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Dog tags: types and methods of manufacturing
An address tag is a very useful and necessary thing. If the pet always has it with him, then in case of loss, the dog will quickly return home. A collar and a well-visible medallion will surely attract a lot of attention from passers-by, who will be able to contact the owner and provide all the necessary information about the animal. Today we will consider in detail what types of address labels are and how they can be made by hand.
How to use it correctly?
On the address label, you must write all the information that will allow you to return home a lost pet. Usually, all inscriptions are applied on both sides.
- On one side indicate the name of the dog, and with it the phone number of the owners. The address is rarely applied because it may end up in the hands of people associated with crime. Not every person agrees to risk their safety like this.
- On the back of the token or tag, you can indicate special additional information, for example, that the pet is a guide or suffers from some kind of illness, needs treatment. Sometimes the owners go to the trick and specifically indicate on the address label that their pet is seriously ill with something, so that no one wants to keep the dog for themselves without returning it to the breeder. However, such information can play with a four-legged and not the kindest joke. people may be afraid to contact him due to illness.
Often, the address labels indicate information that makes it possible for other people to immediately understand that the pet is lost. In such cases, the owners prefer to write:
- “Call the owner!”;
- “Bring me home!”;
- “I want to go home!”;
- “I am lost (or lost)!”.
For the inscription, you can refer to the engraving. For this, special automatic equipment is used. It acts on the part with a special diamond tip, which removes the top layer from the token, leaving very thin and neat grooves.
Much here depends on the material from which the selected address label is made. Usually, engraving is used when the item is made of metal. The softer this material is, the deeper and more noticeable the furrow will end up.
There is also a laser engraving method. In accordance with it, the top layer is also removed. Larger and wider symbols can be applied here. This method of putting text on a token is considered optimal because it gives a good result and does not take up a lot of free time.
The prepared address tag with all the information printed on it must be correctly and firmly attached to the collar of a four-legged friend. For fasteners, it is recommended to use high-quality and tight rings, the cross-section of which is at least 1 mm, or special carabiners designed for such elements. The latter are very convenient when you need to remove the address tag in order to wash the collar or hang it on another.
Do not attach the tag to the carabiner ring. The latter can accidentally catch on the ring and bend it.
If the sound of the token annoys you, you can use a tool such as anti-ringing. It is made from soft silicone rubber. It fits snugly to the surface of the token, as if hugging it. As a result, the sounds emitted by the address tag are inevitably absorbed, and the person stops hearing them. Antizones can glow in the dark.
How to do it yourself?
Many owners prefer making such parts with their own hands from scrap materials. This is not difficult. There are many ways to make address labels. Let’s take a closer look at one of them.
A simple address tag can be made quickly without spending a lot of money on materials. The procedure will be as follows.
- You need to take a piece of thick cardboard and write on (or print) the selected text and phone number to contact the owner. The part can be of any shape. It is permissible to make not only circles or ovals, but also details in the form of small bones.
- Next, you need to take a sheet of special baking paper. Hot glue is poured onto its surface in a certain place without sparing.
- Next, on top of the poured glue, you need to lay the part cut from the cardboard on top. It will also need to be filled with hot glue. You should act faster so that the adhesive does not have time to cool down.
- Next, the resulting blank must be covered with the second half of a sheet of parchment. Everything is rolled out with a rolling pin to get rid of irregularities. After that, the workpiece must be left to cool.
- Once the glue has set, it will not be easy to remove the paper from the cardboard label. Behind the parchment, the printed text will appear barely noticeable.
To make it clearer, you just need to hold the workpiece a little under the tap. The text will immediately become more readable and noticeable.
For information on how to make an address tag for a dog with your own hands, see the next video.
After that, you will need to cut off the excess pieces of baking paper from the workpiece. It is best to leave some paper around the edges of the cuts. The result is a small, neat address tag that feels like rubber to the touch. You will need to make a small hole in it and insert a collar ring there.
This is far from the only way to manufacture these parts. A good address tag can be made from a coin, thick paper and even old gloves. each owner chooses for himself what seems to him the best option.
What is the address label for??
