home Dogs The dog does not eat only drinks water

The dog does not eat only drinks water

The consequences of not drinking

Eating but not getting enough water can lead to a number of serious problems. Possible consequences:

  • decreased activity, lethargy and lethargy;
  • change in skin tone;
  • deterioration of the joints, pain when walking;
  • disruption of all internal organs;
  • slowing down the metabolism;
  • departure against the background of stagnation of toxins in the body;
  • development of chronic diseases.

Prolonged lack of water leads to severe depletion of the animal. If the necessary measures are not taken in time, it can be fatal. This is why it is important to respond as quickly as possible to signs of dehydration, especially if you have an older dog.

Top Reasons Why Your Dog Doesn’t Drink Water

Water intake is required for the full functioning of all organs and systems of the dog’s body. Lack of fluid gradually leads to serious problems, slow exhaustion and the development of chronic diseases. If a pet refuses water, but eats, this is a wake-up call for any owner. It is necessary to understand the reasons and, if necessary, promptly start therapy. In the article we will figure out why the dog does not drink water from the bowl and what to do in this situation.

Signs of exhaustion and illness

If you find that your dog is drinking too little water, you should test your dog for dehydration. To do this, with two fingers, you need to pull off the skin at the withers or in the area between the shoulder blades. Normally, wool with a layer of subcutaneous fat should quickly return to its place, slow sinking is the first sign of a lack of water.

The second way is to check the condition of the gums. In a healthy dog, they should be painted in a deep red-pink color; with light pressure, the white shade that appears immediately disappears. Dehydration is often accompanied by exhaustion symptoms. The main ones are:

  • loss of appetite, refusal to eat;
  • apathy, lethargy and poor mobility;
  • unwillingness to go for a walk, play;
  • dimming of the eyes, a change in the saturation of the iris shade;
  • redness of proteins.

To check the condition of the dog, you can offer it any treat, give it a toy, or invite it for a walk. A healthy and active animal should not refuse these offers.

If the puppy does not drink water

It is not uncommon for the puppy to eat well, but refuses the offered liquid. This can be due to the fact that there is enough liquid in the food, as well as due to his inability to lap up. There are also the following reasons:

How to Make a Cat eat and Drink when it is Sick

First of all, you need to bring the puppy into the container, slightly lower his head so that his nose touches with water. If, even after this, the animal does not want to drink, you can use a bottle with a nipple or a small hole, depending on the age. If general weakness, fever and other symptoms are detected, the animal should be shown to the doctor.

does, only, drinks, water

Why the dog refuses water

The loss of thirst can occur against a background of many factors. There are the following reasons why the dog does not drink water well:

  • Stale water and dirty dishes. Change the liquid in the bowl at least once a day. Wash the container itself with the addition of mild cleaning agents at least once a week. Otherwise, saliva and dirt can accumulate in it, which contributes to the appearance of bacteria and the release. A common sign of a dirty bowl is a dog sniffing water and not drinking.
  • Damage to the oral cavity. While drinking, the tongue curls up like a ladle, scooping up and sending water inside. If it is affected or gum disease, the dog becomes painful to drink.
  • Respiratory system diseases. With a common cold or laryngitis, severe swelling appears in the larynx, which leads to discomfort and pain while drinking water, it becomes difficult for the dog to swallow.
  • Pregnancy. In later stages, as well as after childbirth, bitches often refuse water.
  • The recovery period after surgery. At this stage, dogs always feel weak and drink poorly.
  • Diseases. Lack of thirst is noted in oncology, disorders of the genitourinary system. in case of poisoning and viral diseases. Usually this symptom is accompanied by loss of appetite, weakness, and malaise.

If you notice that your dog has stopped drinking water and looks exhausted, you need to see a specialist. Early diagnosis allows you to avoid serious problems, the transition of the disease to the chronic stage.

How much water should your pet drink per day

The amount of water per day depends on weather conditions, physical activity, the type of feeding and the size of the pet. With dry food, more fluid is required, since the food causes a feeling of thirst after it enters the stomach. The rate of fluid intake for dogs is 20-70 ml for each kg of pet weight per day. If the animal drinks less in cool weather, then there is no need to worry. The dog can get moisture from natural food, when eating snow, which is often found in huskies, malamutes and Samoyeds.

