First estrus in dogs
If you decide to have a girl dog (bitch), you need to understand that the period of puberty in females is much more difficult from a physiological point of view than in males. In addition, throughout life, owners should pay great attention to the health of their pet. At least twice a year, during estrus, the dog’s body becomes more vulnerable than during other periods.
As a rule, the first estrus in females occurs between the ages of 8 and 13-15 months. Some females may begin estrus at six months or even a year and a half. Much depends on the breed, physiological, individual characteristics of the organism. For example, dogs of miniature decorative breeds (Yorkies, Chihuahuas, Chins) come into heat after a year, and in females of large, giant breeds (Great Dane, Shepherd Dogs, Labradors) about six to ten months.
Note that often in young dogs, the first puddle is not real. That is, there is no ovulation. The next estrus may take some time, so be careful.
But even within the same breed, the first estrus occurs in different periods, and the intervals and duration are different.
Advice! If the bitch does not start estrus before two years, this signals the presence of any pathologies in the dog’s body, indicates a hormonal imbalance, disturbances in the functioning of the reproductive system.
Normally, the frequency of estrus in dogs is once or twice a year. Typically, the interval between estrus is four to six to seven months. So in mongrels, northern dogs (huskies, huskies, malamutes) estrus occurs approximately once every ten to twelve months, and in bitches of other breeds. once every five to six months.
If a bitch has a puddle every three to four months, we recommend that you show your pet to a veterinarian. It is possible that frequent estrus indicates hormonal disorders.
How to tell if a dog is in heat: stages of the cycle, signs, advice to owners
A dog’s heat (estrus, puddle) is a certain period, the reproductive stage, when a non-sterilized female is ready to mate in order to obtain offspring. A natural process also indicates the onset of puberty. The bitch is ready to mate, carry and give birth to offspring. If you have no experience with pets, but are planning to have a girl, we recommend reading this article, from which you will find out when the first heat should come, how long this period is, and also how to determine the onset of estrus in bitches.
How to determine the onset of estrus
You can understand that the dog will soon begin estrus by the behavior of the pet. Of course, each pet is individual, has its own character and disposition. At the same time, knowing the demeanor and habits of your dog, you can understand that in a few days, weeks, the pet will begin to be empty.
Bitches become more playful, active and even naughty, especially on walks. In a few days, the dog begins to flirt with the males, leaves urine marks, explores the territory, is interested in males, and reluctantly return home from a walk. Some dogs have increased or decreased appetite.
Important! Before a puddle, as well as in the first days, urination is more frequent, so the dog often asks to go outside. The loop (labia) swells. The dog begins to lick itself often. Disturbed appetite, fever.
During the rutting season, bitches can jump with their paws on other dogs, regardless of their gender. Females lift, twist the tail to facilitate mating.
Some bitches before estrus become angry, can show unmotivated aggression towards their relatives, regardless of their gender, as well as people. The dog refuses to obey commands, can run away from the owner in an unknown direction. Therefore, if you notice behavior that is not typical for your pet, walk it on a leash.
Pay attention to how the males react to your dog and how your pet perceives grooming. Before estrus, the level of sex hormones in the bloodstream rises, and even with a minimal concentration of them, males can show interest in a bitch. On ovulating days, most females are ready to mate, flirt with males, and may even run away for a walk.
Remove carpets from the floor before estrus, as droplets of blood will appear on the floor during estrus. Spotting, especially at the beginning of estrus, can be seen on the litter where the dog is resting.
Teach your pet to hygiene from the first heat. The dog must watch itself, lick the discharge. Until the end of the spotting period, some owners put on panties on the dog. The use of hormonal drugs is not recommended, especially. This will negatively affect the health of the animal. Estrus is a natural physiological process in which a person should not interfere.
The development of hormonal disruption, possible pathologies are indicated by:
- too frequent heat;
- bloodless, latent estrus;
- too abundant vaginal discharge of an uncharacteristic color and consistency during or after puffing (blood with pus, black discharge);
- weakness, apathy, lethargy, inappropriate behavior of the dog;
- refusal to eat, increased thirst;
- unstable body temperature.
