Peroxide is sufficient in a concentration of up to 2.5 ml per 10 liters of water. Apply the solution pointwise to the accumulation of weeds, increasing the aeration for the duration of the exposure. If the fish develop hypoxia, replace some of the water immediately. Peroxide kills cyanobacteria, black beard, euglena and Vietnamese. To remove parasites from the leaves, soak the plants separately in a 4 ml peroxide bath per 10 liters of water. Change 20-25% water after exposure.
Flora and fauna are sensitive to chlorine in different ways. Dissolve chlorine in 30-40 parts of water. Take a twig or leaf on which the algae has grown and dip it into the solution. If the greens turn white, dilute the preparation with water. While maintaining the natural color, add the solution to the aquarium gradually. Use one time. Powerful aeration, water changes and removal of dead algae are required.
Grows in black tufts. “Beard” is often confused with “Vietnamese”, which is not a gross mistake, because the methods of getting rid of parasitic greenery are identical. If you notice dark hairs on the plants in your aquarium, check out our article on Black Beard Control Techniques.
Weed with short filaments. It grows with weak filtration in stagnant water, as well as with a lack of carbon dioxide.
They provoke water bloom. Euglena occurs with an excess of light, a yellow tint of light and a temperature of 27 degrees. Euglena also appears with high levels of phosphates and nitrates.
Reduce the amount of fertilizer applied, then the growth of algae will be sharply reduced. Change water, add fast growing plants to absorb excess nutrients.
In reservoirs with an established biological environment, weeds are present in small quantities. It is worth worrying when faced with their rapid growth. Often a green bloom appears on the walls of the aquarium, the methods of dealing with which are discussed in a separate article. In order to combat the lower vegetation in the aquarium, it is important to identify the type of algae. So you are guaranteed to get rid of the parasitic flora and not harm other inhabitants of the reservoir.
The supply of carbon dioxide together with good lighting creates an unfavorable environment for lower plants. To combat algae, gradually increase the carbon dioxide in the aquarium using homemade or commercially available devices.
It is a fragile and slimy thread. Getting rid of algae is difficult as it grows at a high rate in the aquarium. Growth is caused by an excess of light and a lack of nutrition. Helps turn off the light in conjunction with the launch of algae-eating fish and the introduction of drugs.
Algae in the aquarium
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Algae are lower aquatic plants that, depending on the species, either attach to underwater surfaces or live freely in the water. The color of algae is diverse: green, pink, red, orange, almost black, purple, blue. This is due to the fact that some algae contain only chlorophyll, while others contain a number of pigments that color them in different colors. They can look like a mucous membrane or fluffy tufts, form a carpet that resembles moss, or long fibrous tufts, such as the ooze that we see in ponds in summer.
Algae, being an integral part of any natural body of water, are naturally present in amateur aquariums, getting there along with water, aquatic plants and animals. The presence of algae is inevitable where water, nutrients and light are simultaneously present. All three elements are found in every aquarium, so the aquarist must learn to accept that algae is a natural and inevitable part of the aquarium ecosystem.
Large quantities of algae and bacterial deposits appear when the optimal balance of organic fertilizers, light and carbon dioxide is disturbed in the home aquarium for one reason or another. Algal invasion is a natural result of unfavorable conditions. The presence of algae signals a deterioration in water quality, which immediately affects the health of aquatic life. The fight against algal fouling is often lengthy and difficult. But the best way to fight algae. creation of optimal conditions for the development of plants, which, taking away nutrients from lower organisms, do not allow them to develop.
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The main factors influencing the development of algae are light, temperature, availability of water, carbon sources, mineral and organic substances. The factors influencing the development of algae are subdivided into abiotic, not related to the activity of living organisms, and biotic, due to this activity. Many factors, especially abiotic ones, are limiting, i.e. they are able to restrict the development of algae. The life of all organisms, including algae, depends on the content of the necessary substances in the environment. The level at which a particular factor can act as a limiting factor is different for different types of algae. In aquatic ecosystems, limiting factors include temperature, transparency, flow, concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, salts and nutrients.
You may have already read that aquarium plants inhibit algae growth. It has not yet been proven that it is they that inhibit the growth of algae, but the fact remains. indeed, in those home aquariums in which many aquarium plants grow well, the problem of algae almost does not arise.
