Causes of pulmonary edema in dogs
There are three main mechanisms for the development of pulmonary edema:
- The blood pressure in the vessels of the lung rises, the permeability of the vascular wall for fluid increases, as a result of which it sweats into the extravascular space. It accumulates in the alveoli, developing pulmonary edema. This is the most common type. hydrostatic.
- There is also a membranous type of pulmonary edema, in which the integrity of the alveolar wall or capillaries (alveocapillary membrane) of the lung is disrupted under the influence of toxic substances.
- With a decrease in oncotic (protein) blood pressure: with an insufficient amount of protein molecules in the blood, its liquid part is not sufficiently retained in the bloodstream and begins to seep through the walls of blood vessels.
In any case, the area of the lungs participating in gas exchange with air decreases, as a result of which an insufficient amount of oxygen enters the blood (hypoxemia), an excess of carbon dioxide accumulates (hypercapnia) and oxygen starvation of all body tissues (hypoxia). First of all, the brain and heart suffer from a lack of oxygen as active consumers of energy.
According to the time of formation and accumulation of fluid in the lungs, edema usually develops quickly enough, that is, acutely; or slowly, chronically, which is observed with slowly progressive diseases (chronic renal failure, chronic diseases of the lungs themselves).
Pulmonary edema is a decompensated state of the body when forces and reserves to maintain balance (homeostasis) are exhausted. There are various physiological mechanisms that prevent both the onset and development of such a critical state. Thus, in an animal with pulmonary edema, it is required to identify the cause that entailed such significant changes in the body.
As a rule, pulmonary edema is caused by the following conditions of the body:
Pulmonary Edema. causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology
- decompensated heart failure;
- renal failure;
- allergic reactions (anaphylaxis);
- various infectious diseases;
- swelling with water or other liquids;
- getting into the lungs of foreign objects.
With heart failure, blood stagnation occurs in the pulmonary circulation. It starts from the right ventricle of the heart, from which venous blood enters the lungs through the pulmonary arteries, there it is depleted in carbon dioxide, enriched with oxygen, and then through the pulmonary veins, the same blood, which has become arterial, returns to the left atrium.
However, at this stage, with developed heart problems, it does not enter the left half of the heart in full, and with each cardiac cycle, the volume of unincorporated blood increases, the pressure rises and pulmonary edema develops.
Treatment of pulmonary edema in dogs
All this is possible only in a hospital setting. It is advisable to leave the animal under observation for 2-3 days until complete recovery from the edematous state. Therapy includes the following measures:
- Lung tissue oxygenation.
- It is imperative that diuretics are prescribed to get rid of fluid through the body’s natural functions.
- Removal of edema with hormonal injections.
- Expansion of blood vessels is performed to reduce total pressure.
- Dogs in shock are prescribed sedatives.
- Bronchodilators are prescribed to help cough up sputum.
- In the presence of pronounced pain or before painful manipulations, a chest block is performed with novocaine.
- In an emergency, bloodletting can be used to lower blood pressure.
- Liquid from the lungs can be pumped out using a special apparatus.
What is pulmonary edema in a dog
Pulmonary edema is a critical, moderate to severe complication associated with other medical conditions. Characterized by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the lungs, airways, or alveoli (air sacs).
As a rule, the edema develops gradually. Therefore, if you find that your dog has breathing problems or shortness of breath, make an appointment with a doctor. When transporting, open the car window slightly to provide fresh air and avoid bumps to create less discomfort for the animal.
Stages of the disease
Pulmonary edema can be slow (chronic) or fast (acute).
Veterinarians distinguish two main stages of the pathological condition:
- Interstitial. the connective tissue of the lung is filled with fluid.
- Alveolar. an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the alveoli.
The transition from the interstitial stage to the alveolar stage is rapid, it may take only a few minutes.
The reaction of the dog’s owners should be immediate. this is the only way to save your pet.
Reasons for the appearance
By their nature, the causes of this dangerous condition are divided into cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic. The first group includes those associated with pathologies of the cardiovascular system. The second included all the others.
Treatment with drugs
Treatment for pulmonary edema in dogs consists of the following steps:
- stabilization of the state;
- edema treatment;
- elimination of the underlying disease.