For several days after estrus, the loop remains slightly swollen. A small amount of light, clear discharge flows from the vulva. This is the norm.
If a dog is in heat for more than 25-28 days, vaginal discharge has a strong putrid odor, gray-brown, dark yellow-brown color, after puffing, severe bleeding has developed, immediately show the dog to a veterinarian. A similar condition causes vulvovaginitis, endometritis, metritis, the presence of tumors in the organs of the reproductive tract, infection of the uterus with pathogenic flora. Heavy bleeding signals poor blood clotting.
Stages, cycles of emptying
Conditionally, estrus in a dog is divided into four successive stages:
- Proestrus (forerunner). The cycle lasts seven to ten days. At this stage, characteristic manifestations are not noticeable. Due to the rush of blood to the genitals, the vulva swells. A small amount of bloody mucous discharge is released from the loop. There is no ovulation, the bitch is not ready for mating, does not allow the males, driving away the suitors with a growl. Behavior changes. The pet becomes more excited, playful, energetic, can show disobedience, and is reluctant to follow commands. Some bitches are irritable and aggressive. On walks, they explore the area, leave marks. Increased urination.
- Estrus (rut). During the period of sexual heat, in the first two to three days from the moment of its onset, ovulation occurs. The female is ready to mate, but she does not always let the males go. The rut occurs approximately on the 11-14th day after the onset of bloody discharge. During this period, females are usually interested in males. The bitch flirts with the dog, takes the tail away. The loop swells strongly, becomes more pliable and loose. The discharge becomes dark red, brown, viscous thick consistency.
- Metaestrus (end of heat). The amount of discharge from the loop is reduced. The labia are reduced in size, puffiness subsides. Females do not accept the courtship of males, driving them away in every possible way. The duration of metaestrus is 10-11 days. If pregnancy has not occurred, the body gradually comes to a state of rest. But regardless of whether the egg is fertilized or not, the blood of the bitches contains an increased concentration of progesterone (pregnancy hormone), so a false pregnancy can develop.
- Anestrus. The duration of the rest period, which determines the frequency of emptyings. 100-170 days.
If you are planning to mate a bitch, the most favorable period is 10-12 days from the beginning of the pimple. On other days, the female simply does not want to admit the males.
It is better to mate twice, for two days in a row at the same time. If the dog is obstinate, introduce the dog to the male a few weeks before estrus.
Tips for bitch owners
During estrus, females need especially careful care and attention. Observe hygiene, regimen, daily routine. The diet should be nutritious, balanced and complete.
To prevent unwanted mating, walk the animal on a leash and away from common dog walking areas. An empty bitch attracts males, which is unpleasant for their owners and for the dog itself, arranges fights with other females.
It is possible to release the dog from the leash only in deserted places where there are no dogs or people. Do not let the pet out of sight, control its actions, movements. If the bitch is disobedient, limit yourself to walking on a leash.
If the dog is kept in the yard, cover it in the enclosure during estrus to avoid unwanted mating.
Watch your dog closely. False hygiene may develop. Therefore, to avoid possible complications, noticing the first manifestations of such a condition during or after estrus, consult your veterinarian.
If the bitch is of no breeding value, it is best to neuter the dog. There are also special remedies to prevent ovulation, unwanted pregnancy.
Important! Long-term use of such medications can provoke hormonal imbalance, oncology. Only a veterinarian should prescribe them.!
How the puddle proceeds
Not only breeders of bitches, but also males should have an idea of how estrus proceeds and how long it lasts in a dog. This information will help to avoid unwanted mating, since it is during this period that the female admits the males.
Heat is a natural physiological process that indicates the onset of puberty. This main signal indicates that your pet is ready for pregnancy and bearing offspring.
Estrus is accompanied by bloody vaginal discharge from the vulva, swelling of the outer labia, enlarged nipples, hormonal changes in the body, a change in the behavior of a pet.
The abundance of vaginal discharge during estrus, their nature (consistency, color) depends on the size, age of the dog, as well as the period of emptying. In representatives of small breeds, the discharge is insignificant and the owners do not always determine the exact date of the onset of estrus. Therefore, the article will consider other signs by which you can understand that the dog is in heat.