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It follows from this that the better we create conditions for the aquarium plants, the less problems we will have with algae. And in most cases, when an outbreak of algae occurs, this indicates that it was difficult for aquarium plants in such conditions, they lacked something and they did not grow.
Below is a list of the algae most commonly encountered by aquarists.
A bigger problem for the aquarist is water bloom, which is the responsibility of the unicellular algae euglena green. Most often, water bloom in aquariums manifests itself in summer, exactly when water blooms in natural reservoirs, from which we get tap water for our aquariums. Blooming can also appear if sunlight falls on the aquarium for a long time.
How to deal with water bloom? Aquarium plants do not help in the fight against water bloom. They do not suppress each other. over, aquarium plants do very well in such green water and it is impossible to call euglena a parasite of aquarium plants, unlike other algae. The problem is that the aquarist does not like at all when he sees nothing in addition to green water in the aquarium.
Effective methods of combating water bloom are the use of AQUAYER AlgoShock or UV lamp in the filter. In parallel, you need to make abundant water changes. There is another fairly simple method of dealing with water bloom. These algae can be filtered out. To do this, you can wrap a piece of thick cloth around the inlet of an external filter. At the same time, of course, the performance of the filter will drop, but in a few days the water will be much clearer.
In the case of “water bloom”, the folk method has proven itself well. for 3-4 days the aquarium is completely closed from the light, at least with a blanket, the water is not changed. Fish and higher plants, as a rule, tolerate this darkening well, and algae die in the dark and in the absence of an influx of fresh food. In addition, if possible, it is good to put a large amount of Daphnia, Cyclops, which feed on these algae, there. In addition, medications can be used. bicillin-5, trypaflavin.
Brown algae can be easily removed in 3-4 weeks simply by adding light intensity by adding lamps with the correct spectrum, while increasing the number of fast-growing plants such as vallisneria, hygrophilia, ambulia, which will take most of the food from the water, so the algae will not get anything. You can cure plants and get rid of brown algae by installing lamps above the aquarium. Correctly selected power of the illuminators and sufficient daylight hours will not only get rid of brown algae, but also prevent their appearance in the future. It is necessary to deal with these algae as follows: clean the glass of the aquarium and devices from them with a scraper, carefully remove the film from the leaves of the plants with your fingers, and use a hose to remove the dirt accumulated during cleaning from the bottom of the aquarium. If that doesn’t work, then the next step is to use a silicate absorbing filter. In a new aquarium, they will disappear on their own in a few weeks.
Blue-green algae, phytochrome pellets, mucus algae. how many different names this group of the most ancient autotrophic plants received from researchers. Blue-green algae are not actually algae, but colonies of bacteria, which allows you to understand how to get rid of them. They are called algae because they live by photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae. unicellular, filamentous and colonial microorganisms. The color ranges from light green to dark blue. The main participants in water bloom. Blue-green algae coat glass and aquatic plants with a slippery dark green coating. By typical blue-green algae, aquarists understand a slimy, slippery growth of a bluish-green hue, which quickly covers the entire equipment of a home aquarium with a thick carpet, suppressing all living things around. This blue-green algae has a characteristic unpleasant odor.
The reason for the appearance of these algae, first of all, is the increased low molecular weight organic substances (amino acids, carbohydrates, etc.) in the water. An excess of organic matter in the aquarium appears, for example, due to decomposition of not eaten food. Another reason is a slightly alkaline environment (pH 7.5-9.5). Blue-green, like other algae, are very sensitive in the water of microelements, which include, in particular, individual metals: iron, manganese, zinc, copper, etc. in water, it depends on the pH. In an alkaline environment, in which the salts of these metals are poorly soluble, the required concentration of these elements is provided, the excess of which (in an acidic environment) is destructive for algae.
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The development of blue-green algae is also facilitated by the low oxygen in the water and the low value of the redox potential. Their appearance is evidence of a general disease of the aquarium as an ecological system. An increase in water temperature by several degrees also contributes to the massive development of blue-greens. This is due to the fact that metabolic processes are activated and there is a rapid, in comparison with other plants, cell division. Another reason for the rapid development of blue-green is an increase in biogenic elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) in water.
It is desirable to deal with them in a comprehensive manner. Therefore, the best results can be obtained by a combination of several of the methods suggested below. Mechanical method. cleaning glass and plants from algae plaque, regular loosening of the soil. Blackout from direct sunlight. It is not possible to completely get rid of algae, but nevertheless, the development of blue-green algae can be significantly limited. Typically, these measures are applied when cleaning the aquarium weekly.