The role of water in the dog’s body

Water plays an important role in the dog’s body. It ensures the normal functioning of the vascular and digestive system, is responsible for the condition of the skin, hair, mucous membranes. A normal volume of fluid helps to eliminate toxins, and in hot weather, water is involved in the process of thermoregulation due to gradual evaporation. Moisture is part of the connective tissue, due to which the joints are softened, movements become easier.

Dehydration for more than 12 hours begins to affect the condition of the pet. He becomes lethargic, movement and metabolism slow down. Thirst is especially dangerous in hot weather. the temperature balance is disturbed, which is fraught with serious complications from the cardiovascular system.

How to train your dog to drink water

It is impossible to force to drink water, but it is important to competently approach the care, to ensure favorable conditions of detention. Helpful hints:

  • dogs require regular exercise. During prolonged rest, harmful substances stagnate in the body, which leads to the development of diseases. When walking in the heat, take a drink with you;
  • food should be given only at the time allotted for this.
  • drinking water should always be available to the dog. When kept in a kennel, place the bowl at a distance accessible to the animal;
  • reduce stress as much as possible, do not scold your pet if he does not want to drink;
  • normally, walking should be carried out at least once every 8 hours, if this is not possible, be sure to purchase a tray.

If the dog refuses water altogether, dehydration should not be allowed. To do this, she needs to be given rehydration solution, which can be purchased at the pharmacy. If the drug is not at hand, drink the pet with unsalted chicken broth or carrot juice diluted 1: 1. As an emergency measure, it is permissible to pour water into the mouth with a syringe or syringe, set it on the side under the cheek to avoid swelling.

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Dogs can react to stressful changes in their environment. Pets love to have everything in the house consistent with their own sense of order. An unusual environment, the arrival of a new family member or pet can make the dog anxious, and stress can affect appetite. A sad pet will eat poorly or refuse to eat until it feels safe and calm again.

Analyzing different causes and situations will help you decide which problem is causing your appetite to change and restore a healthy diet. The owner knows his dog best and will pay attention when he sees any change in his behavior.

Hot weather

Inexperienced dog lovers are afraid of situations when the dog is lethargic and refuses to eat in the heat. It is possible that the cause of this behavior may be a disease or a tick bite.

If the veterinarian has confirmed that the animal is healthy, you just need to adhere to the following rules:

  • Make sure the animal always has access to water. In hot weather, a state of dehydration occurs, which is dangerous for the dog’s body. You need to change your drink twice a day.
  • You should feed your dog early in the morning and late in the evening when the heat subsides. At this time, the pet will be able to eat more food.
  • Reduce the number of feedings.
  • In the case when the owner is afraid or does not want to feed the animal less often, it is worth reducing the calorie content of the food consumed by the animal.
  • Trying to seduce your pet with tasty food should be avoided. Have the dog eat as much food as it sees fit.
  • You can freeze fruit or part of your food. Due to the anatomical structure, the dogs are not susceptible to sore throat, and a piece of ice will help to cheer up. Do not give your dog ice cream, it is too high in calories and can harm the animal.


After the operation, the doctor prescribes anti-inflammatory drugs.

If there is necrosis of intestinal tissue, the doctor performs a bowel resection. In the postoperative period, the doctor will prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, drugs that support the general condition of the patient.


Blockage can occur from eating brittle bones.

  • blockage of the intestine by foreign bodies;
  • infringement;
  • vascular embolism.

Blockage can occur due to eating fragile bones or swallowing foreign objects. pieces of wire, pebbles, a piece of polyethylene. This type is called ileus. In babies, clogging of worms with crowded tangles is possible.

Infringement may occur due to volvulus of the stomach or infringement of a hernia.

A significant amount of air or fat can accumulate in the cavity of the vessels, as a result of which there is a blockage of blood vessels and obstruction.


With pathology of the stomach, progressive vomiting is observed.

With this development of events, progressive vomiting is observed, complete apathy of the animal, pain syndrome is expressed. The patient’s condition is rapidly deteriorating. The manifestation of symptoms is possible only in the form of general weakness and apathy, occasionally vomiting. The further fate of the dog depends only on the speed of the owner’s reaction. Delay is fraught with death.


