- In the summer, the amount of feed required increases.
- In winter, when kept outdoors, it is not necessary to feed crayfish until spring.
- Their growth and reproduction rate depend on what the crayfish are fed with.
- Crayfish don’t like the mud in the pond.
- A properly prepared place of residence will reduce feed costs.
- For fry growth and reproduction, a temperature of about 15 degrees is comfortable.
- Crayfish are inhabitants of clean water bodies, by their behavior it is immediately noticeable if something is wrong with the water.
What do crayfish eat at home
Cancers are omnivorous. Both animal and plant foods are present in their diet. At home, stick to this menu when choosing food for crayfish.
Arthropods have a well-developed sense of smell. In nature, they quickly find dead fish by smell. At home, replace such prey with bloodworms, pieces of fish, meat, squid or shrimp.
Crayfish are given animal food no more than twice a week. There is a widespread belief that it increases the aggressiveness of arthropods.
In their natural environment, crayfish feed mostly on algae, and also go out on land and feast on grass and leaves. To keep your pets in good shape, plant a hornwort or elodea in the aquarium. Plants contain lime, which is necessary to maintain the strength of the shell or to grow a new one after molting.
And also suitable as vegetable feed:
- lettuce leaf;
- carrots, zucchini;
The norm in the diet of feeding
- The female eats more than the male, but also takes longer to digest food.
- There is no clear norm in the amount of feed. Fresh food is added to the trough only when it is empty.
- The remains of food are removed after two days, otherwise the decomposition process will begin, polluting the water in the aquarium.
- 2-3% of the animal’s weight is the recommended amount of food. Pets will be full and there will be no excess.
- It is better to underfeed the crayfish a little than to allow them to die due to tainted water.
Rules and features of feeding
- Crayfish are thrifty creatures and know how to hide food. Excess food will cause the water to fade and pets will die.
- Control your diet so that there is enough food, but no excess.
- During molting, more food is required, this is due to the energy costs of restoring the shell.
- The breeding season also requires an increase in portions.
- The diet of juveniles differs in composition and volume from that of adults.
- Males can feed every 2 days, and females every 3 days.
- Leave the shell in the aquarium after molting. It is part of the diet of wild arthropods. By eating the shell, they restore the normal calcium content in the body.
- Crayfish are nocturnal animals. Feed them in the evening.
- Make sure there is enough food, otherwise the crayfish can start eating each other.
- But also a lack of food will lead to attempts at escape of arthropods.
Choose non-toxic plastic for the feeder!
Types of feed
River crayfish is omnivorous, with the exception of products with synthetic and chemical additives. Feed can be both industrial and self-prepared.
Release form. flakes, granules of different sizes or sticks. Regardless of the appearance, the selected feed should be:
- do not pollute the water;
- contain elements that facilitate shedding.
Some feeds are formulated specifically for the different stages of cancer life. There are varieties of complementary foods to stimulate reproduction, enhance the color of the shell, strengthen the immunity of juveniles.
Feeding the young
The growing body of young crayfish requires a larger amount of varied food.
Until they reach a length of 2 cm, they need detritus. a decay product of organic matter. In nature, at the bottom of the reservoir, it is quite enough for young individuals. There is not enough detritus in the aquarium due to constant filtration.
Dry oak, alder or beech leaves are used as feed. They are eaten not only by young crayfish, but also by adults. Cover the leaves as they are eaten. Don’t use fresh leaves. They are capable of releasing a dangerous toxin into the water. Two-centimeter crustaceans begin to eat various insect larvae. From three centimeters of growth, shellfish are included in the diet. Having reached 4 cm, crustaceans begin to eat fish.
You can feed juveniles at home using feed intended for fish fry. Aquarists advise adding small daphnia to the diet. Before entering the aquarium, daphnia is scalded with boiling water to reduce mobility.
- full-feed moistened mash;
- complete dry granulated feed;
- combined method;
A complete semi-moist mash is prepared from a mixture of crushed concentrates or moistened feed, with the obligatory addition of chopped juicy feed, hay or grass flour or chopped grass (in the warm season). This feed is consumed in equal parts in the morning and in the evening.
moisture in a semi-moist mash. not less than 60%, i.e. 1 kg of mixture requires at least 1 liter of water. The ratio of the proportion of concentrates in dry form and green (juicy) feed is 1: 1. This ratio is somewhat arbitrary, because the nutria themselves serve as the main indicator of the proportions. According to their appetite, you can choose the best option for guaranteed eating of the entire volume of a given feed.
On cold days in winter, due to frost, the mash has to be made thicker, because the proportion of root crops and water in it decreases in order to avoid freezing (glaciation). In the summer, the feed mixture is not made warm or hot, because this can lead to accelerated oxidation (especially in hot weather). For the same reasons, residues of feed are removed from the feeders daily.
Another method of feeding with complete dry granulated feed is more efficient, but requires large material costs. And here it is already necessary to choose between price and quality. But in comparison with the above-described method, it gives an increase in live weight in young animals by 20-30% more. At the same time, it facilitates the production of work to maintain cleanliness in the cages, reduces the time spent on preparing and distributing feed, and allows you to make bookmarks in the feeders for several days.