The biochemical method involves the use of drugs or chemicals to kill algae. After cleaning the aquarium, you can dissolve antibiotics or antiseptics in it. It has been noticed that algae do not like to be disturbed. Therefore, you need to regularly, preferably several times a day, remove them from the aquarium. Close off access to nutrients by completely darkening the aquarium, turning off aeration and filtration, and not changing the water until the algae has completely disappeared. It is better to remove valuable plant species from the aquarium at this time.
Stimulate the growth of higher plants that suppress the development of algae, for which to increase the number of rapidly growing plants, reduce the fish population, clean the soil daily and change 1/10 of the water volume. Therefore, regular maintenance of the aquarium is one of the main ways to prevent the appearance of these algae. In such conditions, algae die in 2-3 weeks. Increased oxygen content. Probably, the growth of blue-green algae in the aquarium is associated with low oxygen levels in the water. Therefore, it is advisable to increase the oxygen supply. This can be achieved by planting well-assimilating plants in the aquarium.
Diatoms are relatively rare in our aquariums. The main feature of these unicellular organisms is that they accumulate an excessive amount of silicon oxide, which contributes to the appearance of a hard outer shell on them. These algae have a round shape and are quite dense to the touch. The impression is that they sprinkled sand on the glasses and leaves of higher plants. The color of these algae can be brown or dark green.
It is very difficult to deal with them and the known cleaning methods will not help you. Invertebrates do not cause significant harm to these algae. The situation is similar with nurse fish. Here it remains only to prevent their appearance by maintaining the correct regime in the aquarium. To begin with, choose the right lighting and keep the water temperature 24-25 degrees. It is also very important to keep the aquarium clean and change the water regularly. If you do the above operations, then you leave no chance for diatoms to develop. In addition, diatom guests have a huge number of competitors that suppress the development of diatom pests.
Perhaps the so-called “beard”. one of the most “unkillable” groups of harmful aquarium algae, giving aquarists a lot of trouble and anxiety. “Beard” refers to algae of the purple family. These algae multiply very quickly and can spread throughout the aquarium in a short time, covering plants, walls, soil, stones and filters. Vietnamese is the name for red algae that got into aquariums with plants from Vietnam. It is a leaf growing from one point, and firmly attached to it, tassels of black-green threads 5-20 mm high. The flip flop begins to develop as a fringe along the edge of the leaf and then covers the entire leaf.
“Blackbeard” is an algae that forms firmly seated, slightly branched filaments up to 15 mm long from blue to black. In this case, the algae thallus grows into the epidermis of leaf blades, cuttings and stems of aquarium plants. It is very difficult to deal with the purple “black beard”. A feature of this group of species is the microsoft way of feeding, that is, organic residues that come with the flow of water. Algae grows firmly into the tissues of higher plants, as a result of which part of the abundantly overgrown leaves and even whole plants have to be removed. Crimson algae often become a real scourge of a decorative aquarium. Often, the main problem for the aquarist is not to grow good specimens of plants, and not to properly arrange the aquarium, but to protect the composition created by painstaking work from the invasion of the “black beard”.
It is completely impossible to get rid of the “black beard”, but with the correct ratio of fish and proper feeding, it does not greatly spoil the look of the underwater garden. Some well-known professional aquarists recommend the use of a supply of carbon dioxide and a daily change of part of the water as measures to suppress the purple in the aquarium.
If the defeat is not global, then you can try to fight the “beard” with a biological method. The biological method of combating algae is based on the method of feeding the black beard with organic residues:
-the number of fish in the aquarium should be reduced, if possible, leaving herbivorous fish,
-turn off filters and aeration. they “bring” organic matter to the beard brushes,
-Melania snails should be removed from the aquarium, because having settled on their shells, a black beard feels great. With their help, she moves around the aquarium and infects new areas. It is best to collect melania in the second half of the night, when many of them crawl out onto the walls of the aquarium.,
-do not feed the fish with dry food. For the duration of the battle with the “beard” exclude from the diet even branded flake food. During this period, you should only feed washed live food (tubule, small bloodworms, coretra), live or freshly frozen daphnia, and frozen food, and in such an amount that the fish eat a portion of food in 5-10 minutes,
-clean off the black beard with a scraper from the walls, at this moment goldfish and snails eat it. red coils. Old plant leaves and beard-affected soil fragments. removed, and this procedure must be repeated regularly when cleaning the aquarium,
-change water as often as possible, combining this procedure with careful siphoning of the soil. And the beard will almost disappear from your underwater garden, but if the regime is violated, it can reappear.
