home Dogs What Helps With Glucose Drop In Dogs

What Helps With Glucose Drop In Dogs

Diagnostics

It is important to remember that absolutely any manifestation that allows one to suspect hypoglycemia (especially if the dog belongs to a small breed) is a sufficient reason for an immediate call to the veterinarian or an independent visit to him with a pet. If the pet suddenly loses consciousness, this should be done immediately, regardless of the time of day.

In a veterinary clinic, general and biochemical blood tests are used to diagnose hypoglycemia. In addition, urinalysis and examination of the condition of the pancreas, kidneys and liver using ultrasound is performed. It is advisable to remember exactly when exactly the manifestations of the disease began in the dog, what preceded them.

The auxiliary methods used to diagnose the disease include a test for adrenocorticotropic hormone, which allows to establish or exclude Addison’s disease (hypoadrenocorticism).

Diagnostics is made on the basis of symptoms and test results, for which a glucometer is used, which allows the doctor to instantly and with great accuracy determine blood sugar. A dog’s normal glucose level is 3.4-6.1 mmol / L.

Avoiding the risk of hypoglycemia in your dog

The term hypoglycemia in dogs means critically low blood sugar. This condition is most often the result of diabetes or insulin overdose. Glucose is the most significant source of fast energy for the dog’s body, so a sharp drop in its content leads to negative consequences, such as unexpected loss of consciousness. However, hypoglycemia may be linked to more than just diabetes.

There are other diseases that can cause a drop in blood sugar levels. In dogs, this pathology rarely has the appearance of a primary disease, usually it only indicates the presence of very serious problems in the dog’s body. Puppies under 2 weeks old and dwarf breeds such as Spitz and Yorkshire Terriers are most susceptible to glucose deficiency.

Prevention of falling glucose

Measures to prevent the development of hypoglycemia in a dog are reduced to the observance of several rules. It is important to carefully monitor the health of the pet, not to give him treats from the human table, especially various candies and sweet treats. It is also necessary to reduce the number of stressful situations that can provoke a sharp decrease in blood sugar levels.

It is recommended to regularly bring your pet for preventive examinations to the veterinarian. This will make it possible to diagnose in a timely manner possible pathologies that develop for a long time in a latent form. In the early stages of pathological processes, the prognosis is more favorable than in advanced situations.

Symptoms

The symptoms of hypoglycemia differ depending on the specific form of the disease. In the normal course of the disease, the following signs indicate hypoglycemia:

  • Increased salivation;
  • Lethargy, apathy, drowsiness;
  • Sudden loss of appetite for no apparent reason;
  • Inactivity;
  • Digestive disorders;
  • Chills.

Acute hypoglycemia is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Loss of consciousness;
  • Severe cramps
  • Coma (in the most severe cases);
  • Paralysis.

Dog owners should be aware that while an episode of acute hypoglycemia can be very frightening, it can be stopped with fairly simple measures. To do this, you need to give the dog an injection of glucose or give water to drink, in which sugar is dissolved in large quantities. In case of active resistance of the dog, you need to try to open its mouth and forcefully pour water into it. But caution is necessary, since in this case there is a risk that the animal will swell.

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Treating high blood sugar in a dog

Treatment is aimed, firstly, at an immediate increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood of the animal to a minimum level, and this must be done gradually, otherwise you can cause a coma in the patient, and secondly, at the fastest possible determination of the root cause in order not to allow the primary disease develop.

Diagnostics in the veterinary clinic

To make a diagnosis, the veterinarian will perform a complete blood count, which will provide information on glucose levels. The necessary diagnostic methods include urine analysis, ultrasound of the pancreas, kidneys, liver, ACTH test, measurement of bile acid concentrations in the blood and insulin concentration, abdominal X-ray.

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What to do at home

The host can relieve the attack by injecting glucose or by pouring high sugar water into the mouth. The dog will most likely resist manipulation, did not swell.

The animal must be provided with good care, fed every 3-4 hours with high-quality food. Exercise should be limited by taking short walks.

