False increase in ESR
Exceeding the ESR norm is possible without the presence of ailments in the body. There are a number of natural reasons:
- taking medications containing hormones;
- allergic reactions;
- excessive use of vitamin complexes, especially vitamin A;
- inaccuracies in the diet;
- individual characteristics of the organism. Statistics show that almost 5% of the world’s population has an accelerated red blood cell sedimentation reaction;
- carrying a child. In pregnant women, ESR can grow three or more times, which is not considered a pathology;
- insufficient absorption of iron by the body, its deficiency;
- age from 4 to 12 years. During this period, especially in boys, an increase in ESR is possible, associated with the development and formation of the body. There are no infections or inflammations.
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An increase in ESR above the norm in some cases accompanies certain chronic conditions. These include:
- increased blood cholesterol levels;
- recent vaccination against hepatitis;
A high degree of obesity also causes red blood cells to sediment faster than necessary.
Increased ESR during pregnancy
During pregnancy, the processes in the female body occur in a special way. The protein composition of the blood is also slightly modified, which is reflected in the ESR.
The indicator can jump up to 45 units, and this will not indicate the manifestation of diseases.
ESR begins to grow gradually as early as the tenth week of pregnancy. The highest value is usually recorded in the third trimester.
Almost a month after giving birth, ESR is also overestimated. The cause is anemia, which developed even during the period of gestation of the baby. It provokes a significant thinning of the blood and increases the rapidity of red cell sedimentation.
The size of the ESR is affected by the complexion of a woman. For thinner expectant mothers, the indicator rises to a greater extent than for puffy ladies.
A month or one and a half after the birth of the baby, ESR quickly returns to normal.
But even such objective processes should not be ignored. Only a doctor can determine how normal the pregnancy is and whether everything is in order for the expectant mother.
A blood test for ESR. erythrocyte sedimentation rate. is mandatory during the initial diagnosis.
This study only helps to determine the further course of medical actions. After all, whatever the results of the analysis, they are not a reliable sign of pathologies. Deviation of ESR from the norm only indirectly indicates that an inflammatory process may occur in the body or an infection develops.
Features of increased ESR in children
The causes of increased ESR in babies are not much different from those that are typical for adults. Most often, this symptom manifests itself as a result of:
- infectious diseases, including chronic ailments;
- allergic reactions;
- metabolic disorders;
- injuries to limbs and other parts of the body.
Infectious and inflammatory processes in children manifest themselves not only by an increase in ESR. The rest of the indicators, which are determined using a general blood test, also change. The general condition of the baby is deteriorating.
A slight increase in ESR can be explained by such non-hazardous factors as:
- violation by a nursing mother of a diet: there is an excess of food with a significant amount of fat in the diet;
- taking oral medications;
- the baby is teething;
- there is a lack of vitamins in the body.
Parents whose children have an indicator above the established norm are contraindicated to panic. It is necessary to carefully examine the child and establish the reasons. Successful treatment of the underlying ailment will help normalize ESR in a month or one and a half.
Causes of increased ESR
An increase in ESR can be the result of the development of one or even several diseases at the same time. They can be classified as follows:
- Viral, bacterial and fungal infections. They can be relatively mild, such as ARVI or ARI. But often a serious ailment develops, in which the ESR exceeds the norm by several times and reaches 100 mm / hour. For example:
- viral hepatitis;
An increase in the indicator is more typical in the presence of solitary peripheral formations. Less commonly, it occurs when tumors of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue are present.
In almost 20% of cases, the reason for the excess growth of ESR is poisoning of the body and rheumatological diseases. These pathologies lead to the fact that the blood becomes thicker and more viscous, and red cells begin to settle at a faster rate.
The greatest increase in ESR occurs when infectious processes are present and develop in the body. The value of the indicator does not increase immediately, but only a day or two after the onset of the disease. When the body recovers, the ESR goes down slowly. It will take a month and a half before the indicator returns to normal limits.
An increase in ESR also occurs after surgery. It can also accompany post-shock states.
The value of the study for ESR
The analysis results are very individual. There are many reasons for their upward bias. There is no specific disease in which ESR increases.