Before proceeding to a detailed examination of all types of address labels, it is worth answering the main question: what is its purpose? The ID tag is a small-sized accessory that contains all the necessary information about the owners of the animal. This item is attached to the collar. If the address tag is made of metal, then all contact information is engraved on it. Otherwise, such products are called tokens.
There are also special cylindrical address tags. Each of the existing types of these products is suitable for specific purposes and conditions. The owner’s phone number is always printed on the address plate. If the pet has certain health problems, this information is also indicated.
Even the smartest and smartest pet can suddenly get scared of something. There are also cases when, while walking in the park, the owner is briefly distracted by a telephone conversation and does not notice how the animal disappears from sight. A pet lost with an address label is likely to return home because others will pay due attention to it.
The address tags are different. The simplest and most common are ordinary flat key rings. They are inexpensive, durable and eye-catching. For a small amount, an attractive strap with all the necessary information will appear on the dog’s collar.
Flat address tags are divided according to the material from which they are made. The most common options are metal. They are most often based on brass, aluminum or stainless steel. This is a very reliable option that will last for many years.
So, aluminum address tags are good because they have a minimum weight, so they can be safely attached to the collar of a small dog. True, the appearance of these models is not very catchy and bright. Steel options are more attractive, but they also weigh more.
Luminous metal tokens are also produced today. On sale they can not be found too often, but they still arouse the interest of dog owners. These models have a fluorescent coating, due to which they glow in the dark. They look normal in daylight without emitting anything. Information is applied to them either by paint or by engraving.
The cheapest are plastic address tags. But they are also the most unreliable. If your pet belongs to active and energetic breeds, for example, it is a Toy Terrier, Sheltie or Mini Pinscher, then the plastic medallion may be lost after the first walk.
These types of address tags are not suitable for representatives of hunting breeds. Active pets, running a lot and constantly exploring difficult terrain, will quickly render the keychain unusable or even tear it off.
The least common are leather dog tokens. Such options are very reliable, since they are made of high quality and durable materials that are not subject to rapid wear. A certain pattern or engraving is applied to the skin with all the necessary information about the owner. These types of dog medallions are very popular but expensive.
There is another good option for an address label. a capsule. This type of token is a small capsule made of strong and high-quality metal (aluminum is most often used). This part consists of two halves that are connected to each other by thread or tight fasteners.
A piece of paper with a name written on it and all the necessary address information is placed inside such a miniature capsule. Such key rings are quite inexpensive and are in great demand.
A closed address box of this type has one significant drawback. it is not completely sealed. If a pet jumps into a large puddle or body of water several times, the paper will quickly deteriorate and the text on it will become unreadable.
Separately, it is worth considering more modern electronic address tags. These types of dog tags with all the necessary data are miniature gadgets. It is permissible to attach them not only to the dog’s collar, but also to its coat. The weight of e-mail addresses is minimal. it rarely exceeds 10 g.
You can attach it regardless of the breed and size of the dog. These little details will work even for chihuahua crumbs. Electronic address tags operate on a small battery. Usually, charging it is enough for a long time period. about 2 months. Such options are also good because they have more advanced and complete functionality.
One of the most important options is pet location control. At any time of the day, tracking will be carried out of the place in which the bearer of the medallion is currently located. With the help of a special application installed on a smartphone, the owner will always have the opportunity to determine the exact location of the pet. It is shown in accordance with the binding to the specific set coordinates on the electronic map.
Control over the physical activity of the dog is also provided. During walks, such a token will record the distance that the pet runs. Thanks to this addition, it will be possible to calculate the degree of stress received by the animals. It will also be possible to divide the distance traveled with and without a leash. The program may also include such parameters of physical activity that are recommended by veterinarians for a particular type of dog.
A great addition to such address labels is monitoring the quality of your pet’s sleep. Thanks to this detail, the owners will be able to track the duration of the active phase of sleep, as well as the duration of the calm state of the animal. The data obtained can be compared with the values recommended by veterinarians and the optimal regimen for the combination of periods of rest and wakefulness of the pet can be identified.
A special “cloud service” is provided in e-mail addresses, thanks to which dog owners can record the performance of the animal and compare it with the performance of other pets.