Authors of articles: Belanta clinic staff

Decreased blood glucose in a dog

The body of every living being constantly needs nutrition and energy supply, and glucose plays a huge role in this process. If its level in the blood falls, this indicates dangerous pathologies, including irreversible phenomena in the brain, central nervous system. Therefore, the dog needs immediate medical attention. Otherwise, it will lead to seizures, coma and even death.

Etiology and pathogenesis

The brains of these animals are in dire need of a regular supply of glucose, since it is not produced or accumulated in nerve cells. With prolonged hypoglycemia, the central nervous system of the dog is exposed to significant danger. Therefore, this pathology requires immediate treatment. If you have this disease in your dog, you should immediately contact your veterinarian, self-medication is unacceptable. For small dogs, glucose deficiency is especially dangerous due to the fact that their metabolism is very fast.

Hypoglycemia in dogs can occur for a variety of reasons, which include a side effect of diabetes medications. When a dog receives an excessive dose of such an agent, the animal’s body begins to process glucose too intensively, breaking it down, as a result of which sugar drops to critically low. If the dog has diabetes, this often leads to fainting and seizures, which can cause coma and death of the animal.

Other causes include hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease) and some kidney and liver diseases. In the most exotic cases, insulin production can be disrupted due to some form of brain injury or severe traumatic brain injury. The cause may be a tumor of the brain or pancreas.

Hypoglycemia is not a disease in itself. It is an independent nosological unit that expresses disorders in the organs that carry out metabolism and regulatory processes. A complete list of possible causes is as follows:

  • Reasons associated with nutrition: excessive intake of carbohydrates into the body;
  • Violations of the absorption of substances in the intestine;
  • Formation of glucose in the liver;
  • Liver enzyme dysfunction;
  • Hypofunction of the adrenal glands;
  • Diseases of the pancreas (including cancer);
  • Disorders of the pituitary gland;
  • Disorders of the thyroid gland;
  • Hunger;
  • Severe parasitic infestations.

All reasons can be divided into 2 groups:

1) Accelerating the release of glucose:

  • Insulin overdose;
  • Salicylate intoxication;
  • Taking propranolol;
  • Tumor of the islets of Langerhans;
  • Intoxication with hypoglycemic substances;
  • Glycosuria;
  • Hepatoma;
  • Endotoxemia.

What Helps With Glucose Drop In Dogs

2) Depressing glucose secretion:

  • Neonatal hypoglycemia;
  • Functional hypoglycemia;
  • “Hypoglycemia of hounds”;
  • “Hypoglycemia of miniature breeds”;
  • Physical overvoltage;
  • Lack of liver enzymes;
  • Lack of adrenal function;
  • Lack of liver function;
  • Malabsorption;
  • Large mesodermal tumors that consume a lot of glucose;
  • Sepsis;
  • High extrahepatal consumption of glucosubstrates;
  • Liver abscess;
  • Hematomas;
  • Lack of kidney function;
  • Extrapancreas tumors.

Blood glucose levels are maintained by hormones secreted by the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, intestines, pancreas and thyroid glands. This process is controlled by liver enzymes, which are subdivided into gluconeogenesis and glycogenolytic.

Lack of enzymes such as:

  • Amylo-1,6 glucosidase, e.g. phosphorylase;
  • Glucose-6-phosphatase.

May lead to excessive storage of glycogen in the liver. The starving dog’s primary energy sources are ketones, which are synthesized from alanine and pyruvate. Lack of the last two substances leads to the inability of the liver to maintain normal glucose levels.

Hyperinsulinemia, which is a consequence of diabetes or sclerosis of the pancreatic ducts in chronic pancreatitis, increases lipases in adipose tissues, affects liver function and reduces the intake of organic acids by the muscles. The most important blood keto acid is beta-hydroxybutyrate, the ratio of which to acetoneacet is 3 to 1, respectively. Acetone, which is obtained by decarboxylation of acetoacet, is not ketoacetate.