This indicator is considered general, nonspecific, since the answer to the question whether a person is healthy or sick does not contain.
But the study of the results of the study:
- contributes to the accelerated and timely conduct of additional tests;
- in combination with data from other analyzes allows you to objectively assess the state of the body;
- makes it possible to make forecasts for the short term;
- in dynamics indicates the course of the disease and how correctly the therapeutic methods are chosen. Approximation of ESR to the norm confirms that the medications and procedures prescribed by the doctor are successful and the patient is recovering.
The ESR normative values depend on the person’s age and gender.
The average for men is in the range from 8 to 12 units (millimeters per hour), for women. from 3 to 20.
With age, ESR grows and in venerable years reaches 50 units.
Increased ESR: growth rates
For a correct diagnosis, it matters how much the ESR indicator exceeds the norm. Depending on this, four degrees of deviation can be distinguished:
- The first, which is characterized by a slight increase in ESR. The rest of the blood counts remain normal.
- Second, the results of the analysis recorded an excess of ESR by 15-29 units. This signals that there is an infectious process in the body, which so far has little effect on its general condition. This situation is typical for colds. If they are treated, the ESR will return to normal in a couple of weeks.
- Third, the increase in ESR is more than 30 units. Such an increase in the indicator is considered significant and serious. As a rule, the size of the ESR indicates the development of dangerous inflammatory or necrotic processes. It can take several months to treat the disease.
- Fourth. ESR increases by 60 units or more. This situation reflects an extremely difficult and life-threatening condition of the body. Immediate and thorough treatment required.
Monocytes and ESR are increased in a child
Monocytes are immature blood cells. Their level can also be determined using general analysis. When detailed information about the functioning of the child’s body is required, the leukocyte formula is checked. Elevated and lowered levels of these blood cells are indicative of abnormalities. An increase in parameters is called monocytosis. Normally, the number of immature cells should not exceed 11% of the number of leukocytes.
A decrease in the level of monocytes indicates a disturbance in the functioning of the immune system. This is common with anemia, leukemia, and radiation sickness.
An increase in monocytes is observed in tuberculosis, malaria and damage to the lymphatic system. Thus, an increase in the number of immature cells, as well as an increased ESR in a child, should alert parents and a pediatrician.
Reduced ESR in a child
A decrease in erythrocyte sedimentation rates usually indicates impaired blood circulation, poor clotting or blood thinning. The number of red cells is increasing, but they interact ineffectively with each other.
This phenomenon is observed in children who have recently suffered from poisoning or dehydration, have problems with stool. In some cases, low rates signal viral hepatitis.
Only a pediatrician can determine the true cause of such a pathology and recommend appropriate therapy.
The main reasons for the increase in ESR
As noted earlier in the article, most often the reasons for the change in this blood count are hidden in the presence of inflammation in the body. In addition, allergic reactions, poisoning, untreated foci of infection can provoke such phenomena.
The main diseases that are signaled by an increase in ESR in children include the following:
- Autoimmune processes (lupus erythematosus, scleroderma).
- Diseases of the blood (anemia, leukemia).
- Endocrine pathologies (diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism).
In infants, the ESR analysis is increased, usually with teething or due to the high fat content of breast milk. Sometimes this state is quite natural, that is, it is an individual norm of the organism. In such cases, pediatricians recommend to undergo regular examinations.
It also happens that all indicators are normal except for the value of erythrocyte sedimentation. False positive acceleration can be caused by the child’s obesity, taking certain multivitamins, or hepatitis vaccination.
Increased ESR rates in a child
Often, parents find out about the violation during a routine examination by a pediatrician. If the specialist does not see the reasons that could lead to the problem, a second test is prescribed by a different method.
High ESR almost always suggests inflammation in the body. However, such an opinion must necessarily be supported by the results of an additional survey. Often a high level of lymphocytes signals a viral infection, and an increase in neutrophils. a bacterial infection. Without taking into account the accompanying test data, it is not possible to identify the disease in the child.