With the involvement of this technology, competitions are currently being organized, subject to a significant distance from each other. It also provides for the possibility of communication between the owners of the four-legged among themselves in a separate chat.
Most electronic medallions are illuminated, which comes in handy at night. When walking in the evening, you can see a small moving spark and visually control the place where the dog is. Many manufacturers equip their e-tokens with a choice of different backlight colors.
How To Build Dog Stairs! | Dog Furniture Stairs
Of interest are electronic tokens and the presence of an individual named QR-code of the dog. Such varieties have such an addition on the surface of the rear wall. The specified barcode is easily and quickly recognized by special applications installed on smartphones.
The information entered into this code can be changed independently, if necessary. These actions are also performed using a smartphone. The code includes the phone number of the owners, the address and the name of the animal. Some owners add information about the reward in case of the return of the pet. These are very convenient and functional addressing models.
If you are planning to purchase or make an address tag for your dog, there are some helpful tips to consider.
- If your pet is small, then it is better not to cling to a too large and heavy address tag on his collar. it will cause a lot of inconvenience.
- If your pet walks at home without a collar with a token, then, just in case, you should put on at least a string with all the information about the owner. It will come in handy if the dog suddenly runs away from the house through the open door and gets lost on the street.
- If you don’t want to attach a hanging tag, you can immediately purchase a collar with a special buckle. They are usually made of metal. They can be sewn to the collar and will definitely not detach from it if the pet plays on the street.
Better to buy address labels that look simple and straightforward. You should not select options that demonstrate the consistency of the pet owners. Plates like these can attract people who will demand fabulous rewards from breeders.
What are the steps for dogs
Dog steps help make life easier for small pets in a large space at home. Breeds such as Pomeranians, Brabancons, Pekingese, Pinschers, Dachshunds, Terriers, Chihuahuas or Yorkies experience inconvenience when moving around the room, jumping onto a bed, chair or sofa. Miniature and funny Yorkies are very mobile and hardy, they can always frolic.
The only problem for them is height. It takes a lot of effort to climb any surface that is more than half a meter high, without assistance. High jumps of a tireless fighter are not always successful, most often they end up with a fracture, dislocation or sprain.
While waiting for offspring, the dog significantly increases in body volume, when waiting for two puppies, the weight becomes 2 times more than usual, and jumping can lead to the death of unborn puppies or complications and severe surgical interventions in the pet’s body.
In order to protect your beloved pets from injury, there are 2 types of ladders: small and large.
For dogs weighing about 2 kg or less, special steps are suitable for which the step height is 11 cm.
There are many types of stairs, consider the main ones:
- The frame of the structure of the 3-stage ladder consists of an integral wear-resistant foam rubber piece with fine porosity. A removable cover is put on over the frame, which can be easily machine washed. The cover, entirely made of velor, denim or other dense fabric, as well as additional inserts have an anti-slip effect, which guarantees the safety of the pet in all conditions.
- The frame is made of natural plastic or wood, anti-slip pads made of dense material are fixed on the steps. The number of steps depends on the required height and parameters of the dog: its weight and height.
- Folding frame made of natural plastic, wood or metal with anti-slip inlays on each step. This ladder is convenient for transportation and storage.
How to make dog steps?
How to make dog steps? This question is of interest to many pet owners. For representatives of small breeds of dogs, pregnant and aging pets who have difficulties in independent movement, it is necessary to purchase additional steps or make them yourself.
How to make dog steps
How to make a wooden dog ladder yourself? First of all, you need to reproduce the project on paper and make all the necessary calculations for the parameters of the stairs. This is required so that movement on it is convenient for the dog.
The parameters of the stairs, which must be the same on each span:
- step height;
- step width;
It is important to remember that the height of a step is directly proportional to its width, that is, the greater the height, the greater the width. The joining of steps to each other must be done at an angle of 90 °.
The choice of material affects the cost and duration of operation. Wooden structures are easy to handle at home and do not require much maintenance.
Most often, conifers are used for such products, they are quite economical. But there are also those who choose expensive materials for their beloved pet, such as oak. Its feature is a high level of strength and an unsurpassed fiber structure.