Despite the readiness for mating, during the first puddle, experienced breeders and veterinarians categorically do not recommend mating a dog, since the body is not fully ready for bearing offspring, childbirth. Too early pregnancy will negatively affect the health of the dog, is fraught with the birth of weak, non-viable puppies, difficult childbirth.
Advice! It is best to knit a bitch with a male during the third estrus, choosing a worthy groom for your pet. This is the optimal age for mating.
Signs of labor in a dog
The birth of a beloved pet is a very exciting event not only for the dog, but also for its owner. Unfortunately, contrary to popular belief, in most cases, pets cannot cope with this process completely on their own. At best, they need our psychological support, at worst, ambulance.
Such a complex and dangerous process can easily go wrong as originally intended by nature. Human intervention can be needed at any stage both for the expectant mother herself and her offspring. over, the problems do not depend on the experience of the woman in labor or her breed, something can go wrong because of the physiological characteristics of the body, an uncomfortable posture or too high content of certain substances in the body.
Each owner needs to know the signs of an approaching birth and be able to properly prepare for them.
Behavior before starting
The first changes that the owner notices relate to the behavior of the animal and begin a few days before the end of pregnancy:
- The animal becomes drowsy and lazy, capricious and constantly demanding attention to itself, poorly tolerating loneliness.
- Calmness gives way to worry. The bitch is actively looking for or trying to organize a nest, gnaws on the litter and everything that gets on her tooth. Starts to snap.
- Constant urge to use the toilet leads to the fact that the pet constantly asks to go outside, but almost immediately comes back.
- Appetite changes. Both overly active, even greedy eating of food, and complete rejection of it clearly indicate that there is less than 1 day left before the start.
Behavior changes due to well-being. The uterus, preparing for a big job, begins to contract, which increases intra-abdominal pressure. In the first hours, this does not appear outwardly, but the animal itself feels the changes as discomfort or even pain and understands where everything is going.
Canine childbirth takes place in three stages:
- Training. The uterus begins to contract and the birth canal opens.
- Birth of puppies and placenta.
Each of them has its own special physical manifestations, which will prompt the state of the woman in labor and help determine whether veterinary care is needed.
- The stomach sags. This is due to the relaxation of the abdominal and pelvic muscles. When viewed from above, the animal appears to be thinner. This happens in 2-7 days.
- Puppies stop moving and show themselves in any way.
- Nipples swell, change their color. Colostrum begins to be secreted. Inexperienced giving birth for the first time, this may not happen.
- Before the immediate start, body temperature drops 24 to 9 hours before noticeable contractions.
- Diarrhea or vomiting may occur during the day. The body is trying to cleanse itself as much as possible so that nothing prevents children from going out.
- Heart rate increases gradually, breathing becomes fast and intermittent.
- Departure of the cork. Whitish mucus is secreted from the loop. Its color can vary depending on the condition of the dog. You should not be scared by greenish and brown blotches, but darker colors, spotting ahead of time and a pungent unpleasant odor are a reason to deliver the animal to the veterinary clinic as soon as possible.
- The first noticeable contractions begin. You can feel them if you put your hand on your stomach. The dog takes a seat and assumes a comfortable position.
- The amniotic protective bubble bursts, water leaves. At this point, you need to be as careful as possible, since very often water is mistaken for urine, mistakenly believing that the dog just urinated in the wrong place.
After the waters have receded, full-fledged contractions are approaching. If they are not there, too few or they are useless for 2-3 hours, the fetus is not felt at the loop, then you should call the veterinarian at home or go to the clinic, since such a long delay can exhaust the dog and seriously harm both her and her offspring.
What needs to be prepared?
Active preparation begins already in the last month of pregnancy, 7-10 days before the expected date. At this time, a maternity nest and a pen for the expectant mother and her offspring are being prepared. The bitch is gradually accustomed to this place, allowed to get used to it, make it cozy for her.