Oxygen therapy (oxygen therapy) may be required to stabilize. And since edema often becomes the reason for the development of pneumonia, it is imperative that antibiotics are prescribed along with other methods of treatment.
For the treatment of edema, medications are prescribed, with the help of which the outflow of excess fluid. droppers. will be organized. In a liquefied state, the liquid comes out faster. They are placed intravenously, and since it is difficult to do this at home, the pet will need to be hospitalized. Periodically, the doctor may take repeated x-rays of the lungs to monitor how well fluid is leaving.
The difference between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic edema is that in the first type, the edema is removed with diuretics. In the second, they do not matter, since the lung tissue swells due to other diseases. For example, pancreatitis, sepsis, leptospirosis, etc.
Important! If the pet is discharged with a diuretic, be careful not to show signs of dehydration or electrolyte imbalance. Symptoms include lethargy, depression, gastrointestinal disturbances, or seizures. In this case, you need to stop giving the diuretic and call the veterinarian.
- Treatment will begin with oxygen therapy and some rest. To do this, use a mask that is connected to an oxygen cylinder or a special oxygen chamber.
- From diuretics will be prescribed “Furosemide” or “Lasix”. In some cases, stronger drugs are prescribed, such as Spironolactone, Hydrochlorothiazide (diuretics), or a vasodilator. a vasodilator.
- Subsequently, medications are prescribed to support the heart and a low sodium diet.
Recovery and prognosis depend on the underlying cause of the pulmonary edema. On average, recovery occurs most often within 24-72 hours and then does not require the appointment of special therapy. In severe cases, the so-called respiratory distress syndrome develops, which leads to the death of the animal.
Timely seeking help for animals with shortness of breath and immediate assistance to such patients is necessary to prevent complications and improve prognosis in the treatment of this condition.
How to treat pulmonary edema in cats and dogs
- limiting the physical activity of the animal,
- minimizing stress,
- oxygen therapy (oxygen inhalation),
- medication support.
It is necessary to prescribe diuretic drugs (furosemide, mannitol), glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, prednisolone), in some cases it is advisable to use sedatives (acepromazine). Also shown is the use of vasodilators (nitroglycerin), bronchodilators (aminophylline).
With noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, the underlying disease is treated, in particular, the treatment of hypoproteinemia. These measures are aimed at relieving respiratory failure, correcting the increasing oxygen starvation, and preventing shock.
Intensive therapy for pulmonary edema should be carried out until the animal is completely stabilized. Most often, such patients require inpatient observation for constant monitoring, the possibility of additional examinations and resuscitation measures in case of deterioration.
Causes of pulmonary edema and what happens
Pulmonary edema can develop in 3 main mechanisms:
- Increased hydrostatic pressure in the vessels of the pulmonary circulation (when, with an acute increase in pressure in the capillary, its permeability is disturbed and the liquid part of the blood enters the interstitial tissue of the lung). This occurs with various heart defects, cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and other heart diseases, as well as with volumetric and rapid intravenous infusions.
- Decrease in oncotic blood pressure (in this case, there is a difference between oncotic blood pressure and oncotic pressure of the intercellular fluid, and in order to equalize this difference, the fluid from the vessel goes out into the extracellular space. the interstitium). This mechanism develops with hypoproteinemia.
- Increase in the permeability of the capillary-alveolar membranes (as a result of any damage, the protein structure of the capillary-alveolar membranes is disrupted with the release of fluid into the interstitial space). This process is observed in pneumonia, various intoxications, disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome.
The development of pulmonary edema can also contribute to renal failure, snakebite, heatstroke, electrical injury, traumatic brain injury.
What is pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema is a pathological condition in which the liquid part of the blood sweats and accumulates in the intercellular space (interstitium) of the lungs or pulmonary alveoli.