Symptoms

The symptoms of hypoglycemia differ depending on the specific form of the disease. In the normal course of the disease, the following signs indicate hypoglycemia:

  • Increased salivation;
  • Lethargy, apathy, drowsiness;
  • Sudden loss of appetite for no apparent reason;
  • Inactivity;
  • Digestive disorders;
  • Chills.

Acute hypoglycemia is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Loss of consciousness;
  • Severe cramps
  • Coma (in the most severe cases);
  • Paralysis.

Dog owners should be aware that while an episode of acute hypoglycemia can be very frightening, it can be stopped with fairly simple measures. To do this, you need to give the dog an injection of glucose or give water to drink, in which sugar is dissolved in large quantities. In case of active resistance of the dog, you need to try to open its mouth and forcefully pour water into it. But caution is necessary, because in this case there is a risk that the animal will swell.

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What helps with glucose drop in dogs

To achieve the first goal, the dog is given an intravenous injection of glucose in the form of an isotonic solution. In mild cases, glucose can also be administered orally, in the form of a sweetened drink or even candy. This option is most effective for small dogs (eg Yorkies). After the seizure is eliminated, the veterinarian tries to find out the underlying cause. Further therapy depends entirely on this root cause:

  • If it is diabetes, insulin is used;
  • If the tumor. chemotherapy and surgery, etc.

With timely diagnosis and proper therapy, the prognosis is favorable, except in cases where hypoglycemia caused by insulin.

Avoiding the risk of hypoglycemia in your dog

The term hypoglycemia in dogs means critically low blood sugar. This condition is most often the result of diabetes or insulin overdose. Glucose is the most significant source of fast energy for the dog’s body, so a sharp drop in its content leads to negative consequences, such as unexpected loss of consciousness. However, hypoglycemia may be linked to more than just diabetes.

There are other diseases that can cause a drop in blood sugar levels. In dogs, this pathology rarely has the appearance of a primary disease, usually it only indicates the presence of very serious problems in the dog’s body. Puppies under 2 weeks old and dwarf breeds such as Spitz and Yorkshire Terriers are most susceptible to glucose deficiency.

Diagnostics

It is important to remember that absolutely any manifestation that allows one to suspect hypoglycemia (especially if the dog belongs to a small breed) is a sufficient reason for an immediate call to the veterinarian or an independent visit to him with a pet. If the pet suddenly loses consciousness, this should be done immediately, regardless of the time of day.

In a veterinary clinic, general and biochemical blood tests are used to diagnose hypoglycemia. In addition, urinalysis and examination of the condition of the pancreas, kidneys and liver using ultrasound is performed. It is advisable to remember exactly when exactly the manifestations of the disease began in the dog, what preceded them.

The auxiliary methods used to diagnose the disease include a test for adrenocorticotropic hormone, which allows to establish or exclude Addison’s disease (hypoadrenocorticism).

Diagnostics is made on the basis of symptoms and test results, for which a glucometer is used, which allows the doctor to instantly and with great accuracy determine blood sugar. A dog’s normal glucose level is 3.4-6.1 mmol / L.

Treating high blood sugar in a dog

Treatment is aimed, firstly, at an immediate increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood of the animal to a minimum level, and this must be done gradually, otherwise you can cause a coma in the patient, and secondly, at the fastest possible determination of the root cause in order not to allow the primary disease develop.

Prevention of hypoglycemia in dogs

Prevention of this pathology is quite simple. Most often, it is enough to simply control the animal’s diet. You should not treat your pet to sweets and other sweets, since these products are simply unnatural for dogs and can lead not only to hypoglycemia, but also to diabetes itself. You also need to try to protect your pet from stress.

Often it is liver dysfunctions that lead to hypoglycemia. Therefore, careful monitoring of the condition of this organ and regular visits to the veterinarian are required. This will make it possible to detect the problem at an early stage and insure against serious consequences.

Misconception A dog with a high blood glucose level feels great, so it does not need to constantly inject insulin.

Negative processes occurring in the body with diabetes mellitus stop only when the blood sugar level is normal, which must be maintained constantly, despite the possible absence of external manifestations of the disease.