- A place. This is usually a box with tight walls, easy access for the person and the ability for the mother to easily leave the place. For representatives of small breeds (such as Yorkies, Chihuahuas), a medium-sized cardboard or plastic box is suitable. For medium-sized breeds like pugs, you need something bigger. But for large dogs (German shepherds, huskies, St. Bernards) it is best to arrange a similar rookery right in their booths in the aviary, or to build a special large box with strong walls. In its nest, the dog should fit freely, but be able to rest against the walls with its paws and back, it will need it during childbirth.
- Set up a pen or playpen for puppies to move around in the first weeks. The walls should be high enough, but do not interfere with the woman in labor from leaving it.
- Provide thermal and light conditions in the selected room. Any draft, overheating or hypothermia can be fatal for little dogs, so it is recommended to maintain the temperature in the room at 28 degrees, gradually reducing it to 20 degrees over the course of a month. It should also be borne in mind that bright light is painfully perceived by animals beginning to open their eyes, so thick curtains on the windows and soft artificial light will be a good solution in the first weeks.
- Remove all valuable coatings. Childbirth is messy, so you will need a supply of changeable diapers and towels, clothes that you will not mind throwing away if something happens. At the same time, it is better to remove carpets from the room.
- Before the very resolution of the burden, the bitch, due to nerves and pain, begins to gnaw everything that comes to hand, so remove everything of value from the reach.
- Cleanliness is a guarantee of the health of the mother and future offspring, therefore, it is necessary not only to regularly wash and vacuum all rooms, but also to disinfect them. Do not go to a woman in labor or babies in street clothes, shoes or with unwashed hands.
Signs of an impending birth:
- For 1-3 days, a colorless mucous liquid is released. the mucous plug is separated;
- The mammary glands swell, colostrum is secreted from the nipples, the areas around them become bald;
- 24 hours (maximum 48 hours) before the appearance of the first puppy, the dog’s body temperature drops to 36.5–37 degrees (normal: 37.5–39, depending on the breed), and this characterizes the onset of the first phase of labor;
- Contractions of the uterus begin. at first invisible, but reflecting on the behavior of the dog: she “digs” the floor, requires affection, or, conversely, looks for a secluded place;
- Uterine contractions are followed by attempts. abdominal contractions;
- There is a complete lack of appetite or, conversely, it becomes increased.
Immediately before childbirth, contractions occur, which can last from several hours to a day. Initially, these are rare contractions of the uterus, which gradually become more frequent and painful. Call your veterinarian as soon as contractions are frequent.
Childbirth in dogs: signs and process
Waiting for puppies is an exciting period that lasts about two months. The closer the long-awaited birth, the more tense the atmosphere in the house becomes. In order not to worry for no reason, take a closer look at the dog. Her behavior will help determine the impending birth.
Pregnancy lasts from 55 to 72 days, depending on the breed of the dog and its individual characteristics. Veterinary specialists conditionally divide this time into three periods:
- The early period lasts from the beginning of pregnancy until day 20. At this time, the behavior of the dog practically does not change, however, some individuals may feel a little worse than usual: the animal may become lethargic and drowsy for a short time;
- From 20 to 45 days. a period of active growth and development of puppies. The dog’s belly is rounded, from day 21, pregnancy can be confirmed by ultrasound, and from day 25. by a blood test for the hormone relaxin;
- In the period from 45 to 62 days, the dog becomes less mobile, the volume of the abdomen grows rapidly, and in the supine position, pushing puppies are visible. At this time, it is not recommended to take long walks with the pet in order to avoid unnecessary stress on its body.
Owners of small breed dogs may notice the first signs of imminent whelping from about 50 days, owners of large pets. from 60. At this time, it is worthwhile to agree with the veterinarian about the delivery.
Birth of puppies
Childbirth begins with the release of amniotic fluid. the rupture of the water bladder. It can be gnawed by a dog, or it can burst itself. After a while, the first puppy appears.
Puppies are born in turn, the interval between their birth can be from 15 minutes to 1 hour. After each puppy comes out the afterbirth. fetal membranes and placenta.
It is necessary to closely monitor the process of eating the placenta by a dog: veterinarians have not yet come to a consensus about its benefits. Do not let the animal eat more than 1–2 afterbirth, otherwise indigestion and vomiting will await it. Pay special attention to the afterbirth from the last puppy. If it is not removed within two days after childbirth, metritis, a severe infectious inflammation, may develop in the dog’s body.
