not hope that everything will go away by itself.

Reasons why injury occurs

A broken paw in a dog most often occurs due to a collision with vehicles, an unsuccessful jump, in games with relatives, as well as when falling from a height. And it is not always the owner’s fault in what happened. The dog may be distracted, chase another animal, or simply ignore the owner’s command. And if this happens, you need to carefully examine the animal so as not to miss the signs of a broken paw in your dog and provide immediate assistance.

Do no harm or first aid to a dog with a fracture of the hind or front paw

There was an injury, all the symptoms are on the face. What to do if a dog’s paw is broken? Provide first aid immediately! Actions must be quick and correct, but in order not to harm.

  • Put on a muzzle or tie your mouth with something. This is necessary so that the dog does not bite from pain.
  • With an open wound, you need to stop the flow of blood. For this, a tourniquet, belt, belt, scarf, or something similar is applied. Be sure to have a piece of cloth under the tourniquet so as not to damage the skin.
  • Remove dirt or dust from the fracture site of the dog’s hind or front paw. Means such as hydrogen peroxide, furacilin solution, and other antiseptic agents are suitable. Iodine, alcohol, brilliant green CANNOT be used. Shock from pain may occur. After processing, it is advisable not to tightly bandage the site of the fracture of the front or hind paw of the dog in order to exclude possible contamination.
  • Apply a splint (fix) from the items at hand so that the shaggy friend does not move his paw.

After these steps, you need to go to the veterinary hospital to see a doctor. Transportation is carried out in a special container, and for large breeds, the dog must be supported under the sternum, helping it to walk on three legs, and then carefully put in the back seat in the car. The main condition is not to put stress on the damaged, broken bone.

Osteosynthesis or bone fusion

The surgical process is to properly fold the broken bones and debris into one piece. Practice has proven that broken bones will quickly grow together without complications if the fragments are correctly folded and fixed.

Several methods of operations are used.

  • Applying the Ilizarov apparatus. Broken bones are securely fixed with knitting needles equipped with metal rings. Most often this method is applied to dogs of medium and large breeds. The ring is not removable and holds the rings tightly.
  • Operation of a paw fracture in a dog using the Kishner apparatus, which structurally consists of special rods in the form of self-tapping screws. Such a device is in demand if the fracture is intra-articular without the ability to install the Ilizarov structure. Today it is a more modern design, in which much thinner self-tapping rods are used, as well as plastic rods.
  • Fixation from the inside. A very complex method of surgery, excluding the imposition of devices. With internal fixation, special pins are screwed into the tubular bone inside. The pins in the bone remain for life. A very complex operation that requires a lot of experience and knowledge of a veterinarian-surgeon.

The method of surgery is a veterinarian’s decision based on anamnesis. It all depends on how complex the fracture is, in what place it is and whether additional actions will be needed (surgery on damaged internal organs, the condition of the dog, etc.).

Veterinarian assistance

Treatment of any fracture in dogs begins with diagnosis. To do this, the veterinarian anesthetizes the site of injury, examines and prescribes an X-ray, which can be performed in different projections in order to see the picture more fully. In order not to miss other negative manifestations, MRI or ultrasound may be prescribed. For uncomplicated fractures of the paws in a dog, treatment is prescribed conservatively: the imposition of a plaster cast. For complex closed or open fractures, an operation is prescribed, which is practically prescribed in 90 cases out of 100.

How to treat a broken paw in a dog?

Fractures of any complexity cannot be treated independently, without a veterinary education and relevant experience. The most harmless crack can have serious consequences if the treatment is incorrect and untimely. Indeed, with poor fixation or incomplete healing, a crack can turn into a fracture. The reason for this can be any load on the weakened place (jump, bruise, etc.). At the appointment, the veterinarian will determine the type of fracture by examination and X-ray and will advise the best treatment option.

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There are conservative (plaster cast, splint) and surgical methods of treating fractures in dogs. The first is very limited, for example, with cracked bones. Surgery for a broken paw in a dog is called osteosynthesis.