When keeping fish in an aquarium, you can face such a problem as filamentous algae. Green algae, which includes filamentous algae, parasitize the leaves of plants growing in the aquarium, entangling them with their filaments.
Everyone knows that if there are changes in the habitat of an organism, there is a threat to its existence. At this time, another organism, which is comfortable in this environment, begins to displace the first. If filamentous tissue appears in your aquarium, the methods of how to deal with it will not give the desired result until you eliminate the cause of its appearance.
Filamentous algae will necessarily appear in a reservoir in the presence of an excess content of water-soluble nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Therefore, first of all, you need to pay attention to the operation of the filter and lighting. Blue light, which favors the growth of filamentous fibers, must be eliminated and replaced with soft light. The accumulation of ammonia compounds occurs both when the filter is clogged, and when there are too many fish with an insufficient number of plants. Floating plants and those that grow rapidly (hygrophils, vallisneria) inhibit filamentous algae, taking away their food. The concentration of iron in the aquarium is of great importance. It should not exceed the permissible dose of 0.2 mg / l.
Removing algae from the aquarium by hand, for example when populating Spirogyra, is almost the only method of control. It is very important to cleanse the plants from the filament and rinse them, and supply CO2 to the aquarium only during the daytime. For all cleaning activities, many recommend darkening the aquarium for three days.
In some cases, the use of algicides, such as Sidex, containing glutaraldehyde, is very effective. Hydrogen peroxide in an amount of 6 to 10 mg / l and filamentous are also incompatible.
Biological methods of killing parasites of algae should not be neglected either. Whoever eats the thread is catfish, gastromizones, viviparous fish, petsilia and mollies, as well as karpozubov, Jordanella, Siamese epalceorinhoses.
Recommendations for placing plants in the aquarium
Larger, bushy plants will look best if planted in the background with the light source on top of the tank. Being in the foreground, these plants will obstruct the view in the aquarium and overwhelm the fish.
Fast-growing plants such as hornwort and elodea serrata are excellent oxygen suppliers and absorb nitrate from the water, which promotes algae growth.
Smaller plants look good in the middle and along the side walls of the underwater corner. Stand-alone plants need a lot of side space and look best when they stand alone in the center; bush plants, for the most part, have a slender stem and are most representative, as their name suggests, in the bush.
Small plants are suitable for the foreground, which do not obscure the view in the aquarium. It is better to leave the part of the aquarium closer to the front wall free in order to better observe its inhabitants.
In the part of the aquarium that is best lit, you should place plants that require a lot of light and grow quickly. Place marsh plants as high as possible so that they soon emerge from the water and can bloom.
Rules for planting plants in aquarium soil
The soil used to plant the plants should not squeeze the roots too much so that the water can flow freely around them. The roots should be placed according to their natural growth. Plants rooting in the soil are planted so that the growth bud is on the surface of the soil, and the roots are completely covered.
Cryptocorynes and Vallisneria root vertically downwards, this should be taken into account when planting. Aponogeton and Echinodorus have flat roots, they go down only a few centimeters and spread mainly horizontally.
Aquatic plants that suck up the substances they need directly from the water using the special organs of their leaves must be planted in the ground in the form of cuttings, without roots, after removing the leaves from the two lower nodes of the stem. Creepers should be planted in 4-6 pieces together, like bushes. To achieve the effect of a solid wall with a frontal view, plant the plants in a checkerboard pattern.
Sometimes it is better to plant plants not in the ground, but in pots. This is done when there are fish in the aquarium that like to dig in the ground, or when it is necessary to limit the growth of the plant. A pot culture also has the advantage that when cleaning the bottom soil, the vessels can simply be removed from the aquarium and then put back without damaging the roots.
Rules for the selection and planting of aquarium plants
Aquarium Plants Compatibility
You can not plant any plants nearby indiscriminately. Their individual types must be combined into groups, and then separated from each other using stones or driftwood.