A puppy’s milk teeth fall out between eight and ten weeks of age, with molars erupting up to seven months. During the period of active growth of teeth, the animal may refuse to eat, which is associated with pain and the inability to gnaw. This behavior is normal unless accompanied by vomiting and fever in the animal.

Water for a dog is a guarantee of health

To avoid health problems, the dog must drink its daily water intake. In this case, the diet should be balanced. If the dog eats dry food, you need to additionally use fermented milk products and various fruits and vegetables.

Many owners wonder how to get a dog to drink water. In fact, there are only some tips that may attract an animal and want to drink water. If the dog is sick, you can inject water with a syringe down the throat, in small doses. It is important for healthy individuals to observe the correct activity regimen.

Physical activity and frequent walking in the fresh air will provoke the animal to drink a lot. To do this, you can use various portable drinkers and give water for walks. In summer, this condition is mandatory for morning and evening walks, especially in hot weather.

For those who cannot use liquid food in the animal’s diet, it is recommended to soak dry food for 20-30 minutes before giving it to the dog. At the same time, food should be available only after walking.

If you notice that your pet is refusing to drink water, this could mean an overflowing bladder. Prolonged stay of the animal in the house and infrequent walks can be the reasons for refusing water. You also need to follow the rule when the container with water is in the same place all the time. The dog must be sure that he can go to drink at any time. Animals that are outside should also have a container with a drink near the booth.

Important! During hot seasons, you can throw a few ice cubes into a bowl of water to keep the water cool and the temperature rise easier for your dog. No need to put a bowl of water in direct sunlight, dogs do not like to drink warm water.

If the puppy does not drink water

Every animal must have constant access to water. You must always ensure that the water is clean and in sufficient quantity. In this case, the bowl must be washed with antibacterial agents and wiped thoroughly with a napkin.

For puppies, this rule also applies, especially strictly for those who feed the animal with dry ready-made food. Eating food, the dog wants to drink a lot, so the water should always be clean and abundant. If the puppy suddenly stopped drinking water, or began to noticeably drink less of it, then this may indicate the presence of various diseases. In such cases, you need to contact your veterinarian. The main reasons for the refusal of a puppy from water are considered to be:

  • Poisoning
  • The ingestion of various small objects into the animal’s body
  • Infections
  • Obstruction of the intestine
  • Diseases of the internal organs.

If there is a refusal to drink water, you need to remember whether the puppy could have swallowed something on the street or at home, look at the room, perhaps the puppy had access to drugs or chemicals. In such cases, poisoning is the reason for the refusal to drink water. In this case, it is worth carefully examining the puppy for other possible symptoms, such as:

  • lack of appetite;
  • severe lethargy;
  • the puppy’s eyes may be slightly reddened.

Reasons and what to do if the dog refuses to drink water

Very often, four-legged owners are faced with the fact that the dog does not drink water. Such a sign may be a clear cause of the disease or poor condition of the pet. An alarm bell, which may indicate a possible illness, at this time it is very important to take care and visit the veterinarian.

What the owner needs to do

To avoid dehydration of the body, you should not allow prolonged refusal of fluid from the animal, carefully examine and take it to the veterinarian. If dehydration occurs, do not pour water into the puppy, this can cause vomiting. In such cases, the puppy should be given a dropper with saline solution, or liquid should be injected directly under the withers. Such procedures should only be performed by a doctor. Do such procedures to an extreme degree of dehydration.

If it is not possible to quickly contact the veterinarian, you can use some ways to alleviate the condition of the animal: place the puppy in a cool place, but avoid drafts. This will keep the body from overheating. Moisten the mouth often. moisturizing the mucous membrane will improve the condition.

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Keep a close eye on the puppy’s nutrition and what might interest him. Any ingress of foreign bodies into the body is fraught with serious consequences. If you have problems with the refusal of your pet from water, you should not self-medicate!

Reasons Why Your Dog Doesn’t Drink Water

There are main reasons why a dog may stop drinking water. Namely:

  • Dirty water in a bowl. Some dogs feel stale water and may refuse to drink it. Every day you need to change the container with water, pouring fresh. It is advisable to rinse the bowl well. In the summertime, clean water should be poured every 3-4 hours.
  • Some animals may not like the dishes they drink from. May smell or smell from detergents.
  • Various injuries to the oral cavity of an animal. Due to discomfort when drinking, the dog may refuse water.
  • Incorrectly selected food. Often pets refuse due to the intake of dry food, which may not have been selected for the breed of the animal.
  • Various viral diseases. In these cases, the pet may refuse to drink and eat, due to the fever.
  • Various diseases such as diabetes, kidney failure, malignant tumors.

