In those species in which sexual dimorphism is not expressed in the color of the plumage, the sex is determined by the sounds emitted. As a rule, males sing longer and more beautifully. They perform more complex compositions. But females either keep quiet most of the time, or make fragmentary quiet sounds. It’s hard to call it singing.
You can hear the voice of birds starting from 4-5 months of age. The same age is recommended for the purchase of finches.
The size and color of the beak can also determine the sex of the bird. So, in zebra finches, the boy’s beak is painted in a more saturated red color, and in the girl it is diluted with an orange tint. Usually, this organ is larger in males. Another difference is the hump at the base of the beak, which is possessed by males of some species.
These are birds with a body size of up to 10 cm.They have a well-pronounced sexual dimorphism in color: males have bright plumage and beak, females are faded.
In nature, zebra finches are found in the Lesser Sunda Islands, Australia, introduced to Puerto Rico, Portugal and the United States. They live mainly on the plains, more often not far from water sources. They prefer to live in flocks of 50–100 individuals. Life expectancy in the wild is from 5 to 10 years. In the wild, there are 2 subspecies of these birds. mainland and island. A large number of varieties of domestic zebra finches with various colors have been bred. This is the most popular type for indoor use.
According to the color of the plumage, the female and the male differ in the following species and subspecies:
- Zebra: The base color is gray, males have a brown-white mark on the neck, which is separated by a black stripe starting in the eye region. Zebra pattern on the chest. alternating dark and light stripes, a brown tint on the sides. The female does not have this color.
- Red-headed: only the male has a red head, brown with black and white spots on the chest, throat and belly, and a striped pattern.
- Red-throated: males have a more saturated brown spot on the chest against the background of the main brown color. In females, the plumage is more faded, does not have bright colors and red color on the throat.
- Chestnut-breasted: Boys have a snow-white tummy, chest and sides with dark stripes. Girls also have stripes, but they are much narrower, and the belly with a gray tint.
- Bronze-winged: Males are more black on the head and tail than females. In addition, in males, green-bronze stripes on the sides are clearly visible, while in females they are blurred.
- Mourning: the boy has a black stripe at the end of the back and at the base of the tail; feathers with a black border grow on the sides. The girl has a much narrower strip above the tail, and the border on the feathers is lighter.
Amadines: how to tell a female from a male
Amadines are becoming more and more popular as pets. This is explained by their beauty, unpretentiousness in care and food, small size and the ability to take up little space in the apartment. If you are interested in how to distinguish a male from a female, then we will show you several ways.
How to tell a female from a male
Since finches are birds that live in flocks in the wild, they are also not recommended to be kept alone at home. They definitely need relatives for communication, games, fun pastime. In addition, if the owner cannot communicate with the feathered pet for a long time, a lonely bird may get bored, which will certainly negatively affect its health.
If you are going to listen to the recommendation and have several finches, but do not plan to breed them at the same time, you need to purchase same-sex individuals. And for this, it is necessary to determine when buying where the girls are and where the boys are.
You should not blindly trust sellers who will claim that they know the sex of the bird for sure. It is better to apply the principle of “trust but verify” and independently verify the correctness of the person who sells you birds.
It is not always easy to distinguish who is in front of you. a female or a male. In some species, the color helps to understand this, which, as a rule, is brighter in males. In other cases, both the girl and the boy may look exactly the same, and then you will need to listen to their voices.
Japanese finches were bred by humans, they are not found in the wild. These small birds do not have the same beautiful plumage as many other species. their feathers are colored in different shades of beige and brown. However, they are folded gracefully and refined. They have a long neck, an elongated body, a long fan-shaped tail.
The “Japanese” are distinguished by their friendly character, cheerful disposition, beautiful melodic voice, well-developed parental instinct. Life expectancy in captivity is 7-8 years.
These birds are inhabitants of the light forests of the African continent. Their body length reaches 11 cm. They have a dull color of plumage. The head, throat and nape are colored red-brown, the back and wings are dark brown, the tail feathers are black. The belly, sides and area under the tail are yellowish, beige or white in color. As the name implies, these finches have a silvery beak.
Ornithologists know about the existence of 4 subspecies of the wild silver-billed finch, which differ slightly in the color of their feathers. In captivity, many varieties of these birds have been bred. Such finches live next to a person for up to 8 years.
By the cesspool
In quail, the visible epithelium of the cloaca is pink. As he grows up, he acquires a bluish tint in chickens, and in males, the color remains the same. But males have a gonad in this area, which females do not have. It is felt under the tail as a small tubercle, giving a foamy discharge with light pressure.