The amount of red cell sedimentation can go beyond the normal range in young children, if they lack vitamins or an active teething process was taking place during the tests. In older patients, the body reacts by increasing this blood parameter to stress or strong experiences.
Normative indicators in children
After the doctor has taken blood from the child, he must place it in a special test tube. In it, under the influence of gravitational forces, erythrocytes begin to gradually settle. The task of the laboratory assistant is to measure the speed with which this process occurs.
ESR normative indicators vary in children and adults, and also differ depending on the gender of the child. However, there are certain boundaries that make it possible to indicate the presence of a pathological process in the body.
The following indicators are considered to be the norm:
- Infants: 2 to 4 mm / h.
- Toddler under 6: 5 to 11 mm / h.
- Teenagers under 14: 5 to 13 mm / h.
- Young people over 14 years old: 1 to 10 mm / h.
- Girls after 14 years: from 2 to 15 mm / h.
An increased ESR in a child does not always indicate the presence of inflammation in the body. For an accurate diagnosis, a more detailed examination and determination of other parameters in the blood are required.
ESR is one of the main parameters of a blood test. Erythrocytes are red cells that, under the influence of anticoagulants, settle to the bottom of a medical test tube for a certain amount of time.
A similar process occurs in the human body. Over a period of time, red blood cells undergo an agglomeration process and gradually settle on the walls of blood vessels. The ESR indicator is not assessed separately, that is, separately from others. It is highly sensitive. A change in this indicator signals the development of a certain pathology in the body before the appearance of a pronounced clinical picture.
Increased ESR in a child. What does this mean, what are the reasons for what to do?
You can find out a detailed picture of the child’s health by analyzing a blood test. Its important element is the ESR indicator (erythrocyte cell sedimentation rate). This is a nonspecific parameter that has a high sensitivity for determining pathologies of an infectious and oncological nature. From the materials of this article you will learn why some children have ESR above the norm, what this means, what measures parents should take.
Methods for determining the value of ESR
Today, in medical practice, two options are used to determine the value of erythrocyte cell sedimentation: the Panchenkov and Westergren method.
The first involves placing the biological fluid on a glass that is installed vertically. The second is considered more informative, since it optimally recreates the conditions of a similar process in the human body. Normally, the results of both tests should be identical.
The Westergren method is most sensitive, because only venous blood is used for its implementation. When the test results show an increased ESR in a child, a second test is not required.
Diagnosis of pathologies begins with a blood test. The definition of ESR is an integral part of it.
Data on the erythrocyte sedimentation rate give an idea of how far the disease has gone and help to outline the way for further medical actions.
A decrease in ESR in relation to the limits of the optimal level does not accurately indicate whether a person is healthy or sick. It only indicates the possible presence of an infection in the body or the development of an inflammatory process. But you should not ignore this information, because this way you can miss serious pathologies, it is advisable to get rid of them immediately.
Reduced ESR in a child
A newborn baby often has a low ESR in the first weeks of life. But here you should pay attention to two conditions:
- Deviation from the norm should not exceed ten units.
- After two weeks, the value of the indicator is set within optimal limits.
The reasons for the decrease in ESR can be:
- prolonged vomiting;
- dehydration of the baby’s body due to the two previous reasons.
- temperature rise;
- food poisoning;
- high acetone.
A slowdown in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is also possible in the case of the development of:
- cardiac pathologies, primarily heart disease;
- viral hepatitis;
- chronic heart failure.
The child’s body is not yet sufficiently protected from inflammatory processes. Therefore, parents, together with pediatricians, need to pay great attention to the slightest deviation from the norm. Especially when it comes to blood counts.
ESR is lowered: reasons
A decrease in the rate at which red blood cells are deposited, and its fall below normal, is a condition that is rare. Yes, and rarely, a decrease in ESR signals that serious disorders are taking place in the body.
However, if red blood cells begin to settle at a rate several times less than the minimum, this is already dangerous. The reasons may be:
- Lack in the diet of vitamins and minerals necessary for the organs to work rhythmically and the general well-being remains good.
Both reasons are characteristic mainly of the fair sex. It is they who tend to exhaust themselves with prolonged diets and even hunger for many days and weeks. Low ESR is observed in 100% vegetarians who do not consume not only meat, but also all animal products.