Experts also talk about a separate category, namely pregnant and older dogs. They may also refuse to drink water.

From this we can conclude that there are minor reasons that can be eliminated very quickly, and there are hidden serious diseases that can cause poor health and refusal of water. For any symptoms, it is better to observe the four-legged to seek the advice of a doctor.

The dog stopped drinking water. why is it bad

If you managed to find out why the dog refuses water, you should also familiarize yourself with what it can develop into. After all, keeping the water balance in the norm is the key to a healthy body. If your four-legged friend is dehydrated, it can cause loss of appetite, lethargy, and a severe decline in activity. Such symptoms should be the reason for contacting a veterinarian.

Important! The dog must drink a certain amount of liquid according to a certain formula. For each individual, the rate is different, depending on the weight and breed of the animal.

This formula is very simple. Namely: 20-70mg of liquid per 1 kg of animal. And if your pet weighs about 10 kg, then the daily fluid intake is about 200-700 ml. At the same time, in summer and winter, the amount of water you drink may differ. In the summer, your pet can drink two or three times as much liquid.

As with humans, for an animal, a small amount of water in the body can cause many diseases and poor health. You need to closely monitor how much fluid your animal drinks throughout the day.

Brief summary

If these methods fail to attract the animal to a bowl of water, you can try changing the drinking bowl, different shapes and colors will arouse more interest in the animal. If the dog stops drinking water, this may indicate various diseases. You can independently examine the animal for various symptoms and contact your veterinarian. If there are no obvious symptoms of the disease, you can resort to various methods that will interest the dog and it will restore the water balance.

You should not use force and force the animal to drink. Better to use ice cube tricks or bowl changes. In this case, you should not give the dog to drink water from a puddle while walking, but rather use drinking bowls with clean water. A good water balance in the body is very important for both the puppy and the adult dog. In addition, you need to regularly visit your veterinarian to avoid unpleasant situations and diseases.

Dog vomits after eating

There may be several reasons for this. With normal bowel function, food is digested 2 hours after it enters the stomach. If your pet vomits undigested food 3-4 hours after feeding, the animal has a serious gastrointestinal problem. What can mean the presence of an inflammatory process in the intestinal area or the development of oncology if the dog is already aged.

Puppies often have a gag reflex when overeating, when food begins to come out undigested pieces. In this case, the baby needs to provide a daily diet, a sufficient amount of water, give antispasmodics (Nosh-pa, Papaverine), antiemetic Cerucal and gastroprotective drugs (Omez, Smecta).

First aid in cases when the dog vomits after eating:

  • diet;
  • to provide peace;
  • give activated charcoal 1 tablet per 10 kg of weight;
  • with symptoms of indigestion. Enterosgel.

The dog does not eat only drinks water and vomits

Animals, like humans, can also have digestive problems. For example, dogs do not eat anything, lethargic and apathetic. these are characteristic signs of digestive upset. In such cases, a single vomiting is even useful, and is regarded by the body as a natural signal to clear the stomach. It is worth worrying if the symptom is persistent. Especially dangerous for the health of a pet is a condition when a reflexive contraction of the stomach is accompanied by a specific composition of vomit against the background of increasing symptoms of intoxication, for example, weakness, apathy, loss of appetite, fever and dehydration.

Dog vomits bile

Yellow vomit can mean cleansing the stomach if the dog has been walking and eating grass before. Usually this urge is one-time, occurs on an empty stomach in the morning, and is not accompanied by other signs of malaise, such as refusal to eat or intestinal dysfunction.

What if an animal vomits yellow for several hours? Take a closer look at the diet, the dog may have an excess of bile. Keep your pet on a diet. If the animal’s condition improves after vomiting, there is no particular reason for concern. Repeated gagging and refusal to eat. the dog needs to be shown to the doctor in order to exclude a dangerous pathology.

If worms are noticeable in the vomit, the dog has serious problems and urgent medical attention is needed. The appearance of blood impurities in the vomit indicates an infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract. If the pet is not provided with timely assistance, it will die.