Different types of mosses and plants can be used to cover the driftwood. Thin feathery moss, and in larger plants, like a fern, only the roots are carefully placed in narrow cracks in the wood.
If you have purchased different types of aquatic plants, then place them in the aquarium in the following order: plants rooting in the ground; plants floating in the water column, and the last. plants living on the surface of the water. Naturally fill the aquarium with water before the second step.
It is necessary to constantly monitor the growth of plants in the aquarium, remove overgrown shoots, make sure that plants floating on the surface and in the water column do not block the light of those that grow in the ground.
If you find a diseased shoot or leaf, immediately remove it from the reservoir. Once a week, you need to change the water in the aquarium by 10%, this is useful not only for plants, but also for fish.
Algae for aquarium
Plants in an aquarium play not only the role of a decorative, exotic element, but also carry a number of useful and necessary functions. They contribute to the biological balance of water, its enrichment with oxygen, metabolism, purification from harmful substances that appear in the process of fish life, as well as from the remains of decomposed food.
Live algae for the aquarium can be both beneficial and harmful. Useful or harmless algae species in aquariums are green, brown and quartz.
Dangerous types of algae for the aquarium are blue-green or red. they quickly adapt, and because of them instantly the water begins to bloom.
Depending on what algae got into the aquarium, they should either be dealt with or simply controlled.
Many people confuse algae with aquarium plants. Therefore, to the question of how to plant algae in an aquarium, there is only one answer. plants should be planted, algae enter the aquarium in the form of spores, with live fish food or with new plants.
How to plant algae in an aquarium
How to plant algae
- – tweezers;
- – nylon thread;
- – suction cups
Prepare the plants for planting Inspect the algae carefully. Remove rotten or sore parts. Remove dirt from the roots. Prepare a weak saline solution at the rate of 1 teaspoon of salt per liter of water. Rinse each plant thoroughly and then let sit in the solution for at least five minutes. it is necessary for the destruction of harmful organisms. Rinse with running water. Shorten unnecessarily long roots.
Choose a Planting Method for Algae There are two methods for planting plants that take root in soil. You can plant algae in an aquarium that is already partially filled with water, or you can first plant the plants in the ground, and only then fill in the water. Each of these methods has its own pros and cons. In the first case, it is much easier to give the algae the desired position, in the second. easier to fix the plant in the soil.
Consider the algae planting site It should be remembered that plants, as a rule, should occupy no more than 1/3 of the area. It is recommended to plant thick and large algae at the far wall. If planted forward, they can obstruct the view and crowd out the fish. Medium sized plants will look good on the sides and in the middle of the tank. It is recommended to place freestanding algae in the center. Plant undersized algae in the foreground, leaving part of the front wall free. Make sure that light-loving plants are located as close as possible to the light source and do not obscure each other.
When planting algae in a dry aquarium, it is necessary to make small depressions in the previously marked places of the soil. Gently lower the plant into the hole and make sure its roots are pointing down and not coming out to the surface. Lightly compact the soil around the planted plant.
In order to properly plant the algae in an already filled aquarium, you will need tweezers. Gently pinch the roots of the algae with tweezers and insert into the soil. Unclench the ends of the tweezers and remove them, holding them at an angle to the plant. If the plant emerges, it is recommended to tie its roots to the stone in advance using a nylon thread. It will be possible to remove the thread after the algae is finally rooted.
Floating plants are the last to enter a water-filled aquarium. In order to limit the area of their placement, you can use a nylon thread, tying it to the suction cups attached to the walls of the aquarium.
- “Tips for a novice aquarist”, V.А. Smirnov. New initiative. 1992.
How to plant algae in an aquarium?
- Lighting devices
- Aquarium scraper
- Long tweezers
It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that they have a juicy bright green appearance, there are no damage and traces of rot. You should not buy large plants right away, since small and young ones take root best in a new place. It is not necessary to transport purchased plants with water in any container, it is enough to keep them moist and warm.
It is impossible to plant such plants immediately. Before that, you need to remove traces of rot from them, deliberately damaged twigs or leaves, remove snail eggs and filamentous algae. It would be nice to disinfect them in a weak 2% solution of potassium permanganate or 1% alum for 5-15 minutes. After which they must be rinsed in water.