With this method of feeding, it is necessary to take into account the constant need for nutrias in water (not only for bathing, but also for drinking). The lack of sufficient moisture in the feed leads to the appearance of thirst in animals. Therefore, to solve this problem, it makes sense to install auto drinkers.
The combined method is a morning feed from soaked or steamed grain with added other feed, a mixture of concentrates or moistened feed, and in the afternoon or evening. herbs (in the warm season) or root crops and hay (in winter).
Fresh grass is given once a day, placing it in a special fodder section of the house or walking feeders. To determine the norms, they knit in bundles. The grass not eaten by animals serves as a bedding for them. It is not recommended to heap the grass in large heaps, as it warms up and begins to deteriorate. Do not dry or wither the grass on the shelves either. In this form, nutria is practically not eaten.
Juicy feed is given in a raw, washed and cleaned form from dirt and rot, having previously cut into pieces about 100 g each. In winter, root crops in the feeders are sprinkled with bran to avoid freezing. In cold weather, succulent feed should be divided into two feedings, the first in the morning and the second in the evening.
In no case should you drastically change, without prior preparation, the types of feeding. There must be a period of adaptation of the animals to the changed feed, otherwise all the calories they put in will be scattered throughout the cage. This is at best, and so digestive upsets are possible and you will have to take care not only of food, but also of the recovery of animals.
Vitamin and mineral supplements
With the arrival of spring, after the winter cold and monotony in food, there is a need to replenish the body with vitamins. First of all, groups A and D. Avitaminosis leads to various kinds of diseases and a decrease in the body’s immune resistance. This is especially important for pregnant and lactating females.
The source of such vitamins can be fish oil with vitamin supplements or multivitamin preparations. You need to give them a little. up to 1g, both those and others.
There is a lot of carotene (vitamin A) in regular carrots. Sprouted greens of grain are rich in vitamin E (tocopherol), and it is given up to 20 g per day to each animal.
In both winter and summer, nutria need salt. Common table salt should be present in their daily diet in the form of 1 g per individual.
The lack of calcium and phosphorus is compensated by the addition of meat and bone or fishmeal to the diet, as well as chalk, limestone or travertine. Feed precipitate and tricalcium phosphate are also provided. Everything within 1g.
Adding mineral and vitamin supplements to concentrated feed requires thorough mixing of the feed. If this is not done, the animals will eat selectively, eating some ingredients and leaving others aside. This use of feed leads to losses, both economic and actual.
What do fish EAT? (Experiment)
Part of the feed (quite significant) is simply thrown away, and the rest does not provide enough nutrients and trace elements for normal, healthy growth and development of animals, which affects the quality of their meat and skins.
With separate feeding (each type of feed is given separately). the losses will be even greater.
Tips on how to properly feed nutria
Nutria feeding is a significant (if not the main) factor in the cost of keeping these specific animals. A properly formulated and well-planned food ration will help to achieve high, economically successful breeding results, because the costly part of this issue is almost half of all investments aimed at successful business.
In the wild, nutria lives near water bodies and everything that grows next to them is its natural food. Being a rodent, it prefers plant food, eating young stems and roots of reeds, cattails, and reeds. Do not hesitate to feed on tree branches. Aquatic plants tend to be rich in starch and sugar, but do not provide enough fiber.
When kept at home, the question of what to feed the nutria is not an acute problem. They are not special gourmets (like the koala eating only eucalyptus leaves). They eat almost everything that they are given. But in industrial cultivation (for meat and fur), many factors should be taken into account regarding cost, nutritional content, ease of storage and the volume of feed required for a large population.
With this feeding, nutria grow and reproduce normally.
Foods such as grass, hay, tree branches (common food for rabbits) are not very suitable for the digestive system of nutria. They are more accustomed, by their nature, to aquatic plants, but this can be compensated for by introducing ready-made feed, grain concentrates, and root crops into the diet. By adding fresh grass or hay to them, you can achieve good eatability, which will have a beneficial effect on growth, development and reproduction.
Feeding pregnant and lactating females
Females of nutria are constantly in any of the physiological periods related to the continuation of the genus. There is no clear border between them, tk. a female feeding young offspring may already be pregnant with a new one. At this time, they must fully meet all the needs for nutrients and energy reserves to obtain high-quality and healthy offspring.
Nutria are almost never motionless. Therefore, before mating, it is necessary to organize feeding so that the animals are sufficiently well-fed, but not obese. Being overweight, males show weak activity, and females are reluctant to cover themselves and unsuccessfully fertilize.
During pregnancy, female nutria require an additional resource of nutrients and energy, which are spent on the development of embryos, support of the amniotic membrane and the growth of the uterus. The development of the mammary gland and the subsequent formation of milk in it also requires additional nutrition. Young females, despite pregnancy, continue to grow and their feed intake is slightly higher than that of adults.
In the first half of pregnancy, females do not really need an increase in feed volume. Their need for food increases by only 10-15%, but they still need to be fed ad libitum. In the future, their appetite increases, and the volume of feed must be increased by 30-40% compared to the initial.