This sex estimation method works with 100% accuracy on any quail species.
Determination of sex, taking into account the breed
Representatives of some hybrids have largely retained the wild type of plumage. The cover of such birds is a combination of ocher-brown feathers with black, in variants that are different for males and females. However, there are mono-colored birds that do not contain external signs of sexual dimorphism.
When to buy a bird?
It is advisable for inexperienced poultry breeders to buy quails at the age of about 1-2 months. It is much more difficult to distinguish birds that are just 2 weeks old. However, experts will be able to recognize chickens already at the age of 7 days.
In order to avoid mistakes, it is advisable to purchase already grown quails. Because in certain breeds, sex characteristics appear much later.
Not knowing how to distinguish a female from a male in Manchu quails, there is a high danger of forming a predominantly “male” herd.
When it comes to the herd of an egg production line, such an oversight can jeopardize the profitability of the business.
If the existence of extra males in meat breeds is justified by their rapid growth and relatively high weight gain, then in egg breeds this is not the case.
In fact, distinguishing female Manchu quails is not so difficult, especially after 3 weeks of age. The variety belongs to the number of “colored”, therefore there is external sexual dimorphism here, but, like other representatives of a variegated suit, it manifests itself as puberty.
Adult males dress in a dull, almost monochromatic plumage, a characteristic golden color. Each head is crowned with an expressive brown or dark ocher mask. Females have a lot of black elements in their outfit, so the pattern of their dresses looks clearer.
Layers’ breasts are decorated with dark specks, and head feathers repeat the main color of the back and sides.
How to tell a quail from a quail at an early age
Sexual maturity in quails begins from the fourth week of life. Until this time, it is impossible to distinguish a male quail from a female by plumage, voice or primary sexual characteristics. However, even in the early stages of life, the sex of a bird can still be established, albeit not with absolute certainty.
To determine the sex of quails in a new brood, you need to carefully observe the chicks for some time. The most active birds will most often be females, but males are less mobile. However, it must be borne in mind that sedentary chicks (regardless of gender) may be just sick. Such quails must be marked and monitored in order to remove them from the flock when their condition worsens.
How to distinguish a female quail from a male?
In order to get the most out of quail keeping, it is important to properly form the flock. Laying hens produce eggs, in addition, they are larger and heavier than cockerels, therefore they are more cost-effective. It is not always easy to select individuals of the desired sex, but it is possible if you know how to distinguish a female quail from a male.
Feeding quails: daily ration norms
When breeding quail, proper feeding is important. Adult birds are fed 2-3 times a day. The diet of quail feeding includes kitchen waste, chopped wheat and corn, soybeans, millet. Also, birds are given alfalfa, cottage cheese, herbs, milk powder, grass flour, finely chopped hay, boiled potatoes, cabbage, beets, carrots, fish waste and other animal feed.
The best feed are soybeans, alfalfa, corn, which can fully provide the quail’s diet.
Table “Daily feeding rates for quails (in percentage)”:
When feeding quails, birds are also fed compound feed (grade PK-5; PK-2), to which 4-5% of chalk is added. 100 g of this mixture is sufficient for 4 birds. The compound feed is given dry and wet. Boiled liver and blood from slaughtered poultry can be added twice a week. Japanese quails are more fond of sweet and sour food. Quails rush well if they are given a compound feed formulated for egg-laying chickens.
The mixture for feeding quails, with the correct content, consists of the following components (per 100 g of the mixture): cereals (millet, oatmeal). 60 g, protein (fresh chopped fish, cottage cheese). 36 g, mineral (chalk, shells). 4 g. In addition, 10-12 g of juicy feed (carrots, cabbage) should be introduced into the diet, fresh chopped greens (lettuce, nettles) should be given plenty of in summer. You can add milk powder, fish meal, bone meal, broth, dry yeast, vitamins A, D3, E to the mixture. Feed is given both dry and in the form of wet mash in chopped form. Only good quality feed is fed. River sand, gravel, chalk, eggshells should be in the trough at all times.
On average, 25-29 g of feed is fed per day per bird, 8-9 kg per year, and 0.8 kg for growing up to the age of slaughter. Combined feed for an adult bird is spent on average 25 g per day.
The loss of feathers and pecking in adult quails indicates either a violation in the organization of nutrition (lack of minerals and vitamins) or maintenance technology (overestimated planting rates). Fresh greens of nettle, alfalfa, clover, grass or coniferous flour, fish oil, yeast, mineral feeds (eggshells, bone meal, shellfish) can be used as vitamin feed.