How to treat a broken paw in a dog at home, the cost of treatment and surgery

It is not recommended to treat fractures of any complexity on their own without having a veterinary education, since even the most seemingly harmless crack can have serious consequences if improperly treated. Indeed, with poor fixation or incomplete healing, a crack can turn into a fracture of any complexity. The reason for this can be any load on the weakened place (wrong jump, bruise, etc.).

The only thing that the owner can do for his pet on his own is to fix the fracture site in a motionless state and take it to the doctor.

Treatment of fractures in veterinary clinics will not cost the owners cheap.

depend on the severity of the fracture, the location of the injury, the weight and breed of the dog. According to the of veterinary clinics, osteosynthesis in case of a fracture can cost from 1,500 rubles and more, not including the cost of medicines, anesthesia and consumables.

Postoperative period

After the operation under inhalation anesthesia, the dog recovers very quickly, almost immediately after the completion of the operation. In the next day, the effect of anesthesia completely disappears, which may be associated with lethargy, nausea, impaired coordination, lack or decrease in appetite. If other organs of the animal are not affected by trauma, then after the operation, only a course of antibiotics is prescribed for an average of 10 days (usually in the form of intramuscular or intravenous injections) and sometimes special drugs to improve bone fusion, as well as external treatments of seams and metal structures (if external fixation was applied). It is impossible to immediately load the operated limb as healthy, but the dog should lean on it a little in the coming days after the operation so that blood circulation in the paw is not disturbed. Walking is possible on a leash. It is necessary to exclude jumping, playing with other dogs for the entire time of fracture healing (1.5 months on average).

External fixation.

Through an incision in the skin, the bone fragments are connected to the correct position using:

  • Ilizarov’s apparatus. The fragments are fixed with needles on metal rings. This method is suitable for large to medium breeds of dogs and for complicated fractures.
  • Kirschner needles Suitable for small breeds of dogs and cats.

How osteosynthesis is performed in dogs:

The operation is performed under general anesthesia. It is best to carry out the operation under inhalation anesthesia, so that the animal can undergo the operation more easily and recover faster. First, you need to withstand a starvation diet for 8-12 hours. The operation is not urgent, but it is not necessary to delay it for more than 3-5 days so that there are no complications of the fracture union. First you need to examine the dog, examine the heart. to do biochemical and clinical blood tests, X-rays to determine the tactics of the operation, to exclude pathologies of other organs (especially if the fracture was obtained as a result of an accident, falling from a height).

After the introduction of anesthesia through an incision in the skin and muscles, the broken bones are connected to the correct position, fixed with a metal structure for 2-3 months. The skin and muscles are sutured, the animal is prescribed antibiotics (usually injections) for an average of 10 days.

Signs of a fracture

Symptoms differ depending on the severity of the fracture:

  • A crack is when the integrity of the cross section of the bone is only partially broken. This type of fracture can easily be mistaken for a bruise, since the pet remains active, but moves with caution. An important difference is that when bruised, soft tissues are damaged, edema can be detected. With a crack in the bone, the surrounding tissue is not damaged.

Important! A crack is a dangerous injury, as it can turn into a real fracture at any time.

  • A punctured fracture is when bone fragments slide into each other. This happens if the mechanical action was directed not across the bone, but along. For example, a broken front leg when jumping from a great height. The lameness in the dog becomes very strong, while the surrounding tissues are not damaged, there is no edema, but you can find that the damaged limb is slightly shorter than the healthy one.

Remember! If the pet is not cured, then the fracture may become more complicated, become multiple, otherwise the bones will not heal correctly, which is even worse, since the dog will become disabled.

  • A closed fracture without displacement is when parts of the bone are in a natural position relative to each other, the surrounding tissues are slightly damaged. The animal refuses to stand on its paw, does not allow to touch the fracture site (behaves aggressively). Redness or swelling may be found at the injury site.
  • A closed displacement fracture is when parts of the bone are displaced relative to each other and to its natural position. In this case, the surrounding tissue is more damaged. The painful reaction is strong, the dog whines, licks the fracture site. Large swelling is visible under the skin, hematomas are often found. There is almost always asymmetry in the limbs. Sometimes you can find a bulge. a piece of bone resting on the skin “on that side”.