Before planting the algae in the aquarium, remove too long roots based on the thickness of the soil in your aquarium. This further stimulates the growth of the root system in a new location. Plants should not be planted very close to each other. Some species, such as vallisneria and sagittaria, can produce many lateral processes in a short time.
When planting, you need to make sure that the growth bud is above the soil surface. The roots should not be squeezed by the soil, water should have free access to the root system. However, the roots must be completely covered. Also, before planting algae, it is necessary to read special literature or consult with experienced aquarists.
The fact is that the root system of plants in each species behaves differently. Some roots grow to the sides, others on the contrary. only down, which should also be taken into account when landing. When keeping fish species in the aquarium that like to dig in the ground, such as catfish-wipers or goldfish, the best option for planting plants can be considered the option of planting in pots.
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It can also be used to prevent plants from growing uncontrollably. On the other hand, if it is necessary to flush the soil, in this case it will be easy to take out the pots, and then put them back in place, without any damage to the roots. Plants are planted at the rate. the more plants there are per fish, the better.
But it should also be remembered that plants should not occupy more than a third of the soil area. At night, aquarium plants absorb oxygen, and an excess of them can lead to oxygen starvation of the fish. You can also tell some of the rules for placing plants over the area of \ u200b \ u200bthe soil.
In the background, it is best to place dense and large plants, on which the light will fall from above. Medium-sized plants are best planted along the sidewalls. It is best to plant low-growing shrubs in the center of the aquarium. You do not need to plant anything on the area in front of the front glass of the aquarium, otherwise you will not be able to fully observe the fish.
How to properly plant plants in an aquarium
Plants not only create a unique and original look for your aquarium, but also play an important role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem. Therefore, it is important to know and follow some basic techniques when selecting and planting plants, so that later you can enjoy the creation of your own hands.
So, how to properly plant plants in an aquarium?
First of all, each plant must be cleaned of filamentous algae and snail eggs attached to it. Remove damaged areas. Then it needs to be disinfected for about 20 minutes in a pink (to red) solution of potassium permanganate. A bath (5.10 minutes) with a solution of alum (1 teaspoon / 1 liter of water) or washing with a solution of hydrogen peroxide (1 teaspoon / 1 liter of water) is also recommended. After which the plants must be rinsed. To speed up growth, the roots can be trimmed slightly. Then it is necessary to fill the aquarium with rinsed soil to a height of no more than 10 cm and fill it with water (5.10 cm).
Plants should be placed in the aquarium from the back wall. The tallest plants are planted in the background. The viewing side, as a rule, is left free or those plant species that remain small or form a continuous vegetation cover are distributed along it.
When planting, the roots must be placed in the direction of their natural growth. So in Cryptocoryne and Vallisneria, the roots grow vertically downward, while in Aponogetones and Echinodorus, the roots go down only a few centimeters and spread, as a rule, horizontally.
In order to place the roots in the soil vertically downwards, you need to make a hole a little deeper and place the plant in it so that it falls just below the root collar, but the root is straightened at the same time. Then, lightly crushing the soil, very carefully pull the plant up so that the root neck appears. Thus, even the thinnest root branches will be located directly in the ground.
When planting plants with horizontally growing roots, you need to make an oblong and not too deep hole, place the roots in it “fanning out” and then sprinkle them with soil.
Creeping plants must be planted in groups of 4-6, like bushes, otherwise they look unpresentable. But at the same time, the distance between each of them should be about 1-2 cm (this is especially important for kabombs).
Plants that do not grow as they grow are also usually planted in clusters.
Plants with horizontally branching rhizomes, such as calamus, must be planted at a slope so that the sprouting areas protrude from the ground.
Aquatic plants, floating in the water column and receiving food directly from the water through special organs on their leaves, are planted in the ground by cuttings, without roots. Before planting, it is necessary to remove the leaves from the two lower nodes of the stem. Flat stones will help keep plants from floating up until they take root.
Plants that receive food from the soil exclusively with the help of roots, as well as plants that, although with difficulty “work” by the roots, still need nutrients (for example: aponogeton, Echinodorus, Cryptocoryne), must be placed in the soil in bowls or pots. These bowls can be filled with an earthen mixture that is two-thirds clay and aquarium peat. Specially prepared mixes for aquariums are now on the market. It is strongly not recommended to use earthen mixtures for flowers in the aquarium. In order not to spoil the design of the aquarium by the look of tall bowls and pots protruding from the ground, they are usually decorated with stones.