To compensate for the deficit of animal feed, earthworms and mealworms, various insects and their larvae are also introduced into the quail’s diet. In winter, green forage can be obtained by sowing cereals in special boxes. As needed, it is cut, crushed and added to feed.
The shape, size and color of the beak in females and males of finches have clearly noticeable differences. In males, beaks are larger, more powerful, more intensely colored, often with a predominance of red shades. Some species have a hump at the base of the beak. Females have more graceful and thin beaks of yellowish shades.
Representatives of different sexes in many types of finches are colored in different ways. Boys, as a rule, have bright colors in their plumage, while girls are more modestly colored. Males of some species have a characteristic color that clearly distinguishes them from females, as a manifestation of sexual dimorphism.
Among the most popular types of finches, the sex of which can be determined by color, the following are distinguished:
- Rice finch. It is difficult to distinguish a boy from a girl of this species by color. Males have a black and white head, dark gray chest and brown belly. The wings are dark gray with black. The tail is black and white. Females are colored in the same way, however, the shades of their plumage are slightly paler. You can only notice the difference in the color of representatives of different sexes by directly comparing two birds nearby. A characteristic feature that makes it possible to determine the sex of rice finches is the color of their beak and the area around the eyes: in males, these body parts have a deep red color, and in females, they are yellowish-orange.
- Zebra finch. The male has a rounded orange spot on the head under the eye. On the neck and upper chest there is a pattern of alternating black and gray thin lines, ending in a wide black stripe running down the middle of the chest. On the sides under the wings there are areas of brown color with small chaotically located white specks. The female has a gray head, neck, chest and sides. The shade of gray on the head is lighter than that of the male.
- Amadina Gould. It is quite difficult to determine the sex by color in representatives of this species. It is possible to reliably distinguish birds of different sexes in this way only in individuals of natural colors; for artificially derived morphs, one should rely on other characteristics. In wild-colored Gould finches, the head can be red or yellow-orange with black edging, as well as pure black. The neck is blue, the breast is purple, the belly is yellow. The back and wings are green. The tail is colored blue, black and white. In males, the shades are more intense, in females. paler. The color of the breast is especially different. in females it is pinkish, pale lilac or lilac-beige, and in males. an intense blue-violet.
- Japanese finch. It is also difficult to distinguish between females and males of this species, relying only on the color of the feather cover. The head and chest of males are colored black or dark coffee. Birds have wings and tail of the same color. The back and neck are colored lighter brown. The belly is beige. Females are colored the same, but their plumage is usually lighter in color, especially in the head and chest area.
- Red-headed finch. The male’s head is colored red. On the chest and belly, silver feathers with black edging interspersed with brown, creating a wavy pattern. The female’s head is colored gray-brown, like the rest of the plumage. On the chest, a pattern of thin dark brown waves and stripes on a light gray background is faintly visible. Separate light feathers with dark edging are not observed.
It is quite easy to determine the sex of adult finches by the sounds they make. After reaching the age of 4-6 months, males begin to sing, performing loud, long and complex trills. The voice of females is quieter, they are mostly silent and from time to time make short abrupt sounds.
Sex determination methods
It is easiest to determine the sex of finches by their appearance: color, size, body proportions, features of the structure of the beak. It is possible to distinguish boys from girls in species devoid of sexual dimorphism by characteristic behavior, as well as by voice.
How to determine the sex of a finch bird
Matching a pair is an important stage in the breeding of finches. Novice poultry farmers often face difficulties in determining the sex of their pets, since in some species, sexual dimorphism is weak or absent altogether. However, it is possible to distinguish a male finch from a female not only in appearance. There are several methods proven by experienced poultry breeders that allow you to accurately determine the sex of the bird.
Outside the mating season, the behavior of males and females of finches is practically the same. Determining the sex on this basis is possible only during the nesting season. At this time, the male sings, performs a mating dance, looks after the female. The female responds to courtship, dancing and publishing a quiet chirp, and is also engaged in the construction of the nest. If there are two males in the cage, they will start chasing each other, fighting and fighting for territory and food.
Determining the sex of some finch species can be challenging, especially when there are no differences in appearance between males and females. In order to choose the right pair, you should rely on a set of signs that allow you to make a conclusion about the sex of birds. When determining the sex in species that do not have pronounced sexual dimorphism, one should rely primarily on the behavior of birds and the sounds they make. However, these methods are suitable only for individuals who have reached sexual maturity, in young animals it is not possible to determine the sex in this case.
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How to distinguish a male finch from a female
Let’s talk about how to distinguish the female from the male of some types of finches. Most of the species of these birds have individual characteristics, with the help of which you can find out not only their sex, but also their age. These parameters include: feather color, beak color, musical talents.