Newborn puppies should not be immediately taken away from the dog, he must lick them. They also need to eat. Strong puppies themselves pull up to the nipple, the weak will have to be directed.
Depending on the number of puppies, childbirth can take up to a day. And this is a real test for the dog’s body. It is at this time that the animal, more than ever, expects special support, affection and care from you. Try to take a couple of days off at work to care for your pet, and he will thank you with sincere love and warmth.
How to induce labor and labor?
For many women, labor begins at 37-40 weeks. However, there are cases when pregnancy lasts 41, 42 and even 43 weeks. Representatives of the fair sex in such situations are already beginning to worry, get nervous, because they really want to see their baby faster, but he still does not want to be born. Yes, and there are cases when the child died at this time in the mother’s tummy, and the contractions did not start.
The death of a child can occur due to the fact that the placenta begins to age. Oxygen and nutrients may no longer be enough for your baby. How to induce contractions and childbirth is a question that worries expectant mothers carrying a child longer than the date of the expected birth, which was calculated by the doctor.
In order to prevent the occurrence of negative consequences, contractions and childbirth can be caused. However, this decision should only be made by a doctor. If there are no pathologies, and the amniotic fluid is clean, then there is no need to stimulate the birth process. Everything has its time. If any deviations are found, then the doctor will certainly suggest stimulation of contractions and childbirth. You shouldn’t refuse it.
Contractions can be triggered on your own. For example, they recommend being more upright, walking, moving, but no need to provoke the appearance of fatigue, stress, since this will not be beneficial.
How to tell if your dog is having contractions
Feelings of contractions before childbirth can arise from sex. Semen contains prostaglandins, which prepare the cervix for childbirth by softening it. Sexual arousal, orgasm tone up the body and cause uterine contractions.
You can induce contractions by massaging your nipples. It can be started from the 37th week of pregnancy. During the massage, the body releases the hormone oxytocin, due to which the muscles of the uterus can begin to contract. The massage allows not only to stimulate labor, but also to prepare the skin of the nipples for breastfeeding the baby.
There are also folk remedies for stimulating labor and labor, but you should not try them on yourself. For example, certain teas and decoctions can adversely affect the health of the mother and her baby, because some herbs are contraindicated for pregnant women, as they can provoke a miscarriage.
What to do if contractions have begun?
When contractions occur, a pregnant woman should calm down, because vanity is not the best helper. It is advisable to take a comfortable position in a chair, on a chair or on a bed and start recording the intervals between contractions and their duration. It is advisable to record all this data. You don’t need to think about what is more painful: contractions or childbirth. Fear will make the pain seem unbearable.
If the contractions do not last long and the duration between them is long (20-30 minutes), then it is too early for the baby to be born. The woman has time to collect the necessary things, call an ambulance. At this time, with the help of loved ones, you can take a warm shower. In case of contractions, the intervals between which are 5-7 minutes, you already need to go to the hospital.
A trip to a medical facility should not be postponed, despite the fact that the initial phase of contractions can last several hours. Amniotic fluid can leave earlier, and at this time it is already desirable to be under the supervision of an obstetrician-gynecologist. When the water is draining, in no case should you take a warm or hot bath, because this may increase the likelihood of developing infectious complications, bleeding, embolism, placental abruption.
How to recognize contractions before childbirth?
A woman carrying a baby under her heart can be misled by false (training) contractions. They can start from the 20th week of pregnancy. False contractions before childbirth cause slight discomfort, but are irregular, short-lived, and in most cases practically painless. A warm bath or walking can help relieve uterine tension and discomfort. It is important to remember that the bath temperature should be between 36 and 38 degrees. on mock contractions →
True contractions are the main harbinger of childbirth. How are contractions before childbirth and what are they like? Every woman experiences contractions differently. It depends on the physiological characteristics of the pregnant woman and on the position of the baby in the tummy. For example, some may feel mild aching pain in the lumbar spine, which after a certain time period spreads to the abdomen and pelvis, encircling the woman.