Planting in pots is also recommended for aquariums where fish burrowing are expected, such as cichlids.
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In addition, potted plants have the advantage that when cleaning the bottom soil, the vessels can simply be removed from the aquarium and then put back without damaging the roots.
The planting density of plants in an aquarium is individual for different plants and depends on the size of each individual individually and on its expected growth. So, for example, such plants as Cryptocoryne Griffith (C. griffithi), Cryptocoryne ciliata (C. ciliata) or Cryptocoryne Beckett (C. beckettii) grow large and the distance between them, respectively, should be at least 15 cm. and echinodorus, the distance between small specimens should be from 8 to 10 cm, and between larger plants from 15 to 30 cm.In some plant species, many leaves grow over time (for example, some species of aponogeton have 20-40 leaves), and they need more free space on all (!) sides.
The most suitable time for planting plants. Spring. Young specimens are usually supplied from greenhouses, where plants are accustomed to the correct change of seasons. At this time, their dormant period ends (November, January) and they begin to sprout new shoots.
Plants in an aquarium reproduce, as a rule, in a vegetative way: by cuttings, shoots, offspring, as well as by dividing the plant. Shoots should only be removed from the mother plant when they have formed a sufficient number of roots. Cuttings can be obtained by separating branches or shortening the main stem. Some plant species form roots without planting in the ground. They can be fixed to the ground and wait for them to take root. It is also recommended to divide the plants in the spring. Most aquarists use these simple vegetative propagation methods as they are applicable to almost all aquatic plants and are not too difficult.
There are two types of plant propagation: seed and vegetative. Vegetative propagation can take place in different ways, as seen in the figure:
a) in plants with an erect stem, to get a cutting, you can simply cut off the part between the two nodes;
b) the plant has shoots with daughter plants. After a while, you can cut the “umbilical cord” that connects them to the mother plant, and get a completely independent sample;
c) on the leaf blade of some floating plants, in the figure Pterygoid Fern or Water Cabbage (Ceratopteris pteridoides), especially at their edges, daughter plants are formed. After a while, they will separate from the mother plant and begin an independent life on the surface of the water.
Often aquarists hesitate to plant beautiful and large plants. As a rule, this is due to the experience of past failures. But when setting up a new aquarium, how can you not try to plant plants while the aquarium is without fish. At the same time, it is at the beginning, in the first weeks after planting in the aquarium, that the plants tolerate especially poorly and do not grow. Usually they either lack nutrients or the water parameters are not suitable (perhaps not yet). It is necessary to check and try everything. Only if the plants do not develop at normal water parameters for them, the required level of illumination, and sufficient CO2, it can be assumed that they are sick.
A body of water in the highlands of Sri Lanka. On the surface of the water, you can recognize dense thickets of Indian Limnophila (Limnophila indica), and in the foreground, Alocasia macrorrhiza.
It turned out to be a long article. In the next one I will tell you how to feed the plants in the aquarium. Yes, exactly to feed! No one is surprised by the need to feed the fish. And plants also need nutrition, which they can not always receive in full in a regular aquarium. Therefore, those aquarists who are especially interested in plant growth should do more than just plant a plant in an aquarium and wait for it to become a wonderful decoration for their underwater garden.
Installation of decorative elements
Initially, the selected substrate is poured into the new tank and decorative elements are installed. If necessary, grottoes, driftwood and other components are decorated with selected vegetation. The procedure is carried out before water is poured into the aquarium. Indeed, in the process of decoration, they often move.
Javanese moss and some types of ferns are used to decorate driftwood, smooth and flat stones. A nylon thread is used to fix them. The thread will collapse within 10-14 days. This time is enough for the moss to attach to a stone or snag.
Pouring water into the container is performed in several stages. Each time the level is raised by 1–2 cm.
How to plant algae in an aquarium
Both experienced and novice aquarists will be able to plant plants. In order for them to please for a long time, the disembarkation must be done correctly. There are a few rules to follow.
Before planting a plant, it is given a visual assessment. The damaged or weak part is carefully removed. The root system is cleared of soil lumps. If necessary, the roots are washed under running water.
The powerful root system is cut and pruned. Leave 2-4 cm. This procedure is carried out so that the selected vegetation takes root, and the root system develops better. Excessively thin roots do not touch, since their integrity is easy to break.