Gender differences in zebra finches
Females of zebra finches differ from males in plumage color. Both the girl and the boy with a natural wild color of feathers, the main color is ash gray.
Males have a brown and white patch on each cheek, separated by a vertical black stripe extending directly from the eye. Also in front of the neck, in the chest area, males have a “zebra” pattern, consisting of light and black stripes.
The sides of the body of the male are colored brown, on which white spots are scattered in a chaotic manner. The belly is light beige, the beak is deep red, with a barely noticeable orange sheen.
The females have neither a striped pattern on the chest and throat, nor a brown tint on the sides. Each cheek has only a vertical black stripe with a small white spot. The belly has a yellowish tint. The beak is not as bright as that of the male. the red color is well diluted with an orange tint.
Several color mutations of zebra finches have been bred in captivity. White females and males of this species can only be distinguished by the color of the beak. For boys it is deep red, for girls it is less bright. Females of the brown mutation have a white tummy with a brown tint, in males it is white or white-gray.
Males of the cream mutation have light yellow spots on their cheeks, sometimes with an orange sheen. The sides are painted yellow-brown. Creamy zebra females do not have orange and yellow tones in color.
Males of the “penguin” mutation have orange spots on their cheeks and red flanks with white spots. The “penguins” females have absolutely white cheeks, the head is noticeably darker.
Age differences of some types of finches
Juveniles of red-throated finches are similar in color to females, and in males from an early age a spot on the chest is visible.
In the coloration of adult fire-tailed finches, there are gray, black, blue, pink and red colors. In young birds, all colors are dull, the transitions are blurred. The beak of the young is black, with age it acquires a deep red hue.
Adult Moluccan finches are black, white and brown. Young birds in plumage are dominated by brown and yellow shades.
A distinctive feature of young sharp-tailed finches is a protracted first (juvenile) molt. By changing young feathers to adult plumage, you can find out their approximate age. Molting begins in one to two months and can last for a year.
Now a few words about how to determine the age of a zebra finch. You can recognize it by coloring the feathers and beak. Young birds of natural color are similar to females in the absence of bright colors. They are completely ash gray with a brown tint.
The beak of the young is black, both in wild birds and in mutational ones. If a zebra finch has just finished its first (juvenile) molt, it means that she is two or three months old.
When it is impossible to determine the gender
If you cannot determine the sex of finches visually, you can pay attention to their gender differences.
The most important difference between a female and a male is singing. Males are the main singers and performers of complex sounds. Females are either silent or make quiet short sounds.
Males have larger, thicker and brighter beaks. Males of some species have a barely noticeable hump at the base of the beak.
Why you need to know the sex and age of birds
Amadines are schooling birds. So that the pet does not wither away from yearning for brothers, it is advisable to have at least two individuals. If the owner does not know the sex of the birds, he can get unwanted chicks from them. And vice versa. having decided to start breeding these birds, you will have to wait a long time for offspring if same-sex finches are in the cage.
When purchasing a bird, there is always a risk of running into an unscrupulous seller who will slip old and sick individuals. You won’t get chicks from such birds. And they will not live long. And if both young and old finches find themselves in the same cage, then the young can begin to peck at the “old people”, trying to get rid of them.
The ability to distinguish between the sex and age of these birds will help to avoid such problems. But, not all types of finches have pronounced sex differences. They are in the following types:
Also, some types of finches have differences between young and adult birds.
Sex differences in other species
The male of the red-headed finch is the owner of the red head. The throat, chest and abdomen are brown with black and white spots that create a striped pattern.
The main color of red-throated finches is brown. In females, the plumage has a lighter shade. Males have a deep brown patch on the chest.
In females, there is no red color on the head. Throat, chest and abdomen are light brown. Black and white spots are noticeably smaller than that of the male.
The male chestnut-breasted finch has a pure white belly. There are black stripes on the upper chest and on the sides. The white belly of females has a grayish tint, and the black stripes are noticeably narrower than that of males.
The entire body of young birds of this species is colored brown, and the upper part is noticeably darker than the lower.
The males of the bronze-winged finch have a black color on the head and tail, which is more than that of females. On the sides, the boys have green stripes with a bronze coating. In girls, the stripes are barely noticeable, blurred. In general, their coloration is duller than that of boys.
The male of the funeral finch has a black stripe at the end of the back, in front of the tail. The feathers on the sides of the body have a black border. In the female, the tail stripe is narrower, and the border of the lateral feathers is slightly lighter.