Others note that the sensation of labor is comparable to the discomfort that occurs during menstruation. The pain intensifies afterwards. With contractions, the uterus may seem to be stiff. This can be well traced if you put your hand on your stomach.
All of the above signs can be characteristic of false contractions of the uterus. Then how to recognize real contractions before childbirth? There are general signs of this natural process by which every pregnant woman can determine that she will soon begin labor:
- regularity of occurrence;
- gradual increase in frequency;
- increased pain over time.
In the beginning, a pregnant woman may feel labor pains over a long period of time. The pain is not severe. In the future, the intervals between contractions gradually decrease, the soreness of this natural process increases.
Based on the general signs of contractions before childbirth, 3 phases of the process can be distinguished:
- initial (latent, hidden);
The initial stage lasts on average about 7-8 hours. The duration of the contraction can be 30-45 seconds, the interval between them is about 5 minutes. During this period, the cervix opens up to 0-3 cm.
During the active phase, which lasts from 3 to 5 hours, contractions can last up to 60 seconds. The frequency of contractions during childbirth is 2-4 minutes. The cervix opens 3-7 cm.
The transient phase (deceleration phase) is the shortest. A woman can stay in it for 0.5-1.5 hours. The contractions get longer. They now last for 70-90 seconds. The interval between contractions also becomes shorter compared to other phases. After about 0.5-1 minutes, the woman in the position will feel the contractions of the uterus. The neck of this organ opens up to 7-10 cm.
Contractions in a second birth are also divided into three phases, but the total duration of each is shorter than in a first birth.
Contractions before childbirth: how to recognize and what to do?
The last trimester of pregnancy is the most exciting period for a woman. The closer the delivery is, the more questions arise. The most relevant of them relate to how contractions begin before childbirth, what sensations arise during this, whether pain is felt.
It is this process that is most afraid of the fair sex, in whom pregnancy is the first. You really shouldn’t be nervous about this. With negative emotions, the pain can feel intense. The less you think about it and the fear of contractions, the easier the birth will be.
Yes, and there are special techniques to reduce pain in this natural process.
How to make labor pains easier during childbirth?
Doctors can help a pregnant woman relieve pain during labor and labor with special medications. However, don’t rely on anesthesia. There is a possibility that the drug will negatively affect the mother and her baby. Read more about epidural anesthesia for childbirth →
The main way to relieve pain is breathing correctly during labor and labor. With its help, a woman in labor can relax. At the onset of a contraction, it is recommended to focus on the exhalation. At this moment, it is worthwhile to imagine that pain “leaves” the body along with the air. A woman in labor may “make some noise” during labor and childbirth. Sighs, groans and screams will ease the condition. Correct breathing should be learned in advance and exercised more often, because childbirth is stressful, due to which all poorly memorized information can be easily forgotten.
A woman in labor can relax with a massage and the simple gentle touch of a loved one. Contractions are the beginning of labor. It is at their onset that it is recommended to do a slow massage of the lower back. A woman at this time can stand or sit on a chair, leaning on his back with her hands.
Lumbar back massage during childbirth is considered to be very effective. This is because the sacral nerve travels to the spinal cord from the uterus through the lower back. If you massage this area, then the pain during contractions will be less felt. It is very good if the spouse wants to be present during childbirth and help his beloved in this difficult moment.
The psychological attitude is no less important. Positive emotions, thoughts that soon it will be possible to see the baby, will help reduce pain. In order to properly react to what is happening and not worry, a woman needs to understand how the childbirth proceeds and what can be felt at this time.
There is no need to wait for the next contraction between contractions. This time is given to a woman to rest. If you are tensely waiting for the next contraction, you can quickly get tired.
it’s worth noting that contractions are a natural process. All pregnant women go through this. The question of how contractions begin before childbirth worries many expectant mothers. It is worth noting that it is impossible to accurately describe all the sensations, since they are individual. Someone compares contractions with pain during menstruation, and someone with an intestinal disorder.
In any case, you do not need to be afraid of them and the pain they can cause. All unpleasant sensations will be forgotten after the birth of a little sun. a long-awaited baby.
Checking the article: Ilona Ganshina,