Reasons for a lack of appetite

A pet’s lack of appetite is not yet a specific phenomenon for the diagnosis of a dangerous ailment. There are several reasons for this behavior of the animal.

  • Reaction to environment or weather. This is not uncommon for “apartment” dogs, accustomed to other conditions.
  • Depression and stress. A change in the usual way of life can be the reason for the dog’s lack of appetite during the adaptation period.
  • Change in diet. Abrupt introduction of other foods can cause food dysfunction.
  • Food intolerances or allergies. Fatty foods are often the cause of gas formation. A protein allergy is diagnosed by symptoms of food refusal, vomiting and diarrhea.
  • Side effect of the medication. Long-term use of medication causes stomach irritation in the dog, which causes discomfort and, consequently, loss of appetite.
  • Bad teeth. Common cause of lack of appetite in older dogs.
  • Disease. There are many types of digestive tract dysfunction in which a pet refuses to eat due to nausea. Here it is important to quickly understand whether the symptom is of a one-time nature or is a hidden sign of a serious pathology.

What to do if your dog vomits water

If the dog refuses to eat, constantly drinks only water and vomits immediately after drinking. these are clear signs of an infection or serious intestinal dysfunction. Vomiting against the background of a lack of appetite is considered the most dangerous symptom, since the animal’s body quickly loses its nutritional reserves.

Pathology requires an urgent visit to the veterinarian, otherwise the dog may die from dehydration within 2-3 days.

Before the arrival of the veterinarian, the dog needs to be provided with symptomatic assistance:

  • make an enema with a strained chamomile decoction;
  • to prevent dehydration, inject saline subcutaneously at the rate of 5 ml per 1 kg of the pet’s weight;
  • give an intramuscular injection of Metaclopramide or Cerucal (1 ml per 10 kg of body weight) to stop vomiting.
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These measures are aimed at alleviating the condition of the pet, and are not effective treatment. The pet needs urgent qualified help.

The animal is vomiting blood

A danger sign that means internal bleeding due to a sharp object swallowed by a dog or poisoning with rat poison. In rare cases, the appearance of blood in the vomit indicates a side effect of long-term use of strong antibiotics.

It is important to know that such a symptom is very dangerous for the health of the animal, so the dog should be shown to the doctor as soon as possible. If there is no way to quickly get an appointment:

  • provide your pet with peace;
  • give Kvamatel tablet;
  • the pet needs constant drinking in small sips.

If, in combination with vomiting, the animal has other symptoms. the dog lies motionless, refuses to eat and drink, the pet is lethargic and apathetic. The deterioration of general well-being against the background of an increase in temperature can have a viral etiology. In older animals, these symptoms often appear with liver problems.

Even if the dog is vomiting with blood vomiting once, in order to exclude chronic pathology, show the dog to the veterinarian.

Diseases that provoke a lack of appetite

Diseases that provoke a lack of appetite can be different, ranging from a common intestinal disorder to serious infections.

For example, if your dog has isolated cases of refusal to eat, most likely the pet suffers from an individual intolerance to one of the components of the diet. If the dog has single and rare signs of disorder, then you should not worry too much. Most likely, the animal is just cleansing its stomach.

Sickly Cat or dog not eating or drinking try this!

A sure sign of infection with worms is a symptom when the dog does not eat anything, but only drinks water and vomits. But the same sign of malaise, combined with nausea, can also mean the development of an infectious pathology, for example, plague, parvovirus enteritis, infectious hepatitis, rabies or aviary cough. In any case, the pet needs urgent qualified medical care for diagnosis and treatment.

In veterinary practice, the main reasons for the lack of appetite and vomiting of dogs are called:

  • improper diet;
  • poor quality feed;
  • spoiled food;
  • overeating;
  • the ingress of a foreign body into the esophagus or stomach;
  • viral or oncological disease;
  • poisoning with chemicals;
  • ulcerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • hepatitis;
  • weakness of the vestibular apparatus.

When to see a doctor

If your pet’s gag reflex is one-off and is generally feeling well, there is no cause for concern. Does the dog often feel sick after a walk, but the behavior and well-being do not change? Watch the animal, where it walks and what it eats on the street.

Does your dog vomit after eating? We recommend that you show the dog to a veterinarian in order to exclude the possibility of developing latent chronic pathology or individual intolerance.