General hints of age
To find out the approximate age of an individual, you need to take a closer look at its movements. Young finches of some species move uncertainly, often lose coordination, fly poorly, so they spend most of their time at the bottom of the cage.
Determining the age of the bird is possible by close inspection. In young animals, the beak is more transparent than in adult birds. There is no damage, scratches or cracks on it. The skin on the paws is thin, the scales are small, barely noticeable. Claws short, neat.
Before the first molt, young finches have small feathers. Young birds of some species have fainter feathers than adult birds.
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Bird Owner’s Encyclopedia
There are several versions regarding the origin of Japanese finches. Some time ago, it was believed that these finches are the result of hybridization of several Asian species of finches. Another version suggests that Japanese finches. the product of hybridization of only two types of finches: bronze sharp-tailed and Malabar. Modern researchers believe that the most plausible is that the ancestor of Japanese finches is one species. a bronze sharp-tailed finch.
It is believed that initially these birds were bred in China, and then came to Japan, where they gained great popularity and got their name, and from there they came to Europe much later.
A unique feature of Japanese finches is their ability to feed the chicks of many other finch species, as a result of which they are often affectionately referred to as “nurse birds”. However, they resort to the help of Japanese finches as foster parents only in extreme cases, otherwise the parental instinct of a bird (and in the long term. And of the whole species), which has abandoned its clutch or chicks, may completely fade away. One of the main tasks of a good breeder is precisely to preserve the parental instinct of rare and more difficult bird species in breeding, so that these species can independently incubate and feed their offspring in the future.
Japanese finches are modestly painted. There are chocolate, black, cream, variegated, light, red color options. There are no differences in the color of the plumage of males and females, therefore, you can only distinguish a male from a female by observing the courtship process: the male at this moment sings a quiet pleasant “chirping-chirping” song, inflating feathers in the lower part of the body, resembling a small “pin” and bowing to the female in different directions.
Other plumage mutations are also known: tufted, curly in the neck and curly in the chest (the latter two are mainly common in birds bred in Japan).
Japanese finches are peaceful flocking birds that prefer to live in the company of their own kind. They get along well with other non-aggressive types of weavers. However, in a too cramped cage, they can show some aggression. Another characteristic of Japanese finches is the desire to sleep heap, even in several rows, sitting on each other’s backs. This sometimes leads to loss of balance and falls in sleep.
The ration is the usual for granivorous birds: the main food. multicomponent grain mixture, soft feed, vegetables and fruits, greens. Usually Japanese finches eat green food well, so they can be used as an example for field conservative weaver fish. It is imperative that there is sand-touring in a separate feeder, as well as a calcium stone or sepia. The drinking bowl contains clean, daily changed water. Amadins swim with pleasure, especially on hot summer days, sometimes several times a day.
Nesting of Japanese finches, like other types of finch weavers, is best carried out in the spring-summer period, when the length of daylight hours increases, the ambient temperature rises and vitamin and green food appears in abundance. The nest can be offered half-open, or a nesting house; soft hay, coconut fiber, small feathers from previous molts. good nesting material for most types of weavers. In a clutch, there are from 3 to 7 (sometimes more) eggs, incubation lasts on average about 15 days, chicks leave the nest at about the age of 22-26 days, after which the parents continue to feed their chicks for some time. As soon as the chicks begin to feed confidently on their own, it is recommended to plant them in a pre-prepared separate cage, and remove the nest (if re-laying is not planned). It is recommended to nest a couple no more than 2-3 times a year, in order to avoid excessive stress on the body of birds.
For a bred pair, the optimal size of the cage will be about 60 cm in length, do not forget that the babies will come out of the nest and will live in the same cage for some time. Another option would be to use a small breeding cage followed by transplanting the birds into a large cab during the fall-winter period.
You should not set up nests in common cages, as Japanese finches tend to occupy them in whole groups and interfere with each other. In addition, it will be impossible to track the actual parents of the chicks. Large hanging feeders should not be installed in a cage with Japanese finches, because this can (and in most cases will) be perceived as an invitation to nest. It is better to give preference to small feeders or feeders with a lid, where the bird can only stick its head (you should be careful here so that the finch cannot fit entirely inside and get stuck).
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After bringing the bird home, allow it to get used to for a while. Do not put in a common cage, as quarantine is necessary. At first, the finch is kept separately to identify health problems so that a sick bird cannot infect others.
In the early days, appetite, behavior, and stool in the finch are assessed. Ideally, feces are given for analysis. After a month, if no suspicious signs are found, you can plant the bird with your neighbors.