Anti-slip pads can be made of any durable material, the most common is velor, it blends beautifully with wood, soft and pleasant to the touch.
Additional materials and equipment will require:
- stainless steel screws;
- an electric electric screwdriver or Phillips screwdrivers;
- glue for wood products;
- hot glue in a gun;
- jigsaw or hacksaw for wood;
- sheets of sandpaper or a sander;
- building level;
- centimeter tape or tape measure;
- impregnation for wood on a natural basis.
- Cut out the elements of the stairs, according to the plan.
- Connect each flight of stairs separately, without side element, using screws.
- Fold the steps on top of each other in turn, observing an angle of 90 °, having previously coated the connecting mowing lines with glue on wood.
- Attach the side panels with screws.
- Paint over the product with impregnation 3 times.
- Glue velor pads on each step, including the top, using hot glue in the gun.
This video talks about the dog ladder:
What is an aviary
An aviary is a fenced-in area for keeping poultry, pets and dogs. It may or may not be covered.
One of the options for solid pets
A dog enclosure is a building in which an animal can be kept. For large dogs, the aviary is made on the street, and in such a way that it can withstand the pressure of the animal for a long time.
For small pet dogs, an aviary is usually understood as a portable fence that allows you to restrict their movement. The same enclosures are usually needed for older puppies so that they do not wander around the house.
The roof of the aviary can be made from any material. You can have a single-slope, with a slight tilt back, you can. two or four-slope. In order for rain and snow to get inside as little as possible, it is advisable to make overhangs, that is, the roof should be larger than the size of the frame. The minimum overhang is 20 cm. If you need to make an aviary with your own hands at minimal cost, consider the option with a pitched roof. By the way, it can have a bevel not only back, but also to one side.
Drawing of an open-air cage with a pitched roof. It is the most inexpensive and easiest to use.
Any roofing material for a dog enclosure can be used. But if you care about the appearance of the site, it is better if at least in color and texture it looks like the roofing material of a house and / or buildings.
Often the frame is tightened with a netting or welded mesh, which is used in road or construction works. The chain-link is very unreliable, because if a dog strives for freedom, it is not a hindrance to her. They learn very quickly that if you push well, it sags and sags, and if you put in enough force, it can be broken. This usually happens.
The “small” dog escapes through the netting
Those who are unable to break it down with their mass use the cells in the grid as steps. Very convenient, by the way. When trained, they slip away very quickly. And medium and large dogs are usually smart, so escape in this case is only a matter of time. And if the dogs have not yet learned to climb on the net, they can injure themselves on the weld, the protruding edges of the net, etc. The grid is often attacked, so the appearance of dangerous elements is a matter of time.
If you decide to make a dog enclosure yourself and are a little friends with the welding machine, use a bar. Round or square is your choice. A small pipe can also be installed, but it is usually more expensive. The partitions are welded vertically to the frame. The installation step depends on the size of the dog, so that even a thin one does not climb through, the distance should be less than the width of the chest.
If you just don’t like pipes, you can make decorations like cold forging. Just do not make “steps” and tapering decorations for the dog. they can be dangerous.
And one more thing: you shouldn’t leave a gap under the roof. Yes, this is easier to do and less material is used, but again, dogs are smart and, with a great desire, climb into this gap. And in size it is sufficient even for a large dog to climb.
When it is planned to make an aviary, the question very often arises of what to make the floor from. The best option is plank flooring, and without gaps. Claws can get stuck in crevices, resulting in injury. So a tongue-and-groove floorboard is best suited for flooring.
To solve the problem of drainage, it can be done with a slight slope. 1-2 cm per meter. It is better not to paint the boards, but treat them with antiseptics and dry them. you can and should. If you want the wood to be darker (less visible dirt), use a pigmented wood oil. It is absorbed into the pores, pigments and oils penetrate deeply. No film forms on the surface, but liquid and dirt are not absorbed. Then the wood is washed easily. Yes, the composition is not cheap, but wood becomes much more convenient to use. The coating must be renewed once a year, and the old one does not need to be removed: a fresh layer is applied to a clean, dry surface (with a brush or roller).