The lungs are the main organ of the respiratory system, it is in it that gas exchange takes place. The right and left lungs are formed by the bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar passages and alveoli surrounded by connective tissue. Direct gas exchange in the lungs occurs in the acini. It is a functional unit of the lung, represented by bronchioles, alveolar passages and alveoli. Alveoli are vesicles through which blood-carrying capillaries pass. The inner surface of the alveoli is lined with specific epithelial cells. the respiratory epithelium. Its cells are closely adjacent to the cells of blood vessels, due to which it is possible to enrich the blood with oxygen.
Types of pulmonary edema
Thus, given the mechanism by which the pathology develops, cardiogenic, noncardiogenic and mixed pulmonary edema are distinguished.
Cardiogenic (so-called cardiac) pulmonary edema develops due to an increase in hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary system, leading to acute left ventricular failure. In this case, any reason that leads to an increase in pressure in the pulmonary artery is important. The rapidly increasing hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary circulation leads to pathological sweating of fluid into the lung tissue, and then into the alveoli. Most often, cardiogenic pulmonary edema develops against the background of arterial hypertension, cardiosclerosis, various heart defects.
Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is the accumulation of fluid in the interstitial tissue of the lung and alveoli, not associated with heart disease. It occurs rather due to an increase in capillary permeability, and not as a result of an increase in hydrostatic pressure, in contrast to cardiogenic pulmonary edema. It occurs mainly in dogs, less commonly in cats. The most common causes include upper airway obstruction (laryngeal paralysis, foreign bodies, abscesses), traumatic brain injury, smoke poisoning, sepsis, anaphylactic shock in cats.
How is pulmonary edema diagnosed in cats and dogs?
The diagnosis is based on clinical signs, auscultation (listening) of the lungs, and X-ray data. On auscultation, diffuse moist rales are noted. In laboratory blood tests, leukocytosis, hyperazotemia, increased activity of liver enzymes are sometimes noted.
With echocardiographic examination, cardiac pathologies leading to pulmonary edema can be excluded.
The gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary edema is chest x-ray in two mutually perpendicular views. An x-ray shows a decrease in the transparency of the lung tissue, expansion and “blurring” of the roots of the lungs. These changes can be both diffuse and affect all lobes of the lungs, and focal, which is less common.
The disease is differentiated from other pathologies accompanied by shortness of breath: collapse of the trachea, paralysis of the larynx, obstruction of the upper airways, neoplasms, thromboembolism in cats.
What is pulmonary edema?
Pulmonary edema refers to a condition in which the alveoli (tiny accumulations of air sacs in the lungs) fill with fluid instead, displacing the amount of possible air intake and making it difficult to breathe. This condition usually results from heart failure, cancer, a traumatic event such as electric shock or shock, or head injury. In most cases, pulmonary edema can be treated with diuretics such as furosemide, but the underlying cause must be addressed.
Varieties and causes
The most severe form of fluid in the lungs. cardiogenic pulmonary edema. is the result of increased pulmonary capillary pressure due to heart failure. Pets that have this condition usually have an underlying heart condition that has most likely caused health problems in the past. This type of edema is located only on the left side of the lungs and can be life-threatening, especially in complete heart failure.
On the other hand, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema usually spreads to both sides of the lungs and can result from severe shock, airway blockage from seizures or a foreign body, or sepsis (bacteria in the bloodstream) during a severe infection.
How to treat cardiogenic pulmonary edema
Upon arrival at your veterinarian’s office, a complete examination of your dog will be done, which will include listening to the heart through a stethoscope. In most cases, chest x-rays (X-rays) are used to diagnose all forms of pulmonary edema. If heart failure is found, treatment will begin with supplemental oxygen, rest, and Lasix (furosemide), a common diuretic.
Furosemide is almost always used as an immediate mowing line treatment in cases of congestive heart failure to remove excess fluid accumulation in the lungs and other areas of the body. However, your veterinarian may prescribe something stronger, such as spironolactone or hydrochlorothiazide (diuretics), or a vasodilator. In extreme cases, a mechanical respirator may be provided.
Follow-up treatment for cardiogenic patients consists of drugs to strengthen the heart and a low-sodium diet. If your veterinarian prescribes furosemide for your dog or sends you home with a diuretic, monitor your pet for signs of dehydration due to electrolyte imbalances in the blood. If your dog experiences lethargy, depression, gastrointestinal disturbances, or seizures, alert your veterinarian of an adverse reaction that will then require additional treatment.