Amadins should not be removed from the cage unless absolutely necessary. They are seriously frightened, and careless movement can lead to the death of the bird. It is better to move birds from one enclosure to another, catching birds with a net at night. The adaptation of the Japanese goes quite smoothly, calmly, if the conditions of detention are respected: the birds are warm, dry, feed well and shelter from drafts. You can keep birds in cages or aviaries.
- very convenient option for apartments;
- can be metal, wood, combined;
- the optimal location of the door is just below the perch, so that the bird does not accidentally fly out when serving food, drink;
- it is necessary to equip a pull-out pallet;
- the size is chosen based on the number of birds, their size;
- the height of the cage must be greater than the width;
- round, diamond and trapezoidal cages are not suitable for this breed;
- you should not buy cells with decor such as balconies, windows, towers.
- the best option for keeping birds;
- size and shape may vary;
- in this room, the conditions for birds are close to natural;
- in aviaries, finches grow healthier;
- installed in a bright corner of the room;
- it is necessary to equip it with wooden frames, cover it with boards;
- the size of the doors should allow a person to easily enter inside
- the occupancy rate cannot be exceeded.
Japanese finches: description and at home
Amadin is a very common bird breed that was artificially bred. Unfortunately, information about the ancestors of this bird is so contradictory that they have not yet been established. Among the possible progenitors there are sharp-tailed finches, Chinese. Unlike the ancient snow-white Japanese finches, today the color variety is impressive. This unpretentious bird, which can be bred independently, has been in constant demand all over the world for many years. After all, she does not need to fly often, she patiently gets along with her neighbors.
The Japanese are quite peaceful, fearless breed, and the cage can be safely placed at any height. Approaching the cage will not affect the bird’s mood in any way. Do not place cages near heating appliances, if the room is heated by a stove or fireplace, do not place the cage under the ceiling.
It is very important to keep birds clean:
- dampness, dirt are very harmful to finches;
- it is necessary to clean up the cage or aviary at least every other day;
- dirt from the poles is cleaned with a knife, then they are treated with boiling water;
- tanks for water and food are washed every day with soap and hot water, wiped dry;
- in the heat, the water changes often;
- do not put containers for water and drinking nearby, also do not place them under the perches.
Amadins love water and enjoy swimming. Therefore, from time to time you need to give them this opportunity by hanging a bath with a small amount of water at room temperature in the cage. Water procedures have a good effect on the health of birds, on the condition of their feathers. For birds of this breed, sunlight is important; a lack of lighting should not be allowed. Otherwise, the metabolism of birds may be disturbed, a number of diseases will arise. In the summer, you need to expose the cage to the street for about 40 minutes a day.
This breed does not like cold and dampness. The temperature of the content in the room should not be lower than 15 ° С, the optimal interval is from 15 to 25 ° С.
Overheating is as dangerous for birds as cold.
The room for keeping amadins should have the following equipment:
- drinking cups;
- forage jar of mineral type;
- nesting device;
The best feeders and drinkers are glass, plastic, porcelain. It is better to refuse products made of clay, copper, wood. they are less hygienic. The poles are made of soft wood, well suited for:
The bottom of the cage or the floor of the aviary is covered with bedding from:
What and how to feed?
In order for the birds to develop well and be healthy, it is necessary to feed them efficiently and correctly. Balanced feeds can be found commercially or formulated yourself.
Grain mixtures are the main part of the diet of finches. They consist of wild and cultivated plants. millet, canary seed, weed seeds, plague, mogar. It is important that the seeds are fresh, without a musty smell.
Animal feed is an additional part of the diet. Consist of maggots, mealworms, fruit flies, insect larvae, minced meat, egg yolk, cottage cheese.
Learning to soft foods should be gradual. They are prepared daily, as they immediately deteriorate. Such a mixture consists of boiled eggs, grated carrots, cottage cheese, white loaf.
The composition of the grain mixtures can vary: they include sunflower, oilseeds, rapeseed.
In captivity, the full range of natural bird feed is not available. Learning to new types of feed mixtures should occur gradually, increasing portions every day. All types of feed must be fresh.
White zebra finches male and female identify.
Feeding is organized as follows:
- every morning the entire daily norm of the grain mixture is poured into the container;
- soft foods are given in small amounts throughout the day;
- every day the birds are given chopped fruits, berries, vegetables, herbs;
- the amount of food must be determined independently, since the need for food is individual for everyone;
- average rate of grain mixture per individual. from one to one and a half teaspoons plus additional types of feed.
During the nesting period, birds are supplemented with a mixture of crackers, carrots with cottage cheese, yolk, dried insects.