Yes, so that the floorboards in the aviary do not rot and to keep warm, it is best to raise the floor above the ground level by 20 cm.In this case, mice and other animals will not settle there and the dog will be better seen even while lying on the floor. So that it doesn’t blow through the floor at all, you can make it insulated. Throw the boards from the bottom, you can unplanned, on top. a layer of polystyrene or foamed polyurethane, and on it is already a floorboard.
Equipping shells gives your dog something to do
Sometimes they decide to make a concrete floor in the enclosure, but it is very cold and the dog will be cold in winter. The problem is solved by knocking down fragments of wooden flooring. But they slide and move, which is not suitable for everyone. You can make a double floor. pour a concrete screed with a slope towards the drain, and arrange the floor 10-15 cm higher. Then the problem of leaking “liquid”, which will be absorbed into the soil, will be solved. So you can clean the floor in the aviary and the area, getting rid of odor and dirt.
What to make a frame from and how to sheathe it
The frame of the aviary is made from a pipe or corner. It is better / easier to use a profiled pipe. square or rectangular. The wall thickness is from 1.5 mm, the cross-section of pipes for racks is 4040, for lintels. 2040. And then look at the weight of the dog, the dimensions of the building and the planned materials. Now finding a corner of normal quality, and even even one, is a problem, and it will not work to straighten it without special equipment. Therefore, it is better, after all, a pipe. If you take a corner, then with a shelf of 4-5 cm and a thickness of 2 mm.
The walls of the enclosure can be made from imitation of timber. But the part facing inward also needs to be processed (otfugovat)
As already said, at least the back wall must be sewn up, or better. two adjacent ones. In regions where wood is inexpensive, they usually use a board or grooved molding. imitation of a bar, a floorboard, etc. We turn the front side into the enclosure. splinters in dogs are a very unpleasant thing. You can replace the boards with plywood, only a moisture-resistant, sanded, low-emission class (not construction) is required.
Choosing a place for an aviary in the yard
You want to make an aviary so that your pet feels good, so you need to take into account the character and his habits. While in the enclosure, the dog will continue to guard its territory, so it is best to fence off the area on a hill, if there is one. It is very good if you can see the entrance to the house, the entrance to the site, or at least you can track one of these important points. When choosing a place, keep in mind that your pet should see you at least from time to time. You or family members. Otherwise, whining and howling are guaranteed to you, especially if the dog is not used to restrictions.
When choosing materials, keep in mind that everything that can be gnawed will gnaw
When choosing a location, pay attention to the following points:
- It is better to retreat at least half a meter from the nearest building or fence, otherwise the litter cannot be cleaned from there.
- The aviary should not be threatened by snow melting. If a huge mass suddenly falls on the roof with a corresponding sound, the dog will be shocked. It will be very problematic to drive her into an aviary.
- It is necessary to unfold the structure so that the open part faces the southeast or southwest. In the northern regions, it is preferable to go to the south. Just don’t go north.
- It’s not bad if there is a massive bush or a spreading tree nearby. they will cover it from the wind and heat.
It is far from easy to take into account all these wishes, but it depends on how well the pet will feel.
Construction requirements and materials
Dogs of large breeds with good coat are not afraid of the cold. If they are outdoors all the time, they develop a thick undercoat that perfectly protects from the cold. It is much worse for them if they are sometimes warm or cold. What is still bad for them is a draft. Then a thick undercoat does not help. Therefore, one of the long walls of the enclosure must be sewn up. one or two of the short ones can be closed. With such a device, in any direction of the wind, you can find calm and the dog does not need to climb into the booth.
At least two adjoining walls must be sewn up
To make an aviary with your own hands, you will first need to decide on the size. It all depends on the breed, or rather, on the size of the dog. The larger it is, the more spacious the pen she needs for normal health. For shepherd dogs, huskies and other not too large dogs, a corral with an area of 6 meters per individual is enough. For Alabai, Caucasian Shepherd Dogs, Mastiffs and other large breeds, much more is needed. If the corral is considered only for “lock up while someone comes”, then you can fence off all the same 6 squares. Otherwise. at least 8
We proceed from the fact that the depth of the enclosure is desirable at least 2 meters. The width “looms” from the required area and the available free space.
Recommended enclosure area for large and medium dogs
Usually the aviary is made covered. You can leave part of the site without a roof, so that, if desired, the pet can bask in the sun. Only now you should not leave the site without protection: either your dog will run away, or some one will come to visit. Instead of a “normal” roof, there can be a lattice made of twigs. there is enough light and no surprises.
If the dog is going to spend the winter in the aviary, you can provide a winter road or put up an insulated booth. Chances are, your caretaker will like the second option better. They often prefer to sit on the roof of the booth, since there is a better view from there, and not everyone agrees to enter the closed part. nothing is visible. You can quickly stick your head out of the booth, and you have to run out of the winter road. In general, you better know your pet’s temperament. The aviary is not always built, because it is cheaper, but so that it is durable, reliable and convenient for the animal.
How high should the dog enclosure be? Since it is all the same to you to clean, the height is taken such that you can move inside without problems. Usually the height is from 180-185 cm, but depends on the height of the owner.
For the northern regions, a winterized winter road may be required
If the dog is kept in the aviary, they gather only for a short period of time. the arrival of neighbors, a team of builders, etc they only make a corral with a roof. If you plan to leave the animal behind the fence for a long time, you also need a booth. It can be put inside or attached.
Installation of overhead steps
Installation on a concrete monolithic or block base is carried out as follows:
- According to the building level, the horizontal of the base of the step is determined. If there are deviations, the defect is eliminated.
- A cement-sand mortar is applied to the base part, leveled over the surface.
- Lay the overhead element, leaving, if necessary, an extension above the riser.
If you need to attach a vertical part, installation is carried out on the same solution before installing the horizontal part.
Overhead steps provide both decorative and anti-slip functions.
Types and designs of concrete steps
The varieties into which concrete steps are subdivided differ in the composition of the material:
- unreinforced monolithic. cast entirely from a mixture of cement and fillers;
- reinforced concrete, reinforced. contain metal reinforcement inside the monolithic body, which gives the stone increased strength;
- fiber-reinforced concrete. strong synthetic fibers are included in the composition of the material for castings, which reduce the risk of cracking and give the product elasticity;
- with the addition of plasticizers to the concrete mixture, which increase water resistance and strength.
There are concrete steps and more complex structures:
- with top frieze (LSV);
- with a lower fascia part (LSN);
- for docking with the platform (LSP).
Products of this type are also suitable for prefabricated block type stairs. Hollow blocks are used only for making the base of the steps, and the treads will have to be laid separately. This type of construction is distinguished by less weight (compared to a monolithic structure). For DIY manufacturing, a monolithic type is also available.
Casting can be done in 2 ways:
- a low porch is often made solid, with the support of the entire body on the foundation;
- large stairs can be made on a stringer, based only on the lower and upper edges.
Features of a concrete staircase. advantages and disadvantages
The main advantage of concrete structures is strength and long service life. Artificial stone does not deteriorate from contact with water, and its strength is not affected by decay or corrosion processes.
In addition, the material has other advantages:
- availability of both ready-made concrete and its constituents;
- simple ways to build staircase structures;
- the ability to manufacture marches of any shape (straight, curved, with semicircular steps, etc.);
- fire safety;
- environmental friendliness.
The strength of concrete stairs is closely related to the weight of the structure. Under a street porch of a monolithic type, a foundation laying is required.
Supported structures will require the use of a metal frame made of beams that can support the total weight of the overhead stair treads and several people climbing them. These components add up the cost of the structure, which, as a result, will be higher than for a wooden structure. In addition to basic materials, finishing will also be required.
The main need to use coatings on outdoor stairs is to give the steps anti-slip properties. To do this, use cladding, linings or immediately make steps with a ribbed surface.
Another function of outdoor cladding is to protect concrete from water penetration into the body of the stone. Moisture-impregnated concrete in severe frost can gradually collapse. Internal marches are lined only for decorative purposes.
Installation of steps on a metal frame
It is even easier to make a typesetting structure: before making steps, you need to accurately calculate their number. When using ready-made concrete products, a fractional figure can be obtained in the calculations. In this case, the whole part of the fraction is taken as the number of steps, and the remainder can be leveled by erecting the lower platform, raising the fill of the lower part of the stringers above the ground.
The type-setting structure is made only on a metal frame from an I-beam or channel. Standard precast concrete elements are conveniently installed in the recesses of such supports. The steps of the LS type and others are mounted from below, laying the elements on the supports and aligning the protrusions on the lower steps with the upper recess. When all the parts are laid, fill the gaps between them with a cement-sand mixture (1: 3), rubbing it into the gap with a spatula.
How to make concrete steps (treads) for stairs with your own hands
Entrance groups and interiors in a multi-level building are hard to imagine without flights of stairs, along which residents go down and go up to rooms located above ground level.
It is possible to make steps for stairs (concrete and concrete goods) independently, but when performing this task, you should pay attention to the requirements of GOST for the material for casting. When making a composition according to a proven recipe and competently pouring, the steps will turn out to be reliable enough to serve for several decades.
Before making concrete steps, you should take care of the manufacture of the formwork. Its construction is especially difficult for a monolithic structure: you will have to build side walls from boards and plywood to the height of the upper platform, and before that you will also have to make the foundation for the street porch.
When supporting the span only on the upper and lower ends, it will be necessary to install a string-stringer from a channel or I-beam. Under the lower ends, you will also need to dig holes, deepening them into the ground by 50-80 cm.
After installing the bowstring, the metal base is fixed in the soil with concrete pouring or backing up the foundation pit, and the upper edge is welded to the embedded beams in the wall. In this case, the formwork is built so as to close not only the side, but also the lower part of the structure, which will hang above the ground. There should be no gaps in the inclined plane.
The steps begin to form from the very bottom element:
- A plank is placed across the formwork made for the sides, the height of which is slightly higher than the height of the future step. When filling out the form, the side of the board will remain, since the layer of concrete will be equal to the height of the step.
- Pour mortar into the prepared part of the formwork, leveling its horizontality in the tread area according to the building level. If reinforcement is performed, pre-cut pieces of mesh will interfere with a 5 cm layer of concrete: pour a little mortar, level, reinforce and fill the formwork.
- Allow the casting to set (1-2 hours). Install a transverse board for concreting the next tier of the staircase and repeat the pouring process.
- Moving up the stringer or the lower levels of the span, the entire porch is gradually flooded. The upper platform is aligned horizontally.
- Concrete gains strength for about 3 weeks. Before the expiration of this period after the mortar has set (24 hours), it is recommended to water the surface of the stairs well with clean water every day. It is undesirable to walk on the structure at this time.
The way how to make a concrete step curved along the front edge does not differ from pouring straight lines. For formwork, in this case, a plywood sheet is used, which is bent along the desired contour and fixed with spacers.
What concrete is needed?
For the manufacture of steps of various types, treads and monolithic stairs, concrete of a grade not lower than B15 is used.
To make it you will need:
- 1 part of cement grade M400-500 (according to the new marking CEM I-CEM II 32.5-42.5);
- 3 parts seeded fine sand;
- 4 parts of crushed stone from dense rocks with a fraction of 2-4 cm.
The amount of water for preparing the mixture is approximately ½ part, if necessary, the liquid can be added in small portions when mixing concrete. Excessive amount of water reduces the strength of the monolith.
Calculation of the size of the steps
The size of the steps (height, width of the tread) is determined individually, if the casting of the elements of the prefabricated structure will be done by hand. At the same time, the thickness of the slabs depends on the structure of the frame, but should not be less than 5 cm.
For precast concrete products of industrial production, these indicators are standard:
- width. 26-29 cm;
- height. 16-17 cm.
When choosing the parameters of the steps, take into account that low and wide steps make it easier to climb. According to SNiP, the width of the tread should not be less than the average length of the foot of an adult (27-29 cm).