How to Tell if Your Dog Has Broken It’s Leg

Important! This is the most dangerous type of injury, since the owners are in no hurry to see a doctor (visible signs do not cause concern), while the dog has severe internal hemorrhage.

  • An open paw fracture is when the bones stick out. The most frightening of all fractures, since the very fact of a bone sticking out of the leg can shock both the pet and the owner. True, in muscular breeds, the fragment is not always visible, but wound and bleeding are always found. This is also a dangerous type of fracture, but only if the vessels are damaged, in this case, the blood must be stopped before the pet is delivered to the hospital.
  • Finger fractures. Trauma often occurs if a large object is dropped on the pet’s leg or a car runs over it (dogs love to run after them). As a result of such an impact, not one finger is often broken, but several or all at once. Usually, these fractures are closed and displaced, but there is little swelling. It is very difficult to diagnose such a fracture without an X-ray.

Remember! If the dog is lame and you cannot determine a broken paw, then you still need to immediately go to the veterinary clinic.

Hind limb structure

The hind limb is the pelvis, a complex symmetrical structure. Each of its halves is called a nameless bone, which in turn consists of three fused bones:

  • iliac;
  • sciatic;
  • pubic.

The ilium is the largest, located above and in front, it abuts against the pelvis and connects to it through the flat sacroiliac joint. The ischium in dogs is short and located at the back. Each half of the pelvis grows together below with the adjacent half through the pubic bone. At the site of the fusion of the pubic, iliac and ischial bones, there is a deep glenoid cavity, into which the head of the femur enters.

The massive tubular femur is one of the strongest bones in the body. At its upper end there is a spherical head, which enters the cup-shaped glenoid cavity of the pelvis. Such a joint gives the greatest freedom of movement, for example, males, when urinating, can put their legs far to the side.

The lower end of the femur is flatter, it is formed from two semicircular tubercles, between which there is a saddle fossa. Together with the heads of the tibia and fibula, it forms a blocky joint. The joint also contains the patella. a bean-shaped bone with a base and apex. The kneecap prevents the knee joint from bending forward.

The fibula in dogs is substantially smaller than the tibia. The latter is especially massive at the upper end, while at it it bends rather strongly. The fibula often fuses with the tibia with its lower end. The structure of the metatarsus and tarsus of the hind limb is the same as that of the front paw.

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Treatment of paw fractures

To begin with, the doctor will make high-quality anesthesia, without which the dog will not allow itself to be examined. Next, an examination of the limb and the pet is carried out, an X-ray of a broken paw is prescribed, as well as an ultrasound scan, an X-ray, and other studies if there is a suspicion of damage to internal organs. For example, when falling from a great height or when hitting a car, a broken paw in a puppy is almost always combined with an injury to the abdominal cavity or chest.

Limb bone structure

The anatomy of the hind and front paws is very different, so they must be considered separately.

Types of fractures

According to the etiological factor, all fractures can be divided into two large groups: traumatic and pathological.

Traumatic fractures. Their causes are various types of mechanical stress. For example, hitting a pet’s leg with a car, jumping from too high a height, fighting a larger dog.

Pathological fracture. With him, the situation is much more dangerous, since the true cause is a violation of the strength of the bones, that is, another disease. Often they become osteosarcoma or impaired absorption of calcium and phosphorus, as well as old age in combination with improper feeding.

Broken paw in a dog: signs, consequences and care

A fracture is a violation of the integrity of the bone. If this damages the muscles and skin, then the fracture is called open. While maintaining the integrity of the skin, the fracture is closed. Also, a fracture of a paw in a dog is possible complete (with displacement of the fragments) and incomplete (without displacement, cracks).

First aid for a broken paw

It is only needed for open fractures. The main task is to stop the bleeding. Usually the tourniquet is not at hand (but if there is, then use it), so you have to use the materials at hand. To do this, you need to wrap the place above the wound with a piece of cloth, a handkerchief, gauze napkins, and then bandage it tightly with a bandage or a simple rope.