- Long-term use of medications such as aspirin, potassium chloride. The reasons for low ESR can be contained in changes: the ratio of blood components, shifts in the pH of the red life-giving fluid (acidosis, oxidation), the structure of erythrocytes.
- Spherocytosis. hereditary hemolytic anemia caused by a defect in the cell membrane of erythrocytes.
- Sickle anemia. hereditary hemoglobinopathy, that is, a violation of the structure of the hemoglobin protein.
- Polycythemia. an increase in the number of red blood cells.
- Hyperbilirubinemia. a condition in which bilirubin rises. a breakdown product of red cells.
- Hyperhydration. one of the forms of disturbance of water-salt metabolism.
A decrease in ESR in rare cases accompanies:
- stomach ulcer;
- acute intestinal infection;
- circulatory disorders;
- liver pathology;
- pulmonary ailments;
- extensive burns.
Whatever the reasons for the lowered ESR, it is necessary to consult a doctor and not resist additional examination.
ESR is lowered: what to do?
A decrease in ESR compared to the norm is most likely a temporary phenomenon without negative consequences. But a highly qualified doctor cannot leave him unattended. Having studied the indicator in dynamics and in comparison with the rest of the blood test results, he will definitely prescribe re-testing and additional examinations.
If the patient guesses that low ESR is the body’s reaction to improper nutrition, he will be able to help himself. To do this, it is enough to fill the menu with healthy products and balance their intake.
Normal sleep, timely rest and exercise can help you avoid stress or change your attitude towards them. This will prevent the development of depression or neuroses that can reduce ESR.
Features of reduced ESR in women
Among the reasons that lead to a decrease in ESR in women, the following should be additionally noted:
- Pregnancy in the first two trimesters.
- Lack of vitamins.
- Taking certain steroid medications.
- Neuroses and depression.
The first two reasons are interrelated. A woman in an interesting position often exhibits toxicosis, leading to vomiting and dehydration. Pregnant women often lose their appetite or develop special gastronomic habits. In most cases, the expectant mother tries to follow the rules of a balanced diet. However, breakdowns are possible, which cause a lack of vitamins and a decrease in ESR.
Neuroses and depression are not excluded in men. But in a woman, such troubles are much more common. Her body, due to the innate emotionality of women, reacts too strongly to a variety of negative events and stresses. As a result, it weakens greatly, which affects many vital signs. Including ESR decreases.
Diagnostic algorithm for increased ESR
One of the diagnostic algorithms for a patient with increased ESR is presented below :
Are there data that complicate the interpretation of ESR analysis? (see table 2 above)
- Yes interpret with care.
- Not see point 2.
Does the patient have any symptoms?
- Not Observe at regular intervals.
- Yes see point 3.
Is it possible to suggest a reason for the increase in ESR based on the data of anamnesis and clinical research?
- No. study table 4 (list of possible diseases) in order to search for hypotheses.
- Yes. conducting diagnostic tests.
- Yes. start therapy.
- No. study table 4 (list of possible diseases) in order to search for hypotheses.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
The reasons for the increase in ESR
The popularity of the ESR blood test was facilitated by the technical simplicity and cheapness of this test, as well as the general belief in its reliability. However, the interpretation of the ESR results is fraught with certain difficulties. For example, if a patient’s ESR is normal, can we assume that he does not have an active disease? And if there is only an increase in ESR, but there are no other signs of the disease, does this mean that the person is sick?
Usually, both doctors and patients calm down, seeing a normal test result, and an increase in ESR is perceived as a reason for further examination.
Unfortunately, a normal ESR result does not always mean the absence of disease. According to the literature, a significant number of patients with potentially curable malignant diseases have an ESR of less than 20 mm / h .
On the other hand, sometimes even with a strong increased ESR (100 mm / hour or more), it is not possible to detect signs of the disease.
Table 4 presents the results of a number of studies, the inclusion criterion in which was an extreme increase in ESR from 100 mm / h and above [1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 13, 16, 18]. The sum of the percentages is not 100, because some patients had several diseases at once.
Table 4. Groups of diseases with a significant increase in ESR
|Number of observations||1666||100%|
|Systemic connective tissue diseases||280||17%|
|No reasons found||39||2%|
Thus, an increase in ESR in most cases is due to one or more diseases from the four most common groups:
- Infections. An increase in ESR most often accompanies infectious processes.
- Malignant diseases. Among oncopathology, an increase in ESR is more common in solitary tumors than in oncohematological diseases.
- Rheumatological diseases.
- Kidney pathology.
The list of diseases accompanied by an increase in ESR is presented in Table 5 .
|1.1. Most bacterial infections (mostly acute)||Upper and lower respiratory tract infections Urinary tract infections Pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis|
|1.2. Viral infections||Viral hepatitis|
|1.3. Systemic fungal infections|
|2. Malignant diseases|
|2.1. Oncohematological diseases||Leukemia, lymphoma Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia Plasmacytoma, multiple myeloma|
|2.2. Malignant tumors||Lung, bronchi, nasopharynx Breast, ovary, uterus Kidney, prostate Pancreas, colon Other localization|
|3. Rheumatological diseases||Temporal arteritis Rheumatism Polymyalgia rheumatica Rheumatoid arthritis Systemic lupus erythematosus Other diseases|
|4. Kidney disease||Glomerulonephritis Nephrotic syndrome Pyelonephritis Other diseases|
|5. Other conditions||Anemia Inflammatory pathology of the pelvic organs (adnexitis, prostatitis, etc.) Inflammatory pathology of the large intestine, gallbladder, pancreas Dental granulomas ENT pathology: sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis Sarcoidosis Conditions after surgery Phlebitis with varicose veins of the lower extremities|
It takes a certain amount of time to change plasma proteins, and a run-up is needed for ESR (an average of 24-48 hours). Therefore, in the first days of the infectious process, ESR is delayed compared to leukocytosis and fever.
And since changes in blood proteins due to various inflammatory processes persist for a long time, then after the end of the disease, an increased ESR is often observed (sometimes for several months). This phenomenon should be remembered. The increase in ESR in these cases simply reflects the recovery period.
Further in the file Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
The reasons for the increase in ESR. Diagnostic algorithm.
File creation date: 04/11/2011 Document modified: 04/11/2011 Copyright © Vanyukov D.A.
file Erythrocyte sedimentation rate:
The method developed by the scientist Panchenkov is less accurate at rates exceeding 20 mm / h. The higher the settling rate, the less accurate this method is compared to the Westergren capillary.
Capillary blood (from a finger) is taken for analysis. In order to prevent blood from clotting during the study, it is mixed with an anticoagulant (sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in both cases.
Determination of ESR by the Panchenkov method
Pregnancy is considered a physiological reason for the deviation of ESR above normal. The value of the indicator can increase to 25 mm / h in the II trimester and up to 35 mm / h in the III-m. Even at rates of 45 mm / h, gynecologists look quite calmly.
If the doctor has the slightest suspicion of the pathological nature of increased ESR, the woman will be offered to retake tests or undergo additional tests. But most often this is not required, since increased values during pregnancy are usually associated with iron deficiency anemia, and this condition can also be detected with a general blood test.
For representatives of the female population from adolescence, a wider range of values has been established than for persons of the opposite sex. In girls under 15 years of age, the ESR rate ranges from 2 to 15 mm / h, from 15 to 50 years, an increase of up to 20 mm / h is allowed, and after 50. up to 30 mm / h. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate can increase up to 45 mm in women who are expecting a baby.
What does it mean if ESR is higher than normal, what are the reasons for the increase and how to reduce the indicator for adults and children?
An increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in the blood is not a specific marker indicating a specific disease.
In the list of probable pathological conditions in which ESR is higher than normal. diseases of infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune or hematological origin.
Despite the nonspecificity, the analysis of the ratio of erythrocytes and plasma continues to be an important link in the chain of general or biochemical blood tests. Why is it done and what the results mean?
- What is erythrocyte sedimentation rate?
- What does increased ESR in the blood mean??
- Reasons for high rates in adults
- Increase in men
- Among women
- During pregnancy
- Increased ESR in a child
- Methods for determining and decoding ESR in blood
- According to Westergren
- Panchenkov’s method
- How to reduce high rates?
- Norms depending on gender and age
- Among women
- In men
- In children
- Useful video
What is erythrocyte sedimentation rate?
Red blood cells, or red blood cells, have a higher specific gravity than organic matter called blood plasma. In the bloodstream, all these components are constantly moving, so the blood looks like a homogeneous substance. At rest (in a test tube), red cells begin to gradually fall to the bottom of the container.
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ESR is measured in millimeters per hour (mm / h), since it is determined by the height of the plasma column, exfoliated from erythrocytes in a test tube for 1 hour.
To the above reasons for increasing ESR, you can add several specific factors inherent only to women. Their erythrocyte sedimentation rate increases with:
- in the first months after childbirth;
- during menstruation.
The reason for the acceleration of ESR in excess of the norm is often drugs taken by a woman for a long time. hypocholesterol, antihypertensive drugs or contraceptives.
Increased ESR in a child
In pediatrics, ESR above normal can mean infectious, inflammatory and other pathological conditions:
- scarlet fever;
- whooping cough;
Fractures and other bone injuries, allergic reactions, anemia, bleeding, tonsillitis are also causes of a high ESR value in a child.
True, the increased indicators in the analyzes do not always indicate the disease. For example, in infants receiving breast milk, high ESR can be triggered by the mother’s dietary habits. From the predominance of fatty foods in the diet, the indicator may increase. Values also increase in response to taking paracetamol.
Physiological causes of increased ESR
Many people know that an increase in this indicator, as a rule, indicates some kind of inflammatory reaction. But this is not the golden rule. If an increased ESR is found in the blood, the causes may be quite safe and do not require any treatment:
- a dense meal before taking the test;
- fasting, strict diet;
- menstruation, pregnancy and the puerperium in women;
- allergic reactions in which fluctuations in the initially increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate
- allow you to judge the correct anti-allergic therapy. if the drug works, then the indicator will gradually decrease.
Undoubtedly, it is very difficult to determine what this means only by the deviation of one indicator from the norm. An experienced doctor and additional examination will help you figure it out.
False increase in ESR
In some situations, changes in indicators do not indicate a pathological process, but some chronic conditions. The level of ESR can increase with obesity, an acute inflammatory process. Also, false changes in ESR indicators are observed:
- With an increased level of cholesterol in the blood.
- Due to the use of oral contraceptives.
- Subsequently vaccination against hepatitis B.
- With long-term intake of vitamins, which contain a large amount of vitamin A.
Medical research shows that ESR can often increase for no reason in women. Doctors attribute such changes to hormonal disruptions.
Indicators of the norm
The norm for men is 1-10 mm / h, for women on average. 3-15 mm / h. After 50 years, this figure is able to increase. During pregnancy, sometimes the indicator can reach 25 mm / h. Such figures are explained by the fact that a pregnant woman has anemia and her blood thinns. In children, depending on age. 0-2 mm / h (in newborns), 12-17 mm / h (up to 6 months).
An increase, as well as a decrease in the rate of sedimentation of red cells for people of different ages and gender, depends on many factors. In the course of life, the human body is exposed to various infectious and viral diseases, which is why there is an increase in the number of leukocytes, antibodies, erythrocytes.
ESR. what is it?
ESR. the sedimentation rate of erythrocytes, red blood cells, which, under the influence of anticoagulants, for some time settle at the bottom of a medical tube or capillary.
The settling time is estimated by the height of the plasma layer obtained as a result of the analysis, estimated in millimeters for 1 hour. ESR is highly sensitive, although it belongs to non-specific indicators.
What does it mean? A change in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate may indicate the development of a certain pathology of a different nature, moreover, even before the onset of manifest symptoms of the disease.
Using this analysis, you can diagnose:
- The body’s response to the prescribed treatment. For example, for tuberculosis, lupus erythematosus, inflammation of the connective tissue (rheumatoid arthritis), or Hodgkin’s lymphoma (lymphogranulomatosis).
- Accurately differentiate the diagnosis: heart attack, acute appendicitis, signs of ectopic pregnancy or osteoarthritis.
- To ascertain the latent forms of the disease in the human body.
If the analysis is normal, then additional examination and tests are still prescribed, since the normal level of ESR does not exclude a serious illness or the presence of malignant neoplasms in the human body.
Increased ESR in a child: causes
Increased soy in the blood of a child is most often caused by inflammatory causes. You can also identify such factors leading to an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in children:
- metabolic disease;
- getting injured;
- acute poisoning;
- autoimmune diseases;
- stressful condition;
- allergic reactions;
- the presence of helminths or sluggish infectious diseases.
In a child, an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be observed in the case of teething, unbalanced nutrition, and lack of vitamins. If children complain of malaise, in this case, you should consult a doctor and conduct a comprehensive examination, the doctor will establish why the ESR test is increased, after which the only correct treatment will be prescribed.
Why ESR in the blood is higher than normal: causes
So, what is the reason for the increased ESR in the blood test, and what does this mean? The most common cause of high ESR is the development of inflammatory processes in organs and tissues, which is why many perceive this reaction as a specific.
In general, the following groups of diseases can be distinguished in which the rate of sedimentation of red blood cells increases:
- Infections. A high ESR rate accompanies almost all bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and genitourinary system, as well as other localizations. This usually occurs due to leukocytosis, which affects the aggregation characteristics. If the leukocytes are normal, then other diseases must be excluded. In the case of the presence of symptoms of infection, it is probably viral or fungal in nature.
- Diseases in which not only the inflammatory process is observed, but also the decay (necrosis) of tissues. blood cells and the entry of protein breakdown products into the bloodstream: purulent and septic diseases; malignant neoplasms; myocardial infarctions, lungs, brain, intestines, pulmonary tuberculosis, etc.
- ESR increases very strongly and remains at a high level for a long time in diseases of an autoimmune nature. These include various vasculitis, thrombocytopenic purpura, lupus erythematosus, rheumatic and rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma. A similar reaction of the indicator is due to the fact that all these diseases change the properties of blood plasma so much that it is oversaturated with immune complexes, making the blood defective.
- Kidney disease. Of course, with an inflammatory process that affects the renal parenchyma, the ESR value will be higher than normal. However, quite often an increase in the described indicator occurs due to a decrease in the level of protein in the blood, which in high concentration goes into the urine due to damage to the renal vessels.
- Metabolic and endocrine pathologies. thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus.
- Malignant transformations of the bone marrow, in which red blood cells enter the blood without being ready to perform their functions.
- Hemoblastosis (leukemia, lymphogranulomatosis, etc.) and paraproteinemic hemoblastosis (multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom’s disease).
These causes are most common when erythrocyte sedimentation rate is high. In addition, all test rules must be followed when taking the test. If a person has even a minor cold, the rate will be increased.
Women, due to hormonal and physiological changes during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding and menopause, are more likely to experience qualitative and quantitative changes in the content of dry residues in the blood. These reasons can cause an increased ESR in the blood in women up to 20-25 mm / h.
As you can see, there are a lot of reasons when the ESR is above the norm, and it is problematic to understand what this means from only one analysis. Therefore, the assessment of this indicator can only be entrusted to a truly knowledgeable specialist. You should not do something on your own that cannot be correctly identified with certainty.
What does elevated ESR in the blood mean?
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is an indicator that is still important for the diagnosis of the body. The definition of ESR is actively used to diagnose adults and children. It is recommended to take such an analysis once a year, and in old age. once every six months.
An increase or decrease in the number of corpuscles in the blood (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, etc.) is an indicator of certain diseases or inflammatory processes. Especially often diseases are detected if the level of the measured components is increased.
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In this article, we will look at why ESR is increased in the blood test, and what it says in each specific case in women or men.
Why ESR can be increased?
If an analysis result was obtained with an increased level of ESR, then the physiological reasons for such a violation should first be excluded. For persons of either sex, they can be associated with old age, and specifically in women. with the postpartum period, pregnancy or menstruation.
If the physiological features did not affect the result, then the increased ESR is a consequence of pathological reasons. These include various inflammatory processes, poisoning, acute and chronic infections, myocardial infarction, injuries and fractures, shock and postoperative conditions, the presence of malignant tumors, anemia, kidney disease, and so on . In addition, high ESR rates can be characteristic of patients undergoing treatment with certain types of drugs (estrogens, glucocorticoids) .
There are people whose blood erythrocyte sedimentation rate indicators differ from the norm from birth, although there are no pathological reasons for this. This feature is observed, according to some data, in 5% of the world’s population .
For this method of analysis, capillary blood (from a finger) and a special pipette, the so-called Panchenkov capillary, a thin glass tube graduated to 100 divisions, are used. First, a certain amount of anticoagulant is applied to a concave glass, and then the test blood is added here in a ratio of 1 to 4. Now the test material will lose the ability to coagulate, so you can draw it into a capillary, set it in an upright position and wait for the results. Usually the waiting period is one hour. after this time the laboratory assistant measures the height of the translucent liquid (blood plasma) without taking into account the sediment. That is why the result of the analysis is a value with a unit of measurement “mm”.
This method of determining ESR in blood is one of the most common in Russia. But there is a more sensitive method, the effectiveness of which is recognized by the international medical community.
The main difference between this method and the one described above is the use of a more accurate scale (200 divisions) with a graduation per millimeter. In addition, according to the Westergren method, blood is taken not from a finger, but from a vein. Mixing with the anticoagulant takes place directly in the test tube. After one hour, the plasma column is to be measured. in this way, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is determined in units of “mm / h”.
After the value of ESR has become known, it is necessary to show the result of the study to the attending physician. only a professional can diagnose or prescribe additional tests. Nevertheless, you can preliminarily evaluate the result obtained by checking with the values of the norm.
Decoding the results
There are three types of results that can be obtained at the end of the analysis. Let’s dwell on each of them.
What does a blood test for ESR show: norm and deviations
The composition of the blood is very sensitive to any changes in the functioning of the body. Therefore, one of the most common diagnostic procedures is a clinical blood test. It is used to determine the concentration of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets and other blood characteristics, such as ESR . Let’s see what this indicator means and why it is so important.
ESR analysis methods
There are two methods for determining the level of ESR in the blood. For each of them, a characteristic feature is the mixing of the analysis material with a special substance that prevents blood clotting. an anticoagulant. But the accuracy of the result and even the type of blood are different in both cases.
ESR in the blood test
The mechanism of analysis for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is quite simple. Erythrocytes are much heavier than blood plasma and other corpuscles . therefore, if the blood is left in a vertically installed test tube, then after a while a thick burgundy red blood cell sediment will appear at its bottom, and a translucent liquid (plasma and a buffer layer of other blood elements) will remain on top. This is a completely natural process due to the action of gravity.
Red blood cells are able to “stick” to each other, forming complexes. The latter settle to the bottom much faster than separately existing erythrocyte cells due to their greater mass. In the inflammatory process, the ability of erythrocytes to form complexes significantly increases, therefore, the sedimentation rate increases.
The accuracy of the method for determining the ESR depends on several factors: compliance with the rules for preparing the patient for the study, the professionalism of the laboratory employee and the quality of the reagents used for the analysis. If all the requirements are met, then as a result there is no need to doubt.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate of a healthy person depends on the age and gender of the patient. For newborns (up to a month), the ESR value is normal. 1–2 mm / h . This is due to the very low concentration of protein in the blood. In a child under 10 years of age, the ESR analysis rate is 0-10 mm / h .
Due to the specificity of the chemical composition of blood and the level of its viscosity, the ESR rate in the blood of men and women is different .
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate in a healthy patient from 10 to 50 years old is 0-20 mm / h, and at an older age, the upper limit rises to 30 mm / h.
For men from 10 to 50 years old, the normal ESR value is 0-15 mm / h, and at the age of 50 years and above, the norm changes by 0-20 mm / h.