Photo examples of original handmade doghouses
Dog owners are constantly coming up with unique trends in the design of a pet home. Recently, it has become popular to fit it into the overall design of the infield. Here you can turn on creativity and decorate your home in a completely unexpected way.
It is important to remember that when thinking over the design of a new house for your pet, you need to take into account its nature. For example, a booth for a large dog does not need to be decorated with flower arrangements or interesting faces. In this case, a strict design is appropriate.
In our gallery you can find photos of handmade dog kennels. Perhaps here you will find an original idea for your pet.
House with a small aviary
Kennel with an upper panoramic platform for better observation of the site
The kennel almost completely repeats the design of a residential building
DIY cat house: varieties, how to choose a house; 6 DIY ideas for making from cardboard, corrugated board and plywood; a tent house, beds for a kitten, a play complex, ideas for making with your own hands. in our publication.
What is suitable for insulating a doghouse
If your pet lives on the street, be sure to insulate his house. When choosing a heat insulator, first of all, it is necessary to build on the material of manufacture of the kennel itself. Consider the most optimal options.
If you nevertheless decide to choose such a heater, it must be carefully waterproofed and additional cladding should be used.
You need to insulate the entire booth: the floor, and the walls, and the roof. Be sure to cover the material with a vapor barrier. In addition, it is necessary to make a canopy in the kennel to protect against precipitation inside.
Advice! Artificial insulation can give off odors, so over time, dogs’ sense of smell will be reduced. Experts recommend using only natural heat insulators for a warm dog house.
First you need to clear the place of vegetation and debris, then level the site. It is advisable to provide a slight slope for the natural outflow of water. After that, it is necessary to mark up the future structure according to the drawing.
How to correctly determine the size of a doghouse and take into account all the nuances
When starting the construction of a new kennel for his dog, the owner must correctly calculate its size.
|Lase (W × D × H), cm||Entrance (W × H), cm|
|Small: Toy Terrier, Pekingese, Dachshund and others||70 × 55 × 60||30 × 40|
|Medium: Shar Pei, Bull Terrier, Rottweiler and others||115 × 75 × 80||35 × 50|
|Large: St. Bernard, Collie, Great Dane and others||135 × 100 × 95||40 × 60|
It is necessary to focus on the actual parameters of the pet, since in each case there are deviations from the breed standard. Therefore, owners should know the formula for calculating the size of the kennel:
- the height of the house is equal to the height of the dog at the withers, plus an additional 5 cm;
- the depth is equal to the dimensions of the pet in an extended lying state, with an additional 5 cm.
Detailed instructions for making do-it-yourself dog booths
Any dog needs its own house, especially one that lives in the fresh air. This way, the home caretaker will feel as comfortable as possible, regardless of the weather and season. It can be made in just a couple of hours from materials that are quite affordable for every owner. It is important to correctly build a structure that matches the growth of the pet. Today the editorial staff of Homius has prepared a story about how to make a dog kennel with your own hands. Real photo examples will help you choose the best option.
How to make a reliable brick doghouse with your own hands
Instead of brick, you can use natural stone with mandatory insulation. Such a kennel will last much longer than a tree house.
The whole construction process consists of the following stages.
- Pour the foundation and leave for a few days to set.
- Build a box with mandatory control of the verticality of surfaces and the correctness of the output of the corners.
- At the place of the inlet, skip several rows, upon reaching a certain height, lay a jumper from a wooden bar.
- Further erect a solid wall.
- When the box is ready, you can start insulation, as well as make a floor from boards and beams.
- Make a roof overlap from timber and boards.
- Install a wooden roof frame.
- Fix the roof covering.
The exterior decoration of the house is carried out at the request of the owner. You can simply plaster the wall or lay tiles.
In the video, you can see in more detail the principle of erecting a brick booth:
Making a dog booth with your own hands with drawings and a detailed description of the process
Do-it-yourself construction of a booth for your beloved pet does not require special professionalism and experience, in addition, it will help to save enough money. The main thing is to draw up a drawing in advance, choose a material and decide on the basis on which the structure will be installed.
You can draw a plan diagram manually or use any program for drawing up projects. With the help of technology, the need for materials will be calculated with maximum accuracy.