Representatives of the flora, which are distinguished by a long stem, are often not transplanted, since they do not take root well.
Before placing the plants in the aquarium, they are disinfected. For this, a solution is prepared that includes salt (table salt). With the help of such a composition, pathogens and infections are removed.
Experienced aquarists start filling the tank from the foreground. After all, planting plants near the front wall is difficult, since the number of suitable species is limited.
For these purposes, dwarf type anubias are used. But they do require regular lighting. Therefore, they can only be grown by experienced aquarists. For planting, tweezers are used, with which the root system is pressed.
Always start planting from the rear window. This rule refers not so much to the correct fit as to good tone and the correct design. The front of the aquarium should be free of plants, or planted with small plants that form a grass cover on the ground.
Avoid bending the roots to the sides. Plants with a strong root system, such as Cryptocorynes or Vallisneria, should have straight roots and no bends. To do this, a deepening is made in the soil with a stick and the plant is planted deeper than the root neck, the root is covered with soil and then the plants are slightly pulled up to the root neck, so the root will always be straight and even.
When planting plants, it is very convenient to use a special long tweezers for aquarium plants in cases when your aquarium is full of water or has already been launched. With the help of tweezers, it is easy and convenient to grab the plant by the root without damaging it and immediately deepen it in the ground without first making a hole. This method can be used to plant a large number of small and large plants in a short time.
Position the plant root system according to its natural growth. As we have already described for plants with a powerful root, it should be completely buried and directed downward. Plants like Aponogeton and Echinodorus have flat roots growing in a horizontal plane.
A wide, shallow hole is made for them, the roots are spread like a fan in it and sprinkled with soil. Plants with a tuber or bulb are planted so that the tuber is not covered with soil on top. Mosses and ferns can be tied with a thread or fishing line to a stone or snag on which they will grow, after rooting, the fishing line or thread should be removed.
Do not plant different types of plants next to each other. Young plants tend to grow and multiply. If two different types of plants are planted next to each other, then, having grown, one of them will be in excellent condition, and the other in oppressed. A taller, faster growing plant will always dominate a shorter and slower growing plant. To do this, conditionally divide the aquarium into sectors and in each of them plant a certain type of plant in groups in accordance with your taste and preferences.
Do not plant densely fast growing plants. Fast-growing plants should be planted at a certain distance from each other, because growing in a short time, they will interfere with each other to receive nutrients and light in the required quantities, which over time will lead them to a deplorable state. If you do not know how to properly plant a plant and at what distance from each other, then look in the reference book for its adult sizes. Some especially large plants are planted in aquariums in a single copy at the back wall or in the corners, while the distance to neighboring plants can reach 20 centimeters or more.
Plants that feed exclusively through the root system should be properly planted in fertilized soil or in pots with specialized soil for aquarium plants. Such plants include cryptocorynes, aponogeton, echinodorus. Currently, there is a greater variety of fertilizers for aquarium soil, some of them are applied under the root of large plants immediately at the time of transplanting, you should not neglect them, especially when growing such types of plants.
Remember that each plant transplant in the aquarium is a great stress for him and a temporary stop in growth. This stress can be avoided or minimized by using small plant pots. In them, you can periodically change the location of your breeder without disturbing the root system, and if you choose the right size, you can camouflage it very well in the aquarium soil.
Aquarium plants not only add beauty and liveliness to the aquarium, but also serve as a breeding ground for its inhabitants, purify water, increase oxygen levels, and one might say heal. Therefore, the question: ‘How to plant aquarium plants?’ Is very important.
Some aquarists are wondering how to plant whimsical plants in an aquarium? After all, certain types of grown mosses and ferns require special conditions. Therefore, for planting, they use containers or pots that are filled with a certain substrate.
For large and small containers, containers are used that have appropriate dimensions. If a container that does not fit in size is placed in a new or operated tank, this will provoke a violation of the ecosystem, the death of representatives of the fauna.
Pruning aquarium plants
Aquarium plants grow very quickly, and this affects both the appearance and the inhabitants (the main task of a good aquarium is that its inhabitants should not be crowded). Regular trimming and weeding will help keep your aquarium in good shape and here are the basic rules:
- yellowed and rotten leaves are removed
- long stems of soil plants are cut (they should not reach the surface of the water)
- after trimming, the soil must be blown out with a siphon.