Over the last day, the dog’s health worsened, had a fever, diarrhea, and vomiting became regular? This is a dangerous symptom for the pet’s health, you need to urgently contact your veterinarian.

Possible causes of a lack of appetite associated with health problems

The most common reasons a dog is lethargic and not eating anything include:

Does your pet drink too much water?

  • Dental problems and oral diseases. For any discomfort that occurs when eating food, the dog will later refuse to eat (broken or loose teeth, mouth injuries, stomatitis). You can see how the dog approaches the food, seems to start eating, but immediately stops and does not touch the food anymore.
  • Any ear diseases. Hearing infections are always accompanied by discomfort, and sometimes pain, when chewing or when you need to gnaw something.
  • Chemotherapy for cancer significantly reduces appetite.
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (enteritis, volvulus or intussusception of the intestine, gastritis and ulcerative lesions of the stomach or intestines, obstruction of the stomach or intestines).
  • Foreign body in the mouth or esophagus of a dog.
  • Any pain syndrome. If the dog has been experiencing painful sensations of various etiologies for a long time, most often the appetite will be completely absent. They say that the dog feels pain: trembling, shortness of breath, hunched back, the dog tries to move less.
  • Any infectious viral or bacterial disease. accompanied by an increase in body temperature. If the general body temperature has jumped, the dog will drink more, and the appetite will be reduced or disappear altogether.
  • Post-traumatic shock. If the dog has received numerous injuries and has lost a lot of blood, then, of course, there can be no question of any appetite.
  • Drug therapy. With individual sensitivity to some drugs, loss of appetite may develop if they are excessively exposed to the liver and stomach.

What to do if the dog does not eat anything, if only drinks water, if it vomits, sluggish, lies.

When hunger is seen as a normal option

Do not rush to the veterinarian at the slightest change in your pet’s appetite to find out why. There are a number of reasons why hunger is considered a variant of the physiological norm. All that the owner can do under the conditions listed below is to wait a while, observing the condition of the pet.

  • Heat, second half of pregnancy and childbirth. During this period, the dog undergoes changes at the hormone level, which can affect its appetite. It is likely that during this period the animal will seem somewhat emaciated. Also, when eating the placenta after childbirth, the dog’s hunger does not occur earlier than after 5-8 hours. If, apart from a lack of appetite, nothing bothers you, you should not interfere with the process, it is enough to observe so that new symptoms do not appear until the appetite is normalized;
  • An excess of nutrients. The dog is able to feel the abundance of essential nutrients in the body, which does not need to be replenished. During such periods, the dog feels great, even when not eating. No need to force food!
  • During the period of illness. Very often, during the period of treatment, the dog’s appetite disappears. If, in the absence of appetite, the animal continues to recover, then there is no point in feeding by force or with the help of droppers.
  • Stress and blues. Dogs are sensitive to changes in weather conditions, a change of environment or owner, they can have a bad mood and mope. This causes intermittent hunger. The lack of appetite for such reasons is not long lasting, but even in this state, the dog does not refuse special treats. But it is not recommended to feed in excess of tasty food during such a period, because blues and stress can turn into finicky eating.
  • Finickyness. When feeding an animal with tasty treats (meat or special dog food, which is made with flavor enhancers), it will completely refuse regular food (cereals, soups, etc.).
  • Teething. Teething in young puppies is often accompanied by discomfort when eating. Small dogs can chew on everything to relieve their condition, but they will refuse food.
  • Hot weather. Very often, in hot weather, dogs try to drink more and eat less. In hot weather it is considered normal if the dog only drinks, but does not eat. At a comfortable temperature, appetite returns and does not require any intervention.
  • Old age. An older dog often refuses food in anticipation of his own demise.

If the dog does not eat, is lethargic and (approximate reasons for additional symptoms)

If the lack of appetite is accompanied by lethargy, fever, tremors, thirst, discoloration of the mucous membranes and skin, vomiting and diarrhea, these are clear signs of health problems. The owner of the dog can only assume what happened to the pet, the exact diagnosis will be made only by a veterinarian.

For this, the veterinarian undergoes a clinical examination and:

  • laboratory tests of blood and urine;
  • x-ray;
  • Ultrasound of internal organs;
  • endoscopy.