Amadines have a thick beak, curved in an arc, plumage of a dense type. The color can be any. mostly variegated, bright birds, with contrasting shades of feathers. Females have a faded color, as well as young animals, males are more catchy. There are crested representatives. The breed belongs to the family of finch weavers.
The size of the birds is small, and the colors of the Japanese can be different:
- the top is brown;
- the rest of the body is grayish or snow-white;
- there are representatives of monochrome color. reddish, white, yellow;
- given several hundred years of breeding the breed, the Japanese have quite a few varieties that differ in different combinations of shades;
- an asymmetry of the spotted type of color can often be observed.
The beak of the birds has an original shape and color: at the top it is black and blue, at the bottom it is light. The colors of the Japanese are indistinguishable by gender, but the singing is different.
This breed is very livable and undemanding to care for, in addition, it perfectly feeds weaver chicks, if necessary.
- loves the society of birds;
- calm, ill-tempered disposition;
- gets along well with their own kind in the same cage;
- during the nesting period, it is necessary to separate the birds in pairs.
White Japanese are weaker by nature, have fragile health, less fertility, grow more slowly, and often have physical disabilities.
In the 20th century, the crested variety of the Japanese was bred. Tufts can vary in color and shape:
- lush and thick;
- double type.
And more recently, the curly Japanese were bred. They have curled plumage in the chest, back, shoulders.
Sex differences and reproduction
Distinguishing the male finch from the female is very important if you are planning to breed. Boys and girls chicks are very similar, they can be distinguished by their singing. Females cannot sing, their conversation is limited to peculiar sounds, urges. Males dance when prompted, the plumage on the head rises, in addition, they whistle. Breeding finches is not too difficult, but you need to know the conditions and rules of this process. Reproduction can take place, regardless of the season, the size of the cycle usually does not exceed 55 days and consists of the following stages:
- laying out and brooding;
- detaching chicks.
Features of the preparatory stage:
- health check of individuals;
- the age is taken into account, especially of the female;
- the minimum age is 9 months;
- it is better to provide a separate room for breeding;
- daylight hours should be artificially increased to stimulate the process up to 16 hours;
- food needs to be diversified by increasing the amount of animal protein;
- a nesting house with material inside must be present;
- add mineral-type top dressing with high calcium, phosphorus, vitamins to the diet;
- hay and coconut fiber are used as material for the interior decoration of the nest.
After the birds have become accustomed to the new location, mating and laying of eggs takes place. This period can take several days or even a couple of weeks. Laying eggs is a critical process and care must be taken to ensure that the fruit does not get stuck in the passage. This phenomenon is infrequent and fatal. When the process has begun, it is necessary to put a lamp over the cage, ensuring a high temperature in the room. about 35 ° C.
Watch out for humidity. it should be high. If an egg is not laid within an hour or two, petroleum jelly or vegetable oil is carefully introduced into the hole with a pipette. After laying, the hatching period begins.
- amadins have a well-developed instinct, so there are usually no problems;
- after laying 4 eggs, the process begins;
- during this period, the egg is excluded from the diet;
- the period lasts about two weeks.
- hatch naked, blind;
- an egg is again introduced into the parents’ diet;
- green feed is removed;
- in a week, the chicks will already get stronger, begin to see, plumage appears in its embryonic state;
- at 18 days, the plumage completely covers the chicks;
- and after 3-4 days they fly out of the nest.
Disconnection and transition to a self-powered type occurs gradually. At first, parents still feed their children. After a couple of days, the chicks themselves begin to try to peck, after about two weeks they will feed on their own. During this period, a pair of parents may start laying eggs again, so chicks are a hindrance. Disconnect them to another room.
For the first time, birds molt at the age of one and a half to three months, during the same period, males begin to sing, you can distinguish birds by gender.
After 3, maximum 4 breeding periods, it is necessary for the couple to rest for about a year. At this time, the house, the nest is cleaned, the daylight hours are shortened, the birds are placed in a cage with other individuals. As a last resort, a couple are separated.
For the features of Japanese finches, see below.
Japanese finches are artificially bred. They appeared as a result of crossing of wild Chinese finches and bronze manakins.
The bird has a thickened curved beak, variegated feathers, painted in contrasting colors. In females and chicks, the plumage is not as bright as in males. The size of the Japanese finch sparrow is small.
- the upper body is brown;
- the lower part is gray or white;
- some individuals have monochrome plumage (red, white, yellow, pearl finch);
- shades can be combined;
- color is often asymmetrical.
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The beak of birds of this species is blue-black from above, and light below.
The Japanese finch loves being close to other birds, has a calm character, dislike of fights. He can easily live with his relatives in the same cage. It is worth noting that white individuals are slightly weaker than others for health reasons. They have stunted growth, lower fertility. They also often have physical disabilities.