With the onset of the second half of pregnancy, the transplantation of females into separate individual cells with a smaller area is required. Since they become passive and the energy consumption for movement is significantly reduced, especially when placed in cages where there are no pools, the amount of feed should be carefully controlled to avoid overfeeding, and with it obesity. This is especially true with a diet consisting of concentrates.
With properly structured feeding, the weight of females increases by several kilograms without signs of obesity. They have excess fat in the chest, groin and abdomen. Therefore, it is not difficult to visually determine excessive fatness.
The diet is designed in such a way that animal protein is necessarily present in it, as well as there is a sufficient amount of multivitamins and minerals.
At the end of pregnancy, the amount of concentrates in the diet should be reduced. If overfeeding occurs, the puppies grow too large and may be injured during childbirth, which will lead to losses in the number of litters. If obesity still occurs, then it can be removed by reducing concentrated feed by 20-30%, replacing them with roughage or green feed.
In most cases, when fed with a properly balanced feed, even when eating it ad libitum, females bring high-quality and healthy offspring.
The need for feed in a giving birth and lactating female is determined by her age, weight, milk production and the number of puppies in the litter. For normal education in a sufficient amount of milk, additional energy costs occur, which must be replenished in a timely manner. Females with offspring in the first month need to increase the volume of feed by one and a half times, in the second. two to three times. In the process of milk feeding, puppies initially consume nothing but milk, and then begin to eat normal food. Six puppies eat as much food as the female herself.
When feeding with milk, female nutria may lose up to 10% in weight. This is considered normal because these losses are associated with energy costs for the formation of milk, which is very nutritious.
First of all, these include concentrated feed. These include compound feed, grain of cereal plants and derivatives obtained during its processing. The main advantage of such feeds is the presence of high energy value and large, balanced nutrients. In the annual volume of consumption, they make up 80% of the total amount of feed.
Appetite in adult nutria can be different, depending on the physiological period of the life cycle (state of hunting, pregnancy, lactation, feeding of offspring).
Feeding nutria, when kept at home, only one grain leads to a decrease in productivity, because high energy nutritional value of such feed can lead to obesity, and an insufficient amount of amino acids, mineral elements and vitamins reduces the immunity of animals and leads to a reduced efficiency of the rearing process. Therefore, you should add to the grain ration, fresh grass, high-quality hay, feed with sufficient protein, as well as root crops.
To increase the return on investment in terms of the cost of purchasing grain, it is recommended to grind and moisten it before placing it in the feeder. In summer, soak in cold, slightly salted water, and in winter, steam in hot. Then mix with protein feed and vitamin supplements.
In addition to grain, it is useful to give specially designed compound feed for them, if there is none, it will also work well for other pets. The only condition when you should not do this is the presence of solid impurities in the formulations, for example, shells, or there is an increased fiber.
An advantageous way of feeding nutria is the use of food waste. In this regard, everything that was on our table is suitable, as well as waste during cooking, for example, peeling boiled potatoes. A good food can be crackers, dried remains of a loaf, half-eaten cereals, including rice. In terms of nutritional value, such feed is comparable to concentrates, and in some cases even surpasses them. But a prerequisite should be the absence of signs of spoilage of such products. Fresh waste can be given immediately, but stale waste must be heat treated (digested).
An enterprising owner can easily organize a whole network of supplies of such feed, having agreed with neighbors, acquaintances, friends so that they do not throw out such waste. it
will be a significant help in economic costs for large livestock.
Feeding the nutria with legume grains makes it possible for them to obtain additional protein. Peas, lentils, soybeans, broad beans, as well as their cakes and meal contain up to 40% protein, which is easily absorbed by the animal’s body. The norm should not exceed 20-25 g per day, because Excessive consumption of these foods can lead to bloating and constipation. Dry legumes should not be fed.
In the same amount per day, oilcakes and meal from soybeans, sunflower, flax, hemp are given. As a rule, in their pure form, they also do not end up in the feeders of the animals. After grinding them, they are mixed with various concentrates.
Yeast can also be present in the diet of nutria, which is an excellent supplier of protein for the body. They are mixed into concentrates, but they can also be given dry (just not loaf and not beer). This is the so-called hydrolytic yeast. Their consumption rate is 10-15 g.
Since in the wild, nutria feeds not only on plants, but also eats food of animal origin (fish, molluscs, leeches, crayfish, frogs, etc.), full nutrition of nutria requires the presence of protein feed derived from animals in the diet. With a lack of protein in the body, female nutria become poorly adapted to fertilization, pregnancies are interrupted by abortion, and the offspring that appears is threatened with death from the teeth of their own mother. In addition, the quality of the meat and fur of the animals themselves is deteriorating. Protein of animal origin, nutria can be obtained in the form of fish, meat, bone meal, meat offal, milk, cottage cheese. All this goes in a mixture with cereals, in a proportion not exceeding the proportion of the content of animal protein carriers in 10% of the total mass of feed.
Fish and other inhabitants of reservoirs can be given only in a well-boiled form. In addition to protein, such food contains a fairly large amount of mineral elements, the main of which are calcium and phosphorus.
At home, feeding nutria implies the presence of root crops in the diet. First of all, these are beets (fodder, sugar, table), as well as carrots, rutabagas, turnips. The tops of these plants are also good for food. Such feeds, they are also called. juicy, half a kilogram is enough.
If there is no grain in stocks, the consumption rate can be doubled. Since there is a lot of water in root crops, its consumption in its pure form decreases, which has a beneficial effect in winter. The total daily volume is significantly higher than when fed with concentrates. This can be explained by the lower energy m, because the calorie content of juicy feed is low. When feeding the tops, it is advisable to sprinkle it with a small amount of regular chalk (no more than one gram per day).
Fresh or dry pomace and pulp obtained at sugar, grape, fruit and berry enterprises are suitable for nutria.
If there is a shortage of juicy feed, for example, in winter, they can be replaced with ordinary potatoes. 200 g is enough for the whole day. But it should be remembered that such food can cause a disorder of the digestive system of animals, and sometimes poisoning, because potatoes, especially those that turn green and begin to sprout, contain solanine, a poisonous substance that can be removed by cooking.
In addition, nutria are much more willing to eat boiled potatoes, preferring them to raw ones. In terms of its nutritional qualities, it is akin to grain fodder, but its consumption rates are three times higher. So, there is a choice. either one or the other, which is more profitable in terms of acquisition costs.
The traditional food of cows is silage; nutria are not very suitable because it doesn’t digest well in their stomachs. But in the summer, fresh grass is perfectly acceptable in the form of feed. If there is no access to wetland plants (a common natural food for animals), freshly cut grass can act as a substitute for them. When mixed with concentrates, the total feeding volume can reach 400 g per day. Such food is eagerly eaten by animals and makes a positive contribution to their growth and productivity, due to the rather large amount of vitamins and minerals in its composition.
Nutria gladly eat cultivated herbs and young shoots of cereals. The former include: peas, beans, clover, alfalfa, and the latter: barley, corn, rye. Also suitable. Sudanese grass and sugar sorghum.
Among wild-growing herbaceous plants, preference is given, first of all, to young shoots of reeds, reeds and cattails (aquatic plants). From the field. dandelion, mother-and-stepmother, swan, plantain, thistle, willow tea, buckwheat, clover.
In small quantities, the leaves and bark of trees (acacia, willow, aspen, oak) are suitable for food. And also. shrubs (raspberries, grapes, etc.).
Nutria love grass, harvested before flowering or earing. And give only freshly cut, tk. stale grass is not of particular interest to nutria and they can simply starve, despite the large reserves of food from grass in their feeders. In order not to poison the animals with possible pesticides from the fields, it is best to wash it, and also carefully examine it so as not to get poisonous plants growing mixed with the main grass.
Nutria are quite indifferent to coarse forage from tree branches, hay, haylage. They eat them reluctantly and in small quantities (no more than 50 g per day). Such food is hard to digest and not completely, and there is no need to grind the incisors (like beavers). The only benefit from such food is the supply of fiber to the body, which by its properties normalizes digestion and prevents obesity. With a large amount of such food in feeders or cages, the nutria simply pull it apart and trample it, sometimes grind it into dust, not using it as food.
Approximate daily diet for adult nutria (g per individual)
Feeding the young
From what, how and how much the young generation of nutria will eat, what they will grow up to. Proper feeding will allow you to get healthy, developed animals with high-quality fur.
After the young animals are removed from their mother, they need to learn how to do without mother’s milk. This period is stressful for them due to the complete change in lifestyle. To make it easier for them to restructure under the new conditions, it is necessary for the first time (about two weeks), to give the same feed and in the same amount as they received while being with their mother.
The most intensive development and growth occurs during the first six months of the life of animals. Therefore, if during this time a full-fledged development has not taken place, it is not possible to compensate for this deficiency in the future, because young animals will gain weight not due to growth, but due to the deposition of fat. Therefore, the feeding ration should be aimed at stimulating growth and development, and not at increasing weight.
Up to four months old, rejected puppies should be given less feed than adults. Preference is given to food rich in fiber, with grass or hay flour in the form of a 10% additive to the mass of the compound feed. Or on dry mixed feed mixed with 0.5 part of a juicy grass. In the following days, the amount of such feeds is increased to the norms of consumption of adult nutria.
Young nutria grow and develop well when they eat concentrate feeds or simply concentrate feeds that contain 13-14% protein and 5-10% animal protein in the dry feed mass. With monotonous feeding with low-concentrated or non-concentrated (one grass or beets and hay), the animals do not add enough in mass or begin to lose weight. In such cases, skins of much worse quality are obtained from them, and the nutria kept for breeding work poorly reproduce.
Up to six months of breeding and downhole nutria are fed the same way. As a rule, extra males and females incapable of procreation are slaughtered. With poor-quality or insufficiently complete feeding, nutria do not gain the proper weight, the size of the skins decreases and their quality decreases.
What do they eat?
There are many specialized foods for goldfish, and there are also natural feeding options. For proper development, it is necessary to periodically replace one method with another. You can feed goldfish with the following types of food.