Treatment of noncardiogenic conditions
For noncardiogenic conditions, your veterinarian will examine your dog for burns around the mouth area from electric shock from an extension cord. Your veterinarian will also check the airway (possibly on an X-ray) to determine if any foreign matter has become trapped in it, preventing full breathing. If found, your veterinarian will try to remove the blockage with a sedative; some blockages may require surgery.
Most noncardiogenic edema also uses medications, including diuretics to remove excess fluid, anti-inflammatories to reduce swelling, and colloidal fluids to increase blood pressure in the event of blood loss. Your veterinarian will determine the best course of action and the prognosis is generally good.
For non-heart problems, your veterinarian will provide follow-up instructions for treating the underlying condition. In all cases, repeat diagnostic tests will check the fluid level in your dog’s lungs to ensure a successful treatment.
Pulmonary edema in dogs
Both humans and pets can suffer from pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs), a condition that usually reveals an underlying medical condition. However, this symptom itself can be scary and sometimes life-threatening. If you notice that your dog is coughing or is starting to breathe, schedule an appointment with your veterinarian right away to determine if the condition is cardiogenic (originating in the heart) or non-cardiogenic. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema can be fatal, so the sooner you treat it, the better the prognosis.
Symptoms in dogs
Several symptoms may indicate if your dog has pulmonary edema. If your dog is breathing heavily, you need to monitor closely. Coughing and unusually fast breathing may indicate that your dog is not getting the oxygen it needs. Dogs with pulmonary edema may also have a dilated jugular vein. If left untreated, your dog’s lips can turn blue, a condition known as cyanosis. If this happens, then an emergency trip to the veterinarian is necessary.
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema is difficult to prevent if there is an underlying heart problem. However, taking proper care of your dog’s condition can protect against fluid-filled lungs and other complications.
To prevent noncardiogenic edema, remove access to all exposed electrical cords and get veterinary treatment immediately if your dog suffers a seizure, even if it seems minor.
Flash Pulmonary Edema Emergency
This article is provided for informational purposes only. If your dog shows any signs of illness, please seek veterinarian advice as soon as possible.
If you suspect your pet is sick, call your vet immediately. For health-related questions, always consult your veterinarian, as they have examined your pet, know the pet’s health history, and can make the best recommendations for your pet.
Pulmonary edema in dogs
Pulmonary edema is a critical condition of the organ. Edema can develop as an independent disease or be the result of other serious diseases. With this pathology, the capillaries are filled with blood, and the formation of exudate is observed, which subsequently goes into the intermediate tissue of the lungs and alveoli. Pulmonary edema leads to impaired breathing and gas exchange. This pathology may resemble asphyxia.
Sled dogs and sporting dogs are most commonly affected by pulmonary edema. This statistic is explained by the fact that it is these dog breeds that endure serious physical activity.
Treatment of pulmonary edema in dogs
Effective treatment for edema depends on both the veterinarian and the owner of the animal. The dog needs to be given complete rest, to limit physical activity as much as possible, and also, if possible, to protect it from any stress. With pulmonary edema, oxygen inhalation and drug therapy are also performed. The latter, in turn, involves the use of glucocorticoids, vasodilators, bronchodilators and diuretics. If the sick dog is very nervous, the veterinarian will prescribe a sedative, such as acepromazine. Bloodletting can also be used. Calcium chloride and glucose solution are administered intravenously to the dog. Cordiamine or caffeine is used to maintain normal heart function. In some cases, diuretics are prescribed.
If non-cardiogenic edema occurs, first of all, measures are taken to treat the underlying disease.
Pulmonary edema is a critical condition, which means that the pet is most often transferred to the hospital. This allows you to constantly monitor the animal, as well as conduct examinations and take resuscitation measures, if necessary.
Causes of pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema is a serious pathology that can be caused by a number of serious diseases and disorders in the body, including:
- Heart disease and defects (eg, endocraditis and kradiomypathy), intravenous infusion. The above diseases affect the hydrostatic pressure in the vessels of the animal. It rises rapidly and leads to impaired capillary permeability and the release of blood into the lung tissue.
- Hypoproteinemia is a disease that triggers a mechanism to reduce oncotic pressure. In this case, an imbalance appears between the oncotic pressure of the intercellular fluid and a similar blood pressure. The body is trying to eliminate this difference, so the fluid leaves the vessel into the interstitium.
- Inflammation of the lungs, intoxication of the body. These diseases lead to a sharp increase in the permeability of the membranes of capillaries and alveoli. This, in turn, provokes damage to the very protein structure of membranes. The fluid (as in the case of hypoproteinemia) in this case goes into the interstitium.
- Renal failure.
- Head injury.
- Overheating of the body.
- Long distance running.
- Inhaling too hot air.
- Electric shock.
- Ingestion of poison (for example, snake).
Diagnosing pulmonary edema in dogs
The diagnosis of such a phenomenon is made on the basis of a detailed analysis of all symptoms, listening to the organ, as well as X-ray data. In this case, wet wheezing should be noticed in the dog’s chest. A complete blood count, in turn, indicates an increased activity of liver enzymes, leukocytosis, and hyperazotemia. Also, the veterinarian often conducts an echocardiographic study, which allows you to discard all possible cardiac disorders that are quite capable of leading to pulmonary edema.
As for the X-ray of the animal’s chest, if pulmonary edema is suspected, this procedure is carried out in two perpendicular projections. Pathology is detected if the picture shows a noticeable decrease in the transparency of the lung tissues, as well as the fuzziness and increase in their roots. Such violations can be traced in all lobes of the organ, or be focal, which, however, is observed quite rarely.
The task of veterinarians, as a rule, is complicated by the fact that pulmonary edema must be separated from various pathologies with similar symptoms. Among these critical conditions of the body, collapse of the trachea, various neoplasms, paralysis of the larynx, as well as airway obstruction.
Symptoms accompanying pulmonary edema in dogs
Pulmonary edema is a critical condition that requires immediate professional intervention. A number of other symptoms also indicate pulmonary edema, including rapid pulse and breathing, severe shortness of breath, blue mucous membranes in the dog’s mouth, fussiness and chaotic behavior, and tachycardia. Often, with pulmonary edema, a substance is released from the pet’s oral cavity that looks like foam, salivary fluid or vomit. These clinical signs can manifest themselves in different ways, depending on the cause of the edema. They usually provoke acute respiratory distress, which can pose a serious threat to the dog’s life.
There are no special rules for the prevention of pulmonary edema. To reduce the risk of pathology will allow the correct dog, moderate physical activity, as well as the prevention of overheating of the animal. If the main symptom of edema. shortness of breath has become too noticeable, you should immediately contact a veterinary clinic.
How to remove pulmonary edema in a dog
Good afternoon, the situation is very difficult. I have a dog, Yorkshire Terrier breed, his name is Ricky, he is 14 years old. Yesterday morning, at 12 o’clock, I saw that the dog was breathing heavily, coordination of movement was impaired, it was swollen in the chest area. Since I realized that there was very little time left, I grabbed him and ran to the nearest veterinary clinic. The dog was x-rayed, injected with medication, put on a dropper, put in a hospital, supplied the supplementary oxygen supply and began to give a diuretic. By 10 o’clock in the evening, the dog’s condition in terms of lungs improved: the edema was stopped. But cerebral ischemia began. I was encouraged, they said that the worst is over, that 70% of the outcomes of ischemia treatment have a positive outcome. Today I came at 12 noon to his veterinary clinic. They said that the state was bad. Ischemia is no longer so worried as that it is possible that the kidneys have begun to fail. They did not promise anything, but they said that they were doing everything possible. on DO is still in the hospital, the oxygen supply was not turned off, he has a dropper, injections of drugs, give a diuretic, feed, go for a walk with him. I don’t know how best to proceed now. In principle, only yesterday they were ready to give him to us, but on the condition that we inject him with medicine every 3 hours. We did not take responsibility, since the first day of the shopping mall was the most critical, and decided to leave it under the supervision of professionals. Once we have already visited your clinic, we liked it very much. The dog received timely treatment, the dog recovered, very good doctors and the latest equipment. Of course, I would like the dog to be with you, but since the situation was extremely critical, and there was simply no time to take him somewhere, I had to run to the first nearest clinic. My family and I fear that the chances are slim that he will make it out. I would be very grateful if you could give advice on how best to proceed. Maybe you have already had such cases, can you tell me what the probability of recovery is? Does it make sense to bring him to you?
If for a more accurate answer it is necessary to provide more specific information about the condition of the dog, and the methods of treatment, could you please clarify which ones? I would have found out, wrote in more and more detail. I’m very worried, every minute counts. If I can still help Ricky with anything, I would like to do it urgently.
Good afternoon. From your description, it is not entirely clear to me what diagnosis was made to the dog. Pulmonary edema. it is not a diagnosis, it is just a symptom. In this condition, the first thing the dog needs to do is to have a chest x-ray and an ECHO of the heart. Pulmonary edema can occur with severe heart disease or be the result of a primary pulmonary disease, such as pneumonia. The forecasts for these diagnoses are different, so it is impossible to say on the forum whether it is possible to help the dog. You also need to understand why the dog’s kidneys fail. In general, nothing concrete can be said on the forum in your case. You can bring your dog to the appointment. To start. to a cardiologist. Further tactics will be determined depending on the results of the ECHO of the heart.
The immediate care the owner can give a dog with suspected pulmonary edema is to get the animal to the veterinarian’s office as soon as possible. This must be done correctly so as not to aggravate the patient’s condition. It is necessary to carry the animal in a position on its side, so that its airways are not pinched.
The accumulated foam should be removed in time so that it does not interfere with breathing. It is recommended to ventilate the vehicle interior during the trip. You need to try to calm the animal.
High Altitude Sickness in Dogs: Pulmonary Edema (2018)
Causes of the disease
In dogs, there are two types of pulmonary edema:
- Hydrostatic edema accompanies diseases of the cardiovascular system.
- Membranous edema is caused by exposure to toxins.
Hydrostatic edema can have two mechanisms of development:
- The large volume of blood in the vessels causes its pressure to rise significantly. The permeability of the vascular walls increases. As a result, the liquid part of the blood flows into the interstitial (extracellular) space, and then fills the alveoli.
- Low oncotic blood pressure (pressure of the protein component of the blood. plasma), which occurs due to insufficient protein content, creates a large difference in the pressures of fluids in the vessels and in the intercellular space. Physical laws demand to equalize this difference. Therefore, part of the fluid passes through the walls of the vessels, filling the interstitial spaces.
Edema of the membranous type is based on damage to the walls (membranes) of blood vessels as a result of exposure to external toxic substances or autotoxins. As a result, the fluid enters the intercellular space through the disturbed vascular walls.
Cardiogenic and noncardiogenic edema
In dogs, this disease can have various causes. It depends on them what type of disease occurs. There are only two of them: cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic.
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema is much more common in dogs. It can be classified as a hydrostatic type. The provoking factors are as follows:
- heart failure (congenital or acquired);
- blockage by a pulmonary artery thrombus.
The noncardiogenic type of edema can be either hydrostatic or membranous.
The hydrostatic type develops if the dog has pathologies in which the blood protein is reduced, namely:
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- kidney disease;
- protein-poor diet.
A common cause of hydrostatic edema is uncontrolled use of diuretics (Furosemide).
Any pathology and injury accompanied by severe intoxication of the body can lead to the development of membranous edema:
- snake and poisonous insect bites;
- infectious diseases;
- allergic and autoallergic reactions;
- electric shock;
- heat or sunstroke.
The cause may also be trauma and mechanical damage to the chest, leading to pleurisy or pneumothorax.
Diagnosis of the disease
The main diagnostic methods for diseases of the respiratory system are as follows:
- Auscultation of the lungs and heart. The disease is indicated by hard breathing, the presence of wet wheezing.
- A complete blood count allows you to see a large number of leukocyte cells in the blood, indicating the presence of an inflammatory process or tumors.
- Radiography of the lungs in two planes. Pulmonary edema is characterized by reduced transparency of the lung tissue, an enhanced pulmonary pattern is clearly visible.
- Heart rate measurement. In diseases of the lungs. rapid, threadlike pulse.
- Measurement of blood pressure. Increased pressure may indicate hydrostatic edema.
What it is
A prerequisite for the life of the mammalian organism is the presence of pulmonary respiration. This is the name of the set of processes that ensure the supply of oxygen to the tissues and the removal of exhaust air containing carbon dioxide. Oxygen is necessary for the cells of the body to oxidize organic matter and release the energy necessary for vital activity. Pulmonary respiration is based on gas exchange: on inhalation. oxygen-enriched air enters the lung structures for further use by the body, on exhalation. exhaust air, with a large m of carbon dioxide is removed into the environment.
The main structures of the lungs, through which pulmonary respiration is carried out, are called alveoli. These are peculiar bubbles that open into the lumen of the respiratory bronchioles. The alveoli are surrounded by a dense network of small vessels and capillaries. the terminal branches of the arterial system.
With pulmonary edema, for various reasons, the pulmonary vessels overflow with blood, which causes the release of its liquid part. plasma outside. Alveoli filled with fluid cannot exchange normal gas. Pulmonary respiration becomes insufficient and then stops completely. This process has an upward direction, so the deterioration in the dog’s health is gradual.
Symptoms of the disease
Pulmonary edema can have acute or prolonged symptoms in dogs, but it always begins in the same way: depression and signs of shortness of breath. The following behavioral features are characteristic:
- shortness of breath, swelling of the veins;
- forced posture with widely spaced paws, extended neck and open mouth;
- in the event that forces leave the animal, it lies on its side;
- intermittent breathing. strained breaths, hoarse exhalations;
- dry cough;
- pale or bluish mucous membranes of the lips and nose.
In severe cases, a pinkish foam is released from the mouth. Moist wheezing is clearly audible when listening to the lungs.
Prolonged lack of air leads to the fact that the dog falls into a hypoxic state due to a lack of oxygen and nutrients. a hypoxic coma. This is a serious condition, the signs of which are judged by depression of consciousness, muscle cramps, paresis or paralysis, hyperthermia.
Symptoms of pulmonary edema in dogs and how to treat it
Pulmonary edema in a dog is a serious medical condition in which there is a direct threat to its life. It is very important that the owner knows what his symptoms are, can provide first aid to his pet and immediately take him to the veterinary clinic. How much time has passed since the onset of the attack will determine whether it can be cured, and whether the further life expectancy will be great.
Treatment of the disease
Treatment of severe lung pathology should be carried out in a veterinary clinic. The method of therapy is chosen by the doctor and depends on the condition of the dog and the presence of concomitant pathologies.
If the animal is in critical condition, then intensive therapy is carried out by placing the animal in an oxygen chamber or prescribing oxygen inhalation. This will help relieve the attack.
After improvement of the condition, complex drug therapy is carried out. During it, the lungs are freed from excess fluid, the activity of the heart and lungs stabilizes, and the state of the nervous system improves. The following drugs are prescribed:
- diuretics (Diacarb, Furosemide, Veroshpiron). they eliminate edema by removing excess fluid from the tissues;
- antihistamines and decongestants (Diphenhydramine, Suprastin, Tavegil). relieve swelling, eliminate allergies;
- hormonal agents, glucocorticoids (Prednisolone, Hydrocortisone). used in more serious cases;
- sedatives (acepromazine). stabilize the state of the nervous system, eliminate the effects of stress in dogs;
- vasodilators and bronchodilators (Nitroglycerin, Bronholitin). normalize the heart and respiratory system.
- drugs that stimulate heart activity (Cordiamine, Caffeine). prescribed in the presence of heart failure.
Bloodletting is a good treatment for hydrostatic edema.
After stabilization, the dog is discharged home. During the period of rehabilitation, it is important to provide her with the most favorable conditions for recovery. The attending physician will tell you how to organize her lifestyle. It is important to fulfill the following conditions:
- limit physical activity as much as possible;
- carry out the recommended therapy;
- carefully select a therapeutic diet;
- protect the animal from stress.