In the last century, the crested Japanese finch was bred (as in the photo). Between themselves, they differ in the appearance of a tuft. It can be bunched, lush-thick, double. Curly finches also appeared. Their main difference is curled feathers on the chest, back and shoulders.
How long do finches live? With proper care, approximately 10-12 years.
Breeding at home
Breeding Japanese finches at home is not so difficult. However, you need to strictly adhere to some rules.
The breeding cycle lasts 55 days and consists of several stages:
- laying eggs, incubation;
- branch of chicks.
The preparatory stage has a lot of features and nuances:
- First you need to check if the pets are healthy.
- The female must not be less than 9 months old.
- It is better to breed finches in a separate room.
- It is recommended to artificially increase daylight hours up to 16 hours.
- Animal proteins, special mixtures with calcium, phosphorus, vitamins should be added to the birds’ diet.
- Separately, it is worth preparing a nesting house.
- Provide the finch with the material necessary to equip the nest. Is it hay or coconut fiber.
Mating begins after the future parents settle in a new place. The process takes from several days to 2 weeks. During this period, it is important to make sure that the female does not get stuck in the passage, otherwise she will die. You can help her using vaseline or vegetable oil.
Special conditions must be created for laying eggs. The temperature in the cage must be at least 35 ° C. You should also take care of high humidity.
Japanese finches have a well-developed parental instinct, therefore, as a rule, there are no problems with incubating eggs. The process takes about 14 days. At this time, it is recommended to remove the eggs from the menu.
Caring for finch chicks also has its own characteristics. They are born naked, blind. As soon as this has happened, eggs must be reintroduced into the diet of adults. But remove the green fodder.
A week later, the chicks have vision. After 18 days, they are completely covered with feathers. After another 3-4 days they leave the nest.
It is recommended to move out young individuals gradually. First, they are fed by their parents. But after 14 days they switch to self-catering. The female and the male can make other clutches.
In this video you will learn all about breeding Japanese finches:
finch at home
As mentioned above, finches do not like loneliness, therefore they get along well both with their relatives and with other small birds. If they don’t have company, they miss, don’t sing, get sick and may even die.
Attention! The Amadines are not very fond of human society. They also don’t like being picked up or let out into the room.
Hygiene and care
Proper care of Japanese finches includes:
- cleaning the cage and accessories;
- bathing the bird itself;
- creating the necessary conditions for keeping.
You need to clean the pallet and change the litter every day, as debris and droppings accumulate there. It is enough to completely wash and disinfect the cage once a week. At this time, it is better to transplant the finch into a special carrier or box with slots.
First you need to remove the perches and feeders. After getting rid of the droppings. Now, using soapy water, thoroughly clean all corners in the cage. At the end, rinse it with warm water and dry it.
It was said above that finches love to swim. They usually do it on their own. But if the feathered pet is very dirty, you can carefully rinse it under the tap with warm water.
Special requirements apply to lighting and temperature conditions. If the cage is in a shaded area, you will have to equip an additional lighting system. This will require an ultraviolet lamp. The length of daylight hours should not be less than 12-14 hours.
The air temperature in the room should not be lower than 15 ° С. The ideal option is 15-25 ° C. Both overheating and cold should be avoided.
The main part of the diet of Japanese finches is grain mixtures. The mash contains millet, canary seed, weed seeds, chumiza, mogar. They should be fresh, without a musty smell.
An additional part of the menu is animal feed. We are talking about maggots, mealworms, fruit flies, insect larvae, minced meat, cottage cheese and egg yolks.
Soft food should be introduced into the diet gradually. It should be cooked every day. The simplest recipe: boiled egg, grated carrots, cottage cheese, white loaf.
Sunflower, oilseeds and rapeseed can be added to the grain mixture.
During the nesting of finches, it is recommended to add crackers, carrots, cottage cheese, yolk, dried insects to the diet of birds.
How to organize food properly? There are a number of tips:
- Pour the daily amount of grain into the feeder every morning.
- Give soft food in small amounts throughout the day.
- Every day, Japanese finches should be given fruits, vegetables, berries, a little greenery.
- The owner of the bird should determine the exact amount of food. Everyone has individual needs.
The approximate amount of grain mixture per day is 1-1.5 tsp. This does not include additional feed.
Price, features of choice
in poultry markets and up to 1000 rubles in nurseries selling ringed birds.
Singing Japanese finch
Despite the fact that they are songbirds, they do not sing very well. Singing a Japanese finch is more like whistling or chirping. Although the sounds are very melodic: