home Dogs How to treat an open wound in a dog

How to treat an open wound in a dog

Do I need to see a veterinarian?

You need to go to a veterinary clinic for any wounds, excluding minor abrasions and scratches. It is especially important to go to an appointment if you find deep lacerations and cuts, if the dogs have fought. The ingress of infection causes severe inflammation and the formation of pus, which can be fatal against the background of sepsis, tissue necrosis. It is worth visiting the clinic after the tick. Processing in this case is not needed, but it should be submitted for analysis.

How and why a weeping wound forms?

Let’s talk about one important circumstance right away. The fact is that ulcerative skin lesions are often confused with a weeping wound. In addition, this term is very often understood as eczema or simple dermatitis. Since what are their differences?

Click to view in a new window. Attention, the photo contains images of sick animals! The fact is that the wound is the result of extreme mechanical impact, which entailed a violation of the integrity of the tissues, from the external environment. Eczema, ulcers, and in the overwhelming majority of cases, arise from the action of negative factors from within the body. There is no mechanical injury. In the lesions described by us, everything is different. at first there is a small defect in the skin, which is seeded by pathogenic microflora. The body responds to this, inflammation occurs. The wound becomes “wet” because a secret is secreted on its surface, consisting of lymph, plasma, lymphocytes, inflammation factors, etc. Having come into contact with pathogenic microflora, this substrate undergoes certain changes, which is why it acquires a cloudy shade and an extremely unpleasant odor.

Treating cuts in dogs

It does not bleed much, it can be washed with chlorhexidine. It is drawn into a syringe without a needle and poured into the wound as deeply as possible. This washing is repeated 2-3 times a day until the cut is completely tightened. In the process of healing, the wound and around it must be treated with brilliant green or hydrogen peroxide.

Too large wounds are best treated with ointments such as iruxol. A deep fresh wound is good. Granular streptomycin can be used to treat cuts (especially wet cuts).

It is convenient to carry it with you and to powder abundantly on the cut site a couple of times a day until healing. You can also use EDIS powder. The cut needs to be bandaged two to three times a day.

When the wound has healed well, healing agents such as solcoseryl can be used. It is important to ensure that the dog does not lick the cut, the healing process will take a long time.

For this, you can use special collars. To prevent the wound from getting dirty during a walk, you need to put on a shoe cover made of a small sock and a thick plastic bag or a dog’s boot. You should also limit your dog’s walking activity.

Did you like it? Share with your friends! Like it! Write Комментарии и мнения владельцев!

Wounds are quite common for dogs, as they often get them during walks, fights with other dogs, as a result of collisions with vehicles, etc. As a rule, everything is limited to relatively easy cases, but sometimes even minor, seemingly, scratches and abrasions can “mutate” into something much more serious. An example of this is a weeping wound in a dog.

In surgery, this is the name for a violation of the integrity of the skin and muscle tissue with the simultaneous formation of a wound channel. All injuries of this type can be divided into two large groups: injuries of traumatic and surgical origin. With the latter, everything is clear. they arise in the course of surgical operations and are “inevitable evil.” Traumatic varieties arise as a result of strong mechanical stress.

They are bitten, torn, stabbed, distinguish between cut wounds, from firearms, etc. In addition, the open ones have the same consequences. Strong mechanical impact, even if it did not lead to a serious violation of the integrity of the skin, causes crushing of tissues. These are also wounds, and due to their characteristics, they are extremely difficult and take a long time to heal, this process is very difficult. Note that most often they occur on the dog’s paw, since the limbs are more susceptible to this kind of injury.

Mending a Dog Wound

But weeping are those of them, from the surface of which exudate is constantly released. There are two types of it: normal and necrotic. In the first case, the secret oozing from the surface of the injury is formed, in fact, by lymph and blood plasma. In the second, it is a classic exudate formed as a result of necrotic and / or purulent inflammation. Accordingly, we are more interested in the second option, since this pathology poses a real danger to the life and health of the animal.

What to do with open and deep wounds?

If you find a deep wound in your dog, then you need to refuse first aid as soon as possible. To do this, rinse the surface with an antiseptic solution, cut off the hair around and try to stop the bleeding. In case of severe bleeding, apply a tourniquet for 10-15 minutes, while removing the excess with a cotton pad or swab. After that, rinse the wound abundantly with Chlorhexidine, bandage with a bandage and consult a veterinarian, since sutures are required for open and deep injuries.

If with an open wound there is a lesion of an artery in the neck or leg, it must be tightly closed with a finger, without letting go of the hand. Bring the dog for surgery as soon as possible. Large vessels lend themselves well to surgical intervention if the operation was performed in a timely manner.

Treatment comes down to surface care. removing dirt, dry crusts. To treat a purulent wound, antibiotics are prescribed. The course of therapy can take up to 1.5 months, during this period it is important to closely monitor the behavior and general well-being of the pet.

Be sure to adjust your diet and limit physical activity at home, on the street. If the dog is constantly licking the stitches, use an Elizabethan collar.

Weeping laceration

The risk of infection of the damaged skin area in dogs is quite high. Therefore, if the animal has received a lacerated injury, it is important to take measures to disinfect it without delay. The fact is that seeding with pathogenic microorganisms occurs at a very high speed.

treat, open, wound

Therefore, it is important to know how to treat a lacerated wound in a dog in order to stop the development of the inflammatory process. Most often, an ointment is prescribed for this. Vishnevsky’s ointment, “Levomekol”, erythromycin, tetracycline are excellent.

READ  How to cut a dog's claws if they are black

It is also very important to take into account that if the rules of antiseptics and asepsis are violated, exudate may be released from the lacerated wound during treatment. In this case, veterinarians refer to it as weeping. The liquid itself consists of blood plasma, leukocytes, lymph and other products.

It is not difficult to understand on your own that the wound has begun to get wet. In addition to the formation of liquid, a strong unpleasant odor is felt. The behavior of the animal changes immediately, it is accompanied by a depressed mood and apathy.

If the pet has a weeping laceration wound, then in addition to the main therapy, it is necessary to use treatment aimed at removing this fluid. First of all, it is important to follow the rules during processing. If the dog has this place very painful and constantly itches, it will be necessary to drink analgesics and antihistamines on drink. Most often prescribed “Tavegil”, “Suprastin”.

What ointments are used to treat wounds?

For first aid, the owner should always have a solution of Chlorhexidine, Levomekol ointment, Ranosan or any other ointment with a wound healing effect, bandages, napkins. Other drugs are prescribed by the attending physician, depending on the specific case.

If you go hunting with your dog or on a multi-day hike, it is better to take the necessary medications with you than to think about how to help your pet later. It is worth remembering that the animal’s wound should always be washed thoroughly, without leaving hair, dirt, crusts, etc. in it. otherwise, all treatments will only be harmful, and the wound will soon begin to fester.

First aid for a cut in a dog

You can also use furacilin. After washing the wound, it is necessary to assess the degree of its danger. So, if the wound is not deep and does not exceed two centimeters, it does not need to be sewn up.

If the wound is larger and deeper, it is necessary to see a surgeon as soon as possible. But if this is not possible, you can help the animal yourself:

  • pull off the edges of the wound and fix the skin with an adhesive plaster, followed by tight bandaging.
  • If there is not a lot of blood, a tampon (a piece of cotton wool wrapped with a bandage) moistened with peroxide should be applied to the cut site and bandaged.
  • Tubular bandages can be used for fixation. For example, a human toe bandage would work for a small dog’s leg. And if you cut holes for paws in the “thigh” bandage, then the bandage will be well fixed on the body of a medium-sized dog.
treat, open, wound

How to treat a lacerated, weeping wound

Any damage to the skin of a dog is accompanied by seeding of the wound channel with pathogenic microorganisms. Deep penetrating wounds or lacerations are often accompanied by the development of an inflammatory process.

Failure to comply with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics when treating lesions can also lead to inflammation at the site of violation of the integrity of the skin. In these cases, exudate is released onto the surface of the wound. The liquid contains lymph, blood plasma, lymphocytes, leukocytes and other products of the inflammatory reaction.

Exudate on the surface of the wound is a favorable environment for the development of pathogenic microflora. This leads to the development of a weeping nature of the injury. An unpleasant odor emanates from the wound. The general state of the animal is depressed, apathetic.

Treatment is aimed at removing exudate, dried crusts. The wound should be treated in accordance with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics. With itching and soreness, the pet, on the recommendation of a doctor, is used antihistamines, analgesics. Means such as Suprastin, Tavegil, reduce the production of histamine-like substances, which reduces the volume of exudate in the area of ​​the wound channel.

In order to combat pathogenic microflora, ointments with an antibacterial effect are used, for example, Levomikol, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, Vishnevsky liniment. If necessary, broad Spectra antibiotics are prescribed to the dog.

For the treatment of wounds in dogs, see this

What to do if the wound won’t heal

The process of wound healing consists of the phase of formation of purulent exudate and tissue granulation. Any violation of the integrity of the skin is accompanied by the penetration of dirt, pieces of skin, hair, dust into the wound channel. This leads to the fact that the body’s defenses connect mechanisms aimed at the formation of pus. The exudate has a proteolytic effect: it cleans the wound from purulent contents and dirt.

Superficial and uncomplicated trauma infections heal, as a rule, after 7-14 days. By primary intention, surgical wounds are also healed.

Broken wounds, lacerations, and infected skin lesions are often characterized by a long healing period. This is due to the fact that the process of overgrowth is not primary, but secondary tension. In this case, the owner must seek qualified assistance from a veterinary institution.

Torn, crushed, as well as long-term non-healing uninfected lesions undergo surgical intervention with excision of the edges. This manipulation allows you to direct the process of overgrowth by primary tension. In the future, trauma care is no different from treating a clean wound.

Antibiotic for a purulent process

The purulent process in the wound canal is accompanied, as a rule, not only by the accumulation of exudate, but also by general symptoms: fever, lack of appetite, apathy, depression. In this case, the dog is prescribed antibacterial drugs on the recommendation of a veterinarian. In veterinary practice, groups of penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines are most often used.

Of the antibiotics of the penicillin series, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Sinulox are used in the treatment of purulent wounds. Of the preparations of the cephalosporin group for the treatment of wounds complicated by purulent infection, Cefalexin, Cefalen, Cefotaxime are used. Tetracyclines, for example, Doxycycline, are effective in purulent processes. The course of treatment is 10-14 days. In the event that the wound is complicated by infection, stitches are prohibited.

Basic rules for how and how to treat a dog’s wound

Dogs are often subjected to a variety of injuries. Damage to the skin can be both harmless and dangerous. purulent, weeping, lacerated. Competent actions of the owner to help the pet involve the use of antiseptic and antimicrobial local agents. The tactics of treating injuries depends on the nature of the injury and its course. In severe cases, the use of broad Spectra antibiotics, surgical procedures is indicated.

How to treat a superficial wound in a dog

The owner is able to treat small and shallow skin lesions himself. Veterinary experts recommend in this case to carry out the following procedures for a sick pet:

  • Free the wound surface from dirt, dust and foreign bodies. This can be done with a cotton pad moistened with hydrogen peroxide or Chlorhexidine solution.
  • Remove hair around the wound channel with scissors or a safety razor.
  • Stop bleeding with hydrogen peroxide by briefly pressing on a blood vessel.
  • Treat the edges of the wound with an antiseptic.
  • Prevent animals from licking injuries. The rough tongue of the dog irritates the damaged tissue, leading to infection of the clean wound. For this purpose, the wound surface can be covered with a bandage or a special collar can be put on the dog.

Owners, faced with the need to treat a wound, are often lost, which is better to use from a wide arsenal of antiseptic agents. Veterinarians recommend keeping in the medicine cabinet primarily hydrogen peroxide. The tool has an excellent hemostatic effect, does not cause burns to damaged tissues.

Chlorhexidine solution is suitable for treating wounds of various types. The drug is easy to use, effectively removes dirt and fights against the most common pathogenic microorganisms.

READ  Do-it-yourself dog bed for beginners

The solution of Miramistin copes with the antibacterial protection of the wound surface perfectly. The product does not cause burns to injured tissues and mucous membranes, has excellent bactericidal properties, and is active against viruses. Miramistin not only resists the development of purulent inflammation in the wound, but also promotes the regeneration of damaged tissues.

Furacilin is a widespread preparation for treating wounds. The product does not have a pungent odor, does not irritate damaged skin, if the concentration is observed. To prepare an antiseptic, one tablet is dissolved in 100 ml of warm water. The solution is used both for the treatment of clean wounds and for injuries complicated by purulent infection.

As for such agents as iodine solution, brilliant green, veterinarians do not recommend these antiseptics for treating the wound surface in animals. Alcohol solutions cause burns to damaged tissues, dry and irritate the skin.

How to Clean and Treat Dog Wound (Dog First Aid Basics)

Classification of injuries

Damage to the skin depends to a large extent on the nature of the injuring object and is divided into the following types:

  • Chipped. Wounds are usually inflicted with a sharp object that easily pushes living tissue apart. The wound canal can be smooth or rough, depending on the nature of the damaging factor.
  • Cut. One of the most common types of wounds in animals. Such damage is inflicted by dissecting the integumentary and muscle tissues with sharp objects. As a rule, such injuries have smooth edges.
  • Chopped. This type of injury is characterized by severe destruction of deep tissue layers, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves. Often, with a chopped wound, destruction of joints and bone structures is noted.
  • Bruised. Wounds are observed when blunt objects are exposed to living tissues. The injury is characterized by crushing and crushing of the skin layers and muscles, minor bleeding.
  • Torn. The trauma is inflicted with a pointed object acting in an oblique direction. It is characterized by rupture of blood vessels, tendons, rapid penetration of infection.
  • Bitten. Most often, this type of injury to a dog is received during fights with relatives. This type of injury is dangerous by infection of the animal with rabies.
  • Firearms. Characterized by severe tissue damage, severe bleeding. The outcome of such injuries is often fatal.

Often, animals receive combined injuries, for example, stab-bruised, bruised-torn, etc. Any wound received carries the risk of infection. Dust, dirt, rust, wool, foreign bodies get into the wound channel with a damaging object. Therefore, any, even the most harmless at first glance, injuries, the owner must be able to treat with antiseptic agents in compliance with the rules of asepsis.

We recommend reading about arthritis in dogs. You will learn about the causes and types of arthritis in pets, symptoms, diagnostic methods, treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in dogs. And here is more about the treatment of the spine in dogs.

Found open deep on the leg, neck, back. what to do?

If a deep wound is found in the pet, the owner should be given first aid. The wounded surface must be washed, free from dirt, wool, foreign objects. To treat trauma, antiseptic solutions should be used. Formalin, Chlorhexidine, Miramistin.

After treating the wound surface, the owner should seek qualified help. The veterinarian, after examining the nature of the wound and debridement of the wound channel, usually sutures. This is done in order to prevent the penetration of pathogenic microflora into the deep layers of tissues.

In case of deep damage to the limbs, neck, back of the animal, broad Spectra antibiotics are prescribed without fail.

We recommend reading about how to play with your dog. You will learn how to properly teach a dog to play, choosing toys, playing with the dog at home, outdoors and with children. And here is more about the rules for walking dogs in the city.

Treatment of wounds in dogs begins with the initial treatment of the injury. Superficial and uncomplicated wounds heal by primary intention and, as a rule, do not require the use of antibiotics. In case of complication of damage by pathogenic microflora, the wound can acquire a purulent or weeping character.

For the treatment of such injuries, antibacterial ointments are used, as well as antibiotics. Stitches are not applied to purulent wounds. Deep injuries require stitching and the use of effective antimicrobial drugs.

Question answer

Yes, very often a course of antibiotic therapy is prescribed for deep and / or chronic (purulent) wounds. Antibiotics are almost always needed after suturing.

The place from which the tick was extracted is abundantly enough (but not extensively, namely, at the site of the bite) to process with iodine tincture. Even if there are parts of the insect’s body there, they will be “kicked out” from the wound, like splinters, naturally.

Do not let the dog lick the affected area, because with her tongue, she can damage the tissue around her and increase the area of ​​the wound surface. For large, deep and postoperative wounds, it is better to bandage.

If the injury is in the middle of the auricle and not deep, then the treatment is performed as a normal abrasion. In case of ruptures of the auricle (perforation or torn edge), only a specialist can help by suturing. If desired, cosmetic sutures can be applied so that in the future it is not visible at the site of the wound scars (this may be necessary for show dogs).

Perhaps a mistake was made at the time of processing and / or something was not done in good faith. Long-term non-healing wounds dissolve the healthy surrounding skin tissue, thereby increasing the area of ​​the injured surface. The four-legged pet needs to be shown to the doctor so that he can revise the wound and re-treat it from the very beginning (cleaning, washing, using wound healing solutions, ointments, powders, etc.).

It all depends on where the damage is found on the paw. It is difficult to treat damage at the folds, as well as in those places where external influence is constantly exerted (for example, the animal constantly steps on this place). The most important condition for fast healing is rest. If it is impossible to provide the wound with peace, you need to be prepared that it will take a little longer to heal than usual. Also, bandages are almost always applied to such wounds, and under them. ointments / creams.

The presence of pus suggests that bacteria have joined the inflammatory process. Reasons: improper handling, ignoring on the principle of “it will pass by itself” or the formation of an abscess. With purulent wounds, you should always take your pet to the veterinarian, because already simple washes and treatments will not be enough. you need qualified cleaning of the wound cavity / surface, antibiotic therapy and proper care after.

If the injury is not deep and is not accompanied by active bleeding (venous or arterial), then there is only one approach: washing with water or antiseptic fluids and treatment with a wound-healing component (powder, spray, ointment / cream). The main thing is to observe the basic principle of wound healing: wet. dry, dry. wet. This means that wet places are best treated with brilliant green or powders, and those that dry out are best treated with ointments.

Aluminum spray

Primary treatment of wounds, washing, washing of abscesses

Chemi spray

Wound healing, antimicrobial and analgesic ointments / creams are used in dried wounds or shallow weeping

READ  How to diaper your husky puppy

Iodine solution

Brilliant green solution (brilliant green)

Rivanol

Types of wounds in a dog

Scratches and abrasions. Most often found in dogs. Dogs can get scratches and abrasions not only during walks, faced with thorny plants or wire, but also during fun games in the apartment or in the house. Most often, the paws and sides of the dog suffer from abrasions and scratches.

Splinters. Although a splinter is a concern for a dog, this type of wound is not the most dangerous. The paws of dogs most often suffer from foreign objects after walking, and often the tongue, if the pet likes to actively chew on wooden objects.

Cuts. Sharp glasses. the main enemy of dog paws while walking. Cuts can be superficial and deep, so you need to be very careful about this type of wound.

treat, open, wound

Bitten wounds. Other dog or cat bites pose a serious danger to a dog, not only because of their severity. sharp canines can tear tendons, large blood vessels. but they can also provoke a serious wound infection, because the saliva of other animals contains bacteria that are harmful to your pet.

Stab and cut wounds. Deep wounds inflicted on the dog by objects with long, sharp surfaces. Can penetrate deep into the body of an animal, cause serious blood loss, damage to internal organs.

Lacerated wounds. The danger of lacerations is that they can seriously damage the tendons and soft tissues, and the uneven edges of the wound will grow together and heal for a long time.

Bruised wounds. Dogs can get them when they collide with cars, other heavy objects, or hit with a stick. With such wounds, the skin and soft tissues of the animal’s body are squeezed, blood vessels are seriously injured, and an extensive hematoma occurs.

How to treat a dog’s wound

Anyone who decides to take responsibility and have a dog, no matter whether it is a large shepherd dog or a tiny Yorkshire terrier, should have a home first aid kit with a set of medical supplies in the house, with which you can provide first aid to the animal, treat a wound and heal injuries that do not require veterinarian intervention. First of all, these are bandages, antibacterial plasters, a tourniquet for stopping blood, a set of disinfectants and healing ointments.

When a dog has received a wound, the first thing to do is not to get confused. If the bleeding is severe, then a tourniquet should be applied as quickly as possible above the wound area. It is not advisable to keep the tourniquet for more than 2-2.5 hours (if the tourniquet cannot be applied, the blood can be stopped with a tight bandage). The wound must be quickly treated with disinfectants: chlorhexidine, miramistin or terramycin aerosol. During disinfection with a gauze or cotton pad swab, dirt and other foreign particles must be removed from the wound (tweezers can also be used). Cut the hair around the wound with scissors so that the hairs do not fall on the injured surface or carefully shave off with a safety razor. Then treat the wound with hydrogen peroxide, which will help stop the blood from small vessels. And then assess the severity of the wound. If it is a scratch, abrasion, bruise with a small surface of soft tissue injury, a splinter or cut wound, no more than 2-3 centimeters long and no more than a centimeter deep, then such wounds can be cured at home. If the dog’s wound is large or deep, its edges are torn, you suspect that tendons or internal organs may be injured, then after treating the wound and applying a bandage, the animal needs to be urgently taken to the veterinarian.

Deep lacerations, puncture wounds without contamination

Treatment of such wounds involves the following actions:

  • Cutting the wool around the damaged area.
  • We wash the wounds very well with any antiseptic (peroxide, furacilin). Draw the medicine into a disposable syringe without a needle. Pour the solution into the wound.
  • Blot the wound with a sterile bandage.
  • Lubricate the area around the wound with iodine, brilliant green.

We recommend that you deliver the dog to the clinic within 8-10 hours. The veterinarian must examine the animal, select drugs for further treatment.

Deep bleeding wounds

After treating the wound with disinfectants, aminocaproic acid is poured into the wound cavity. You can attach a hemostatic sponge. Arterial bleeding will help stop a tourniquet using a tight bandage. Apply 1-2 cm above the wound.

In some cases, to stop bleeding, surgical sutures, ligatures are applied, and hemostatic drugs are used.

What is used to treat wounds

For the treatment of treatment of wounds, bruises, other injuries on the body of an animal in veterinary practice, they use:

  • Antiseptic, disinfecting drugs in solutions, tablets, powders, sprays. For the primary treatment of the damaged area, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, Miramistin, furacilin.
  • Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory drugs. Used for prophylaxis, with inflamed wounds infected with pathogenic flora, as prescribed by a veterinarian.
  • Wound healing preparations in the form of ointments, liniment. Accelerate tissue regeneration, have a bacterial effect (Ranosan, Levomikol, tetracycline ointment, Vishnevsky liniment).
  • Hemostatic drugs.

Treating Open Wounds on Your Dog. PET | TAO Holistic Pet Products

For the treatment of deep bleeding or weeping wounds, antiseptics are used in powders, sprays, powders. Cuts, shallow injuries are treated with antiseptic, disinfectant, antibacterial solutions.

Gunshot wounds

The degree of injury to a dog is difficult to determine “by eye”. Gunshot wounds are almost always accompanied by profuse bleeding. Calm the dog, cover the wound with a sterile towel, tissue, bandage. Take the dog to the veterinary clinic immediately. In some cases, an emergency operation, anti-shock therapy is required.

Treatment of weeping wounds

Wool is cut around the lesion. The wound is washed with antibacterial agents, antiseptics. The edges of the wound are treated with warm soapy water, closing the wound opening with a sterile swab.

Complex antibiotics are used for treatment (7-10 days). Additionally, analgesics, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed.

Surgical intervention is resorted to if a weeping wound is accompanied by crush injury, complicated by pyogenic flora. The wound surface is washed, dead tissues are excised, complex treatment is prescribed (local treatment of drugs for general use).

Bitten wounds

In case of bitten wounds, in order to prevent their infection, the wound cavity is washed with soapy water, antiseptics. Dust with antibiotics (streptocide powder). Anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed, a course of antibiotic therapy (5-7 days).

Insect bites

Single bites of stinging insects (wasps, bees) do not pose a particular danger to the dog. The animal shows concern, licks the bitten area. Redness is noticeable at the site of the bite, edema appears. On palpation, the animal experiences pain.

  • Examine the bite site. Remove the sting with tweezers, if present, or remove the tick.
  • Treat the bite site with a disinfectant.
  • Apply a cold compress, ice to the bite site for 5-10 minutes.
  • Give an antihistamine (diphenhydramine).
  • Monitor the condition of the dog, treat the bite twice a day.

If the dog is allergic, an insect bite can provoke anaphylactic shock. It is accompanied by suffocation, disruption of the central nervous system (convulsions), skin rash, edema, and other symptoms. Without wasting a minute, help your pet using atropine, adrenaline, corticosteroids, antihistamines, and other means to normalize the condition.

Why are wounds dangerous for a dog

Even a small scratch on the body, a minor cut, if not treated, becomes inflamed and becomes a gateway for pathogenic bacteria to enter. Large internal lesions are often hidden behind small “holes”.

FUNDAYUNA.COM 2021