This type of food contains a lot of protein. Before giving food to fish, soak it in aquarium water for 10 minutes.
Occasionally, the charges may begin to develop buoyancy problems after such feeding. In this case, you should stop giving food in granules.
What and how to feed goldfish?
Many people associate beautiful aquariums with goldfish, and for novice aquarists, the first experience is most often associated with these beautiful and lush individuals. It is believed that goldfish are the most unpretentious of all, but this is not entirely true. Only with proper and balanced nutrition will they be healthy and live the maximum period.
Peas, carrots, and spinach are great for goldfish. Algae are considered an alternative. Vegetables must be soaked in boiling water before being sent to the aquarium. it is much easier for fish to eat soft foods.
Regular meals can be varied with delicacies. Sometimes it is worth giving the goldfish a loaf, cucumber slices, watermelons, or oranges. Other options for treats:
- boiled rice;
- loaf softened;
- fodder bloodworm;
- shrimp in brine without shell;
- a variety of leafy greens;
- corn grains;
- peeled grapes.
Periodically, you can also use such food as ordinary earthworms, brine shrimp, daphnia.
Such food can be sent to the aquarium only after soaking in purified water. so all excess will leave the intestines of the worms, otherwise the fish may be poisoned.
The importance of proper nutrition
Aquarium inhabitants of this type are distinguished by good eyesight and hearing, developed organs of smell, taste, touch. Thanks to these features, the fish easily find food as soon as it enters the field of perception. The features of the gills allow pets to hunt for food in the silt. All inedible elements are thrown away.
Goldfish do not have a stomach in the usual sense. Inside is the intestine with a mucous membrane, which is engaged in the digestion of food. Its volumes are small, so you need to feed the pets regularly, several times a day and in small portions.
With an optimal diet, fish excrete a large amount of excrement and urine, so there is a need to change the water in the aquarium frequently. If pets overeat, then toxins also begin to stand out.
Goldfish need a balanced diet to thrive and grow properly. With proper care, they can live in an aquarium for more than 10 years, but it all depends on the specific species. It is important to feed the ward with proteins, minerals, vitamins, fiber and carbohydrates. Dry food is usually used. However, fish should be fed varied so that they do not give up boring products.
Aquarium fish are less active than their wild counterparts. That is why it is worth monitoring the diet in order to prevent overeating. By the way, it is goldfish that are prone to absorbing excess food.
It is recommended to alternate vegetable and live food so that immunity is formed as efficiently as possible.
Fish are in great need of vitamins. One of the most important is vitamin A. it is thanks to him that goldfish have such a beautiful and rich color. If the scales become lighter, pale or cloudy, you need to urgently replenish the supply of vitamins.
How to feed aquarium crayfish at home
In hobbyist aquaristics, crayfish are much less common than fish. These aquatic inhabitants are undeservedly ignored, considering that it is very difficult to keep them in an aquarium. But in fact it is easy to care for them, crayfish are quite undemanding and hardy. So, how to feed crayfish at home?
Features of feeding young animals
The diet of juveniles has significant differences from the diet of adults. You can feed young crayfish using the following foods:
- Designed for feeding fish fry.
- Shredded tubule.
- Acetic nematode.
- Small daphnia.
When feeding small daphnia to crustaceans, it is recommended to first scald it with boiling water. Here the whole point is that she is lively, and therefore it is very difficult for small crustaceans to catch her.
Small crustaceans need to eat well to grow.
Young crayfish require much more food than adults. Therefore, in search of food, they explore the bottom of the aquarium day and night. There they feed on detritus, which is a product of the natural decay of a variety of organics. But in an aquarium, the water of which is constantly filtered, there is very little of it.
To replace it, you can use fallen leaves of trees. Dry leaves of oak, beech or alder are best suited for these purposes. They will serve as an excellent source of valuable feed for juveniles, which not only contributes to the development of their digestive system, but also gets rid of parasites. Leaves in the aquarium are quickly eaten by crayfish, so they need to be reported periodically.
In no case should freshly plucked leaves be used for laying in the aquarium. Since they have the ability to release toxins into the water.
Commercially made feeds can be made in the form of pellets of various sizes, sticks or flakes. Whichever of these types is chosen, it must necessarily meet the following conditions:
- Provide a balanced diet;
- Facilitate the process of changing the shell;
- Maintain natural carapace coloration.
- Do not pollute the water in the aquarium.
You should know that there are special types of food designed for special periods in the life of crustaceans. For example, keen aquarists very often use foods that stimulate reproductive processes or strengthen the immune system of crustaceans.
Rules and features of feeding
We figured out what to feed the aquarium crayfish with. Now you need to figure out the rules and features of feeding in the aquarium:
- The very first thing to know is that crayfish have the ability to hide excess food. Therefore, if the amount of food in the aquarium is not regulated, then sooner or later this will lead to the attenuation of the water. It should be such that the cancer can eat well, but cannot hide the excess.
- During breeding and molting periods, crayfish begin to feed much more. This is due to the fact that their body begins to experience significant energy costs.
- The ratio of daily ration to body weight in juveniles is much higher than in adult crayfish.
- The dietary patterns of males and females differ significantly. It is enough for the male to eat once every two days. While the female can feed once every 3 days.
- Do not rush to clean up the shell remaining after molting. Cancer will eat it later. It contains a fairly large amount of calcium, which helps the cancer recover from molting within 3-4 days.
- It is best to feed crayfish in the evening. Since in natural conditions, in search of food, they go mainly at night.
- With the wrong or insufficient nutrition, crayfish are prone to cannibalism, especially during molting. Therefore, an aquarium containing crayfish should be roomy and have many shelters in the form of various driftwood, pots and castles.
- In search of food, crayfish can get out of the aquarium, so the aquarium must be sufficiently closed.
Correctly and balanced feeding crayfish grows quite intensively, and rarely tries to get out of the aquarium.
Types of feed
Cancers are absolutely omnivorous creatures. Both vegetable and meat feeds are suitable for feeding them. In nature, they spend most of their time in shallow waters in search of food, where they eat a variety of mollusks, worms, small fish, insects and even tadpoles. From plant foods, they prefer pond, elodea and water lilies.
The total proportion of plant foods in their diet can be up to 90%.
What crayfish eat at home should be consistent with their natural diet. As a substitute for animal feed, you can use:
Aquarium crayfish happily eat pieces of fish or meat.
When compiling a diet for crayfish, it should be borne in mind that animal feed should be given no more than 2 times a week. In addition, many aquarists are of the opinion that meat foods can significantly enhance the aggressive qualities of crayfish.
From plant foods, crayfish prefer to eat:
- Hornwort. This plant is a must-have in an aquarium with crayfish.
- Lettuce leaves.
- Chinese cabbage.
- Carrot. This vegetable contains keratin, which has the ability to significantly enhance the color of red crayfish.
It is convenient to feed the crayfish into the container through a special tube, the other end of which is above the water.
Various types of feeders are used to feed aquarium crayfish. You can find many different options on sale, or you can try to make your own feeders.
What crayfish eat in an aquarium depends on their health. Therefore, this issue must be approached as responsibly as possible. Do not use the first available products or feed from unverified manufacturers for feeding crayfish.
What is the difference between carp and crucian carp?
- You can distinguish carp from crucian by the appearance of the fish. The carp has a mustache, but the crucian carp does not.
- The contours of the carp’s head have a slightly curved shape due to the presence of a small hump just below the forehead, the head of the crucian carp does not differ in anything special.
- Carp lips are thicker and fatter than crucian carp.
- The body of the crucian carp is strongly compressed from the sides, high and elastic, while in the carp it is elongated, rather full and flexible.
- Carp scales are smaller and lighter than carp.
- The dorsal fin of the crucian carp is even along the contour, and the carp has a spiny spine with notches and a kind of notch on the fin.
- The meat of the crucian carp is bony, whitish in color, in carp it is pinkish-red, and there are much fewer bones in it.
- The standard weight of crucian carp is 200-500 g, two or three kilogram adults 50-60 cm long are rarely seen.Carps often reach a weight of 17-20 kg and have a length of more than a meter.
Reproduction (spawning) of crucian carp in the pond
Crucians become sexually mature only at 4-5 years of age. On the territory of the former USSR countries, the spawning period for crucian carp begins in late spring. early summer, namely in May-June, when the water heats up to a temperature of 17-18 o C. Spawning itself is carried out in several stages with intervals of about 10 days. The caviar of crucian carp, colored in a light yellow color, is firmly fixed on the underwater parts of vegetation due to its stickiness. The number of caviar spawned can reach 30,000. Depending on the water temperature, the incubation period can last up to 7 days.
If the male crucian carp is absent, the female herring carp has the unique ability to spawn with related members of the family. And although the milk of carp, bream, roach or goldfish cannot complete fertilization, they still provoke the development of eggs. As a result of this process, called gynogenesis, only females appear from the laid eggs.
What is the difference between carp and crucian carp?
- You can distinguish carp from crucian carp by their appearance. The crucian carp has no antennae, and the carp has two pairs of short mustaches.
- Crucian carp cannot boast of very impressive dimensions: with a length of 50-60 cm, an adult crucian does not exceed a weight of 3 kg. The carp is a fairly large fish: it often reaches a meter in length and weighs over 20 kg.
- The life span of a crucian carp is on average 10 years, a carp lives 30-35 years.
- The number of eggs spawned by the crucian carp reaches 300,000; the carp is capable of spawning up to 1.5 million eggs during spawning.
- Crucian carp is quite bony, but carp meat is distinguished by a smaller set of bones, especially small ones.
Where does the crucian carp live??
The habitat of crucian carp is very extensive. Populations of goldfish and goldfish live both in the clear waters of rivers and lakes, and in swampy natural and artificial reservoirs and ponds overgrown with vegetation. The only places where fish are not found are mountain lakes and rivers.
As a result of human economic activity, crucian carp live in water bodies of Poland, Germany, Italy and Portugal, Hungary, Romania, Great Britain and Belarus, Kazakhstan and Mongolia, China, Korea. These fish and the cold waters of Siberian rivers and lakes have taken a fancy, they also catch crucians in the Kolyma and in Primorye. Today, representatives of the genus live in Thailand and Pakistan, the United States of America, India and many other countries.
When unfavorable conditions (drought or severe frosts) occur, crucian carp are able to wait out them, burrowing into muddy soil to a depth of 0.7 m.
Crucian carp. a description of the appearance, structure, characteristics and photos
The body shape of the crucian carp is oblong or slightly rounded, the body of the fish is moderately flattened from the sides and covered with large, smooth to the touch scales. The color of crucian carp, depending on the species, can take on various shades of silver or golden. The back of the fish is rather thick, with a high dorsal fin. The length of the crucian carp can reach 50-60 cm, and the weight of the fish can be more than 5 kilograms. The head of the fish is small in size with small eyes and a mouth in which the pharyngeal teeth are arranged in one row. A notable feature is the presence of spiny, serrated rays in the dorsal and anal fins.
Life expectancy depends on the type of fish. The common crucian carp has been living for over 12 years. Goldfish lives for 8-9 years, but there are individuals that live up to 12 years.
Types of crucian carp. photos and names
The genus includes the following varieties of crucian carp:
- Goldfish (common carp) (Carassius carassius)
being an object of industrial cultivation and fishing. This species has a characteristic laterally flattened, rounded flat body with a high dorsal fin and a brown tail. The single anal fin, as well as the paired abdominal and pectorals, are slightly reddish in color. The scales of the crucian carp on the sides are large, with a golden copper tint. The peritoneum is usually devoid of pigmentation, in contrast to the back, which has a brownish tint.
Golden crucian carp is a long-lived fish. The life span of this crucian carp in natural conditions sometimes exceeds 12 years. The length of the crucian carp can reach 50 centimeters, and the weight can exceed 5 kg. Fish reach sexual maturity 3-4 years after birth.
The common carp lives in Europe, ranging from cool lakes in the UK, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland to warm reservoirs in Italy, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovakia. In addition, the distribution area of golden carp includes muddy, overgrown or swampy reservoirs of China and Mongolia, as well as the Asian territory of Russia.
- Goldfish (Carassius gibelio)
previously lived only in rivers belonging to the Pacific Ocean basin. However, as a result of artificial settlement that occurred in the middle of the 20th century, water bodies of North America, India, China, Siberia and the Far East, as well as Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Germany, Italy and Portugal entered the habitat of this species. over, in many of these countries, fish ousted the original owner. the golden carp. Unlike the goldfish, the size of the goldfish is slightly more modest. So, for example, the maximum weight of a crucian carp rarely exceeds 3 kilograms, and the length is 40 centimeters. Large fish scales can be colored silver-gray or greenish-gray. As an exception, individuals with golden and pinkish orange coloration can be found. However, in goldfish, unlike gold, fins are almost transparent, gray, slightly pinkish or have a light olive color.
The life expectancy of the goldfish is on average 8-9 years, but there are specimens that are more than 11-12 years old.
Due to the amazing ability of the goldfish to adapt to environmental conditions and change its appearance in accordance with them, a new species of fish was bred, called the “Goldfish”.
- Goldfish (Carassius auratus)
this species of crucian carp is represented by a huge number of subspecies, the number of which has long exceeded three hundred. All of them, with rare exceptions, are intended only for breeding in an aquarium. Representatives of this species differ not only in size, ranging from 2 to 45 cm, color, which includes all the colors of the rainbow, but also in the shape of the body, which can be elongated, egg-shaped or resemble a sphere. In addition, the shape of goldfish varies greatly, as well as the length of the fins and tail, which can be either short or very long, and resemble the wings of a butterfly or a developing veil. Goldfish eyes are small or large and bulging.
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- Japanese carp (Carassius cuvieri)
lives in the waters of Japan and Taiwan. Wild species of this fish live in Lake Biwa in Japan. The length of the fish reaches 35-40 cm.
Breeding crucian carp in a pond or artificial reservoir
Silver crucians, despite their modest size, are a rather valuable object of fish farms, and this fish is artificially bred along with carp and carp. In addition, gold and silver crucians serve as a desirable hunting trophy for fishermen.
Commercial breeding of crucian carp usually does not present any difficulties. Unlike other fish species, they are able to endure for a long time a serious lack of oxygen in the water, which occurs in summer heat and during severe frosts. They also weakly react to high acidity.
For breeding crucian carp in a pond, the depth of the reservoir should be at least 1.5. 2 meters in order to create space for fish and provide an abundance of green vegetation. Due to the fact that crucian carp is an omnivorous fish, it can be fed not only with worms and larvae, but also with steamed cereals, as well as mixed feed. The basic rule is that the amount of food for crucian carp should not exceed 5% of the total mass of fish living in the reservoir.
Wild ducks in a city pond
Should you feed the ducks that live in city lakes and ponds? If the reservoir is good and natural, where there is enough fish and there are shallow waters with aquatic plants and mud, then the birds will feed themselves. Probably everything that ducks eat in such a body of water is enough for them. In such cases, the ducks can be fed with fruits and berries.
If there are too many birds, and the coastal areas of the ponds have lost their natural vegetation, then you cannot do without feeding. You can feed birds with mixtures made from the above ingredients.
Wild ducks in ponds can be given the following:
- hard grated cheese (almost all of it goes to the ducks, because it doesn’t sink right away);
- thick oatmeal, rolled into balls;
- small pieces of boiled vegetables;
- small pieces of fruits and berries.
What do ducks eat in nature??
In nutrition, all species of birds of the duck family are rather unpretentious, they easily and calmly adapt to any circumstances.
In early spring, when the reservoirs have not yet opened from the ice crust, ducks find their food in polynyas. When the water opens completely, ducks eat frogs, duckweed, small fish, tadpoles, crustaceans, mosquito larvae. The latter prevents the uncontrolled reproduction of these unpleasant insects.
- small aquatic organisms (insect larvae, small fish, frogs);
- aquatic and coastal flowering plants;
- rhizomes and roots of plants;
- soft fruits of land plants, etc.
The above list suggests that ducks are almost omnivorous.
What ducks eat in nature and at home?
The food addictions of any animals and their capabilities are indicated by their oral apparatus. A feature of ducks is a flattened beak, with the help of which it is very convenient to filter the liquid. In reservoirs, diving to shallow depths, ducks capture algae or mud with their beaks, and then filter the entire mass through the beak. This shape allows them to peck at the fruits of plants on land and tear young shoots of grass.
You can find out what ducks eat in nature and at home by reading the article below.
Since ancient times, ducks have been valued by people as source of not only meat, but also feathers and down. Therefore, they are better studied than many other birds.
Where do ducks live??
The distribution area of these birds is quite wide. They are not only in the harsh Antarctica. The main condition for their existence is the obligatory presence of a reservoir, which is the main source of food for them (you can find out more about what ducks eat in the pond later in the article).
A prerequisite for the habitation of these birds is also the presence of a sufficient amount of coastal vegetation (reeds, shrubs, trees felled by the wind, etc.). It allows ducks to hide nests with clutches from prying eyes.
With domestic representatives, things are easier. they take root where conditions are created for them.
Types of ducks
There are two main groups of ducks: domestic and wild. It is believed that the first one common ancestor was the mallard.
Wild ducks are divided into river ducks, foraging in shallow water, and diving, looking for food at the very bottom of reservoirs. For information on what wild ducks eat, see below.
All breeds of ducks bred by man today are divided into 4 classes: decorative, egg, meat-egg and meat. The weight of males of the meat breed sometimes reaches 4 kilograms, and in ducks of the egg class, the average annual egg production exceeds 250 eggs.
Wild ducks also have their own species, which are quite different from each other. The most common among them are the following:
Of course, the most common species to be found is the wild mallard. the largest of all wild ducks.
How to feed wild ducks at home?
Birds living in natural conditions are adapted to a slightly different food than their domestic counterparts.
There are times when wild ducks are kept at home. Therefore, you need to know what ducks eat in nature. The food of such birds living next to people must contain plant and animal components.
Wild duck food can be formulated with any of the following ingredients:
- cereals (corn, wheat, barley, oat);
- flour of different types (alfalfa, herbal, sunflower, coarse wheat, legumes, bone (source of animal proteins));
- sprouted grains of rapeseed, wheat and peas;
- cake, bran or meal from rapeseed, sunflower or soybeans;
- brewer’s and baker’s yeast (source of vitamin B);
- boiled vegetables (beets, potatoes, carrots);
- fresh chopped vegetables.
That’s all the ducks eat. All mixtures can be prepared in completely different variations and proportions. Of course, the main condition is the presence of water near the feeder. Ducks drink water all the time and rinse food in it. Also, as noted above, shell rock, gravel and sand should always be available for them.
In summer, ducks should be provided with the opportunity to swim in ponds, streams or bodies of water, and graze in coastal meadows. Otherwise, finely chopped grass must be constantly included in the duck’s diet.
What you can’t feed wild ducks
- Do not feed ducks with a loaf, fatty foods, fried seeds, peanuts, fatty dairy products. Cottage cheese can only be fed to small downy ducklings.
- You should not throw into the water what a person eats himself, as ducks can pick up a harmful product. And food spoils in the water, as a result of which the birds eat food contaminated with fungus or bacteria.
Man believes that by feeding the birds, he helps them survive in difficult times. But it is not always the case. Wild ducks, as well as those kept at home, should be fed correctly, otherwise such care may cause the death of birds.
About the features of ducks
A characteristic feature that distinguishes ducks from other species of birds is not only the beak, but also a significant difference in the color of females and males. The drake, in addition to being much larger than the female, has a more variegated plumage. On the wings of duck representatives there is a bright contrasting spot, called a “mirror”. It serves so that ducks of one species can find their own among other varieties.
Duck feathers have a grease secreted by a gland on the tailbone. Thanks to this, their outer plumage is waterproof, and these birds are able to take off even after prolonged “water procedures”.
What do ducks eat? The food addictions of these birds also have features. You can find out about them just below.