Pay attention to two important points:

  • To stop the blood, you do not need to bandage the wound itself, but the place above it.
  • You can not put a tourniquet directly on the skin, you can damage it, be sure to put a piece of cloth, bandage, napkin.

It is also recommended to fix the limb, but here the owners forget that “fixing” does not mean setting the wreckage.

Remember! Never try to fix a broken bone, it hurts incredibly.

In addition, you can damage the limb even more, up to rupture of blood vessels. Just fix it by tying it to a stick, plywood, other limb. When transporting a pet, make sure that the injured limb is on top and is not loaded.

If you are not sure what first aid should be, then do nothing, but just deliver the pet as quickly as possible to the veterinary clinic.

The prognosis is usually good. The bones grow together within a few weeks, if the osteosynthesis was correct, then there will be no consequences in the form of lameness. Cautious prognosis in the presence of osteosarcoma.

Need for surgery

With a broken paw in a dog, it is almost impossible to do with the imposition of a plaster cast, so in 99% of cases surgery is necessary. Surgery is indicated for several reasons:

  • It is almost impossible to get a dog to take care of the leg and cast. A fracture of the hind leg may still allow it, and even then not always. Pets try to remove the cast as soon as possible, even if they fail, they can still inflict additional injury on themselves.
  • Since pets never break their legs through negligence, they are more often open, multiple with various complications. Therefore, an operation is needed to connect all the fragments and sew up the damaged tissue.
  • Studies have shown that bones grow together most quickly and efficiently with careful comparison of the fragments and their reliable fixation; early support on the limb has a positive effect. All this is possible only with surgery.

Broken paw in a dog

The article is presented only for acquaintance with common problems in adult dogs and puppies, which makes it possible to understand how they can be helped in the veterinary clinic. Correct treatment is a visit to the veterinarian and this should always be remembered.

Fracture of the dog’s hind paw, restoration, plaster cast, splint, rigid ligation

During the healing of wounds and the healing of broken bones, the owner should pay special attention to his pet. If the dog has a fracture without displacement, then a plaster cast or splint will be applied to it in order to fix and immobilize the diseased limb. In case of a crack, a rigid bandage can also be dispensed with.

During the recovery period of the dog, the owner must provide the animal with peace, limit it from sudden movements and, moreover, from jumping. Postoperative wounds need to be cared for exactly as recommended by the doctor. If necessary and the doctor prescribes pain medications, they must be given on time and in precise doses.

In such a difficult and stressful period for the pet, he needs a balanced diet and regular walks in the fresh air (preferably on his hands, if possible).

How to treat a broken paw in a dog at home, the cost of treatment and surgery

It is not recommended to treat fractures of any complexity on their own without having a veterinary education, since even the most seemingly harmless crack can have serious consequences if improperly treated. Indeed, with poor fixation or incomplete healing, a crack can turn into a fracture of any complexity. The reason for this can be any load on the weakened place (wrong jump, bruise, etc.).

The only thing that the owner can do for his pet on his own is to fix the fracture site in a motionless state and take it to the doctor.

Treatment of fractures in veterinary clinics will not cost the owners cheap.

depend on the severity of the fracture, the location of the injury, the weight and breed of the dog. According to the of veterinary clinics, osteosynthesis in case of a fracture can cost from 1,500 rubles and more, not including the cost of medicines, anesthesia and consumables.

Fracture of a paw in a dog, how long does it take to heal, how to determine, signs, types, how much heals

The duration of the rehabilitation period of a dog after a fracture directly depends on the place of the fracture, its complexity and the age of the animal itself (the younger the dog, the sooner its bones will grow together). Also, much depends on the method of treatment: plaster cast, knitting needles or other methods of fixation.

Crack. no visual signs, but the dog is moving with extreme caution.

Impacted fracture. the main symptom with such a fracture, as with a crack, is lameness and soreness. With such a fracture, soft tissues may not be damaged or have minor damage.

A closed fracture without displacement. accompanied by severe pain, redness, swelling of the damaged area is possible, the dog does not allow touching the site of the injury. Bones are visually and tactilely positioned correctly in relation to each other.

Closed fracture with displacement. broken bones diverge in different directions, thereby damaging muscles and blood vessels. With such fractures, hematomas may be present. Visually, a bulge may appear in the place where the broken bone rests against the skin.

An open fracture is a fracture in which the edge of a broken bone tears through soft tissue and muscle, extending outward. The bone itself may not be visible, but the wound will definitely be noticeable.

Paw fracture in a dog pain reliever

If the dog needs to take painkillers, then taking analgin one tablet twice a day will be quite effective for him.

Symptoms: how to spot a fracture in a dog or cat

The most obvious signs of a limb fracture are the behavior of the animal itself (it tries not to step on the injured paw) and swelling at the site of the closed fracture. An open fracture is visible to the naked eye. The paw usually does not straighten to the end, upon palpation of the limb, the animal feels acute pain, if the fracture is complete, the crunch of fragments touching each other is heard.

Symptoms of a tail fracture are also noticeable from the outside. it is often bent; when trying to feel it, a cat or dog reacts painfully, tries to resist. The tail loses its motor function.

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With pelvic fractures, the animal cannot climb to the hind limbs or rises, but with difficulty, has problems with bowel movement and urination, refuses food and water.

Injury to the spine can manifest as paralysis, involuntary bowel movements, urinary incontinence, or lack of urination. The animal does not eat, breathes heavily, cannot raise its head. The vertebral column is visibly deformed.

Broken ribs are indicated by breathing problems, an unnatural position in a cat or dog, and anxiety. When feeling, there are noticeable differences on the mowing line of the ribs.

Fractures of the jaw in dogs and cats are accompanied by epistaxis, profuse salivation, and a change in bite.

If such symptoms are detected, the owner (and not only he, but anyone who noticed) must immediately provide the animal with all possible first aid and deliver it to the veterinary clinic.

Surgery

In case of complex fractures: splinter and depressed fractures of the paws, injuries of the iliac, sciatic, pubic bones, jaw and others, the intervention of a veterinarian-surgeon is required. He performs an operation to mechanically connect bone fragments and fix them. osteosynthesis. After the bone tissue has grown together, the connective material (threads, needles, plates, pins) is removed.

Today, three main methods of osteosynthesis are practiced:

  • Intramedullary osteosynthesis, also called immersion. Fragments are connected by introducing a special retainer-rod into the intramedullary canal. Outside (on the bone), the connection can be fixed with screws, cerclage sutures, etc. The main disadvantages of the method are: the danger of damage to the operated bone and the fact that the rod remains in the bone canal forever, which can lead to the destruction of the bone marrow. Nevertheless, the technique is used quite often. in more than 30% of cases.
  • Extramedullary osteosynthesis (plate). The technology of extraosseous synthesis consists in applying special plates to the damaged bone and fixing them with screws. This method provides secure fixation and promotes rapid tissue healing. It is used mainly for fractures of tubular bones with comminuted, oblique and helical types of damage. However, with all its advantages, the method is not always applicable to use in small animals. surgical screws located too close can cause resorption (destruction) of bone tissue. After the bone is healed, the plates are removed. This method of osteosynthesis is the most common: it is used in half of all surgical interventions.
  • Extrafocal osteosynthesis involves the use of the method of external fixation using pins fixed above and below the fracture site. For large animals, the Ilizarov apparatus is usually installed (see Fig. 1), for small animals, a single-plane external fixation apparatus is installed. The disadvantage of this method is the inconvenience for the animal and a long recovery period, the risk of developing a soft tissue infection. The advantage is low trauma for the animal and the possibility of physical exertion, which reduces the risk of developing muscle atrophy after a fracture. Extrafocal osteosynthesis is used in about 10% of cases.

The choice of method depends on the location of the fracture, its type, and, of course, on what technique the surgeon is practicing. Surgical recovery takes an average of 5 to 7 weeks.

Treating fractures in pets

As we have already said, to diagnose the presence of a fracture and its type, the doctor first examines and palpates the animal, then directs it for X-ray, CT or (in difficult cases) for MRI. Based on the results of the diagnosis, the veterinarian prescribes treatment. It can include various methods (depending on the severity of the injury), but most often it is a set of measures.

Conservative treatment of bone fractures in cats and dogs

Nonsurgical treatment begins with pain relief, most often local anesthesia. Then, the procedure for reposition of the fragments is carried out (if necessary) and the imposition of a splint, a plaster cast, a collar to immobilize the damaged area. It is necessary to ensure that the nearby joints are fixed with a bandage, and that the splint itself does not squeeze the limb or internal organs. Now in veterinary medicine, heavy mineral gypsum is practically not used, replacing it with light polymer plates. For cracks and breaks, the splint is applied for 15–20 days, for complete fractures. for up to 40 days.

To avoid inflammation in the first phase of treatment, corticosteroids may be prescribed. Also, depending on the behavior of the animal, pain relievers and sedatives are used. Subsequent measures are reduced to the introduction of drugs to the animal that promote the growth of bone tissue and the restoration of adjacent tissues. In modern clinics, various physiotherapy techniques are used, which makes it possible to count on a faster and more successful fracture treatment. On average, young animals recover from fractures within 3-5 weeks, older ones. 4-8 weeks. 75% of four-legged patients in veterinary clinics recover thanks to conservative treatment, and only 25% need surgical treatment.

First aid for signs of fracture in a cat or dog

If a fracture is suspected, the animal should be provided with as much rest as possible, transferred to a bed or carrier. In case of limb fracture, you need to try to immobilize the injured paw (without trying to straighten the bone yourself!) And go to the veterinary center as soon as possible.

If there are signs of a spinal fracture. without changing the position of the body, carefully transfer the pet to the blanket and, just as, trying not to disturb (this is fraught with spinal cord injuries), transfer it to the car. If the jaw is broken, put on a muzzle on the pet to avoid displacement of bone fragments.

Do not try to self-administer painkillers or other medications to the animal: this can only provoke a deterioration in the condition of your pet. It is better to take the animal to the veterinary clinic as soon as possible: they will conduct an emergency diagnosis and prescribe the necessary therapy.

Fractures in cats and dogs: what to do at the first sign of injury and how to treat it

Modern owners often treat their four-legged pets as full-fledged family members. They are worried about them in the same way, and sometimes even more than about themselves, because dogs, cats and other pets cannot say what hurts them or what worries them. Unfortunately, sometimes there are situations when the animal is injured, fractured. How to quickly determine the nature of the damage, how to provide first aid and where to go if your pet has a fracture. read in our article.

Types of fractures

In veterinary medicine, there are several classifications of fractures: by origin, location, etc. We will present the main types of injuries characteristic of dogs and cats.

  • fractures of tubular bones (front and hind legs);
  • fractures of flat bones (hip bones);
  • other fractures (tail, jaw, spine).

By the nature of the damage:

  • open, in which not only the bone is damaged, but also the surrounding tissues, the integrity of the skin or mucous membrane is disrupted. Open fractures can be complicated by bleeding and infection in the wound;
  • closed, without damaging the outer covers, which facilitates healing and maintains sterility.

In the direction of the fracture relative to the axis:

  • transverse (the bone is fractured perpendicular to the axis of the limb);
  • oblique (at an angle to the axis);
  • longitudinal (in the direction of the axis, rare cases);
  • spiral (with a violent screw-like movement of the limbs);
  • comminuted (when separating bone fragments);
  • crushed (with strong compression of the tubular bones along the axis).

Fractures are also typified by the degree of damage to the bone tissue (cracks, fractures, complete fractures), by the number (single and multiple), by the nature of the displacement of the fragments and by the anatomical nature. To accurately determine the type of injury and take the right measures, diagnostics are needed: a veterinarian’s examination, X-ray or CT (if you suspect damage to internal organs by bone fragments, an MRI is prescribed). In no case do you need to take independent actions. this way you can only harm your pet.

How to determine the signs of a fracture in order to immediately go to the clinic?

Dog Health : How to Know if a Dog Broke Its Paw


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