How to treat diabetes in dogs

After a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, based on examination, the veterinarian will prescribe the best personalized treatment for your dog.

The principle of diabetes treatment is based on blood sugar control. Despite the existence of different types of diabetes in dogs, secondary and gestational diabetes are quite rare on their own, so insulin therapy is used to treat diabetes, i.e. Introducing the missing amount of insulin into the body through injections.

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Diabetes treatment is carried out in combination with treatment of concomitant diseases, special diet and physical activity (excluding exhausting physical activity).

The misconception Insulin is unhealthy and harmful to the dog.

Modern insulin preparations are safe and effectively lower glucose levels without affecting other processes in the body.

Insulin treatment

Insulin preparations act directly on blood glucose and do not affect anything else, which minimizes the side effects of insulin therapy.

Administration of insulin injections is a fairly simple manipulation to perform on your own, but remember that injecting insulin without consulting a veterinarian is extremely dangerous.

Veterinary insulin

For the safe and effective use of insulin injections, your veterinarian will select an individual dosage of insulin for your dog after a series of studies.

At the same time, the doctor takes into account many factors: the blood sugar level and its fluctuations during the day (the glycemic curve is plotted when the dog is in the hospital), the reaction to the administration of insulin, the presence of concomitant diseases, the general condition of the animal.

Which diet to choose

Whether to feed your dog a natural diet or ready-to-eat foods, how many feeds and portions should be fed will be determined by your veterinarian, based on examination results, body characteristics and associated diseases.

For obese dogs, a diet with reduced nutrients will be selected, for malnourished dogs, on the contrary, a more nutritious diet.

It is very important to follow the dietary and insulin regimens (all strictly in time and sequence) prescribed by your attending veterinarian, and not indulge your pet when he makes eyes and begs for an additional portion.

Misconception When making a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, it is first necessary to correct the disorders caused by this disease and follow the diet. Only after the general condition of the dog has improved can the treatment of diabetes be started.

The main aspect of any treatment is to eliminate the cause of the disorders that have arisen. In this case, it is necessary to lower the blood glucose level and maintain it at a normal level in parallel with the elimination of the consequences and stabilization of the general condition of the animal.

Complications of diabetes mellitus in dogs

As mentioned earlier, diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disorder of a chronic course, and without proper treatment or lack of it, a dog can develop serious complications.

  • Diabetic cataract. Clouding of the lens of the eye may occur with high blood sugar.
  • Cystitis. Sugar in the urine is an excellent medium for pathogens, including those that cause bladder inflammation.
  • Disorders of the internal organs. High blood sugar disrupts the functioning of the liver, kidneys, nervous and vascular systems.
  • Ketoacidosis An acute complication of diabetes that develops in animals with severe and long-term diabetes. Ketoacidosis is manifested by weakness and vomiting, you can notice the smell of acetone in the breath, you should immediately consult a doctor.

Features of diabetes mellitus in dogs

Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease caused by metabolic disorders in the body.

For a fat dog, the risk of diabetes is much higher. Photo: Lisa Cyr

The cells in the body receive the energy they need to function properly from food in the form of glucose. The uptake of glucose by cells is regulated by the pancreas by the production of a special hormone insulin.

In diabetes mellitus, there is an increased glucose due to various reasons, therefore, several types of diabetes mellitus are distinguished in dogs.

  • Type I. occurs when the ability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin is impaired.
  • Type II. occurs when the reaction of the body’s cells to insulin is disturbed, which weakens the interaction with glucose.
  • Type III. secondary, manifested as a result of other diseases, with prolonged treatment with hormonal drugs or poisoning.
  • Gestational type. occurs in puppy bitches and may be temporary. Sterilization often completely eliminates the manifestations of the disease, but the likelihood of developing the disease in a different type remains.

It is difficult to determine which path the disease is taking in dogs, but in any case, this leads to an increased level of glucose in the blood and negative effects on the functioning of the body.

Misconception Special expensive veterinary (canine) insulin is used for diabetes in dogs.

Both modern veterinary and medical insulin preparations, highly effective and affordable, are suitable for the treatment of dogs.