Names, descriptions and photos, which fish are
In the article I will consider the habitat of sturgeon fish. I will list the features of the appearance, structure of the body. I will name the popular valuable representatives of the family. I’ll tell you what they look like, where beluga, sterlet, kaluga, sturgeon and others live.
A little about sturgeon
Fish of the sturgeon family appeared in the Jurassic period. The whole world was her habitat at that time. It could be found in abundance in oceans, seas and deep rivers, which means that the use of sturgeon for food began since the time of the caveman.
Sturgeon. A fairly large fish, reaching three meters in length. Most often, fishermen catch sturgeon, which weighs about 20 kg.
The fish has virtually no bones. Its body is covered with thorns and a bony scaly shell, the vertebra has a cartilaginous structure.
The fish of the sturgeon family has a very delicate and pleasant smell. Experienced chefs know how to properly cook sturgeon to preserve the amazing flavor of sturgeon meat. In many cuisines of the world, sturgeon is the main dish of the festive table. Only the shell is not eaten, everything else (head, tail, fins) can be used in cooking. Professional chefs are familiar with viziga. a dried fish spine, from which our ancestors prepared amazing dishes. Steaks, shashlik, cutlets, chops. all these dishes can be prepared from the king fish. Dishes from it are amazingly tasty. Cartilage is used for broth and aspic, on the ear. Head.
All types of sturgeon fish feed on crustaceans, molluscs, fish juveniles, worms, do not hesitate to eat other fish caviar.
Sturgeon cannot be confused with any other fish. Its body is long, spindle-shaped, covered with rows of bone beetles-growths. The stigma has an elongated conical shape, the lips are fringed and fleshy, there is a pair of mustaches.
Today, there are 19 species of sturgeon registered in the world, 11 of which live. Different types of sturgeon fish are distinguished by the proportions of their body, but the main features remain unchanged.
What fish belong to the sturgeon family. Sturgeon fish species with names, photos and descriptions. ESBE / Sturgeon, fish from the sturgeon family. Wikisource
Sturgeon in the broad sense of the word is Acipenser, a genus of fish from the sturgeon family (Acipenseridae; see). The genus Acipenser is characterized by the following features: longitudinal rows of bony scutes do not merge with each other on the tail; there are splash holes; the rays of the caudal fin bend around the end of the tail. This includes about 20 species for most of the large fish of the northern temperate zone, of which some reach very significant, even (beluga) enormous sizes (see). Most of the species are anadromous fish, entering the spring from the seas into the rivers to throw eggs, some species also in the fall in order to spend the winter here in hibernation. Some species are freshwater, living in rivers or entering rivers to spawn from lakes in which they usually live. The distribution area of the genus Acipenser embraces Europe, Asia and the north. America. Some species (German O. Acipenser sturio, and also, according to Gunther, American O. A. Maculatus) have a very wide area of distribution, since they are found both in Europe and America (in relation to A. Maculatus, this phenomenon is, by. apparently random character: he sometimes swims into European waters, but A. Sturio is found in Europe and America normally). A. They keep mainly at the bottom, feed on fish, mollusks, worms, etc.; large belugas also swallow ducks and young seals. The amount of caviar is very large and amounts to 1/6, 1/5, and even in very large belugas up to 2/7 of body weight; therefore, the number of eggs in large fish can reach several million (in the largest belugas, it is assumed, up to 10 million). Despite such an enormous fecundity, the number of fish belonging to this genus has already greatly decreased, due to the merciless and imprudent fishing. In commercial terms, these fish are very valuable: in addition to tasty and relatively very valuable meat, they produce a relatively huge amount of caviar, which is one of the most valuable fish products, swim bladders, which give high quality fish glue, and a dorsal string, which is eaten under the name vyzigi. The meat is on sale fresh
Sturgeon fish on sale can be found both live and chilled, smoked and frozen. It is used for the production of various canned food and balyk.
The sale of salted sturgeon fish is prohibited. This is due to the likelihood of the presence of a pathogenic anaerobe in the delicacy meat. botulinus, which causes severe poisoning.
Previously, only the one belonging to the sturgeon family was called red fish. These are such species as sterlet, beluga, sturgeon and stellate sturgeon. But they were valued not at all for the pinkish-yellow color of meat, but for their high nutritional and taste qualities. Today this common name is also reserved for salmon species. So, chum salmon, pink salmon and salmon are called red.
There is a certain trade and culinary classification of this fish. Its first group includes sturgeons, whose habitat is the Black and Caspian Seas. These are such species as stellate sturgeon and sturgeon, thorn and sterlet, beluga. The second group includes salmon species, such as trout and salmon, chum salmon and pink salmon, and the third group includes white salmon species (taimen and nelma, coho salmon and white fish).
The value of red fish meat is determined by its richness in iodine and fluorine, calcium and phosphorus, zinc, vitamins of group B, A, D, PP and E. But the most important for human health is the polyunsaturated fatty acid Omega-3. It is necessary to improve memory, maintain immunity and normal brain function.
Scientists have confirmed that those who regularly include red fish in their diet three times reduces the risk of oncology and hypertension, and does not face depression.
Types of sturgeon fish. Sturgeon species
Every fisherman, of course, wants to catch a good sturgeon. But because of the poachers, all sturgeon species were included in the Red Book as rare specimens. Nowadays, sturgeon cannot be caught without a special license or advance payment for the fishing areas. The ban on catching this type of fish was established by the Rybnadzor and enshrined in Russian laws. Of course, not everyone can afford sturgeon fishing, but it’s worth noting that it’s worth it. The spawning process takes place in May-June. During this period, sturgeon fishing is strictly prohibited.
These are very peculiar fishes belonging to the sturgeon subfamily. Shovelnose are adapted to life in fast streams of water, carrying a large amount of various suspensions.
A characteristic feature of the representatives of this subfamily are very small eyes, sometimes almost covered with skin. This indicates that vision in these fish does not play a special role in life. But in the shovelnose-like ones, the sense of touch is excellently developed. Its main organs are long antennae and the lower part of the snout. The body of these fish is protected from mechanical damage by large bony plates, which are a kind of shell. It is no coincidence that the shovelnose-like snouts have a flat snout. This shape allows the fish to stay afloat under a fast stream of water.
You can meet representatives of this sturgeon subfamily only in two regions of our planet. Individuals belonging to the genus American shovelnose are found in the Mississippi River basin. They are classified into two types. The first includes the common shovelnose. This is a fish, the length of which reaches 90 cm. Somewhat less often in Mississippi, white shovelnose is found. It is a typical river fish, which is found in very fast flowing parts of the river. The length of representatives of this species reaches one meter.
False shovelnose is a genus of sturgeon living in the basins of rivers such as the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. This fish differs from its American counterparts in a shorter body and fewer bony scutes.
The Central Asian shovelnose bears choose the plains of the river channel as their habitat. These fish do not go to the salty waters of the Aral Sea. The largest Amudarya shovelnose reaches 58 cm in length.Its mass is 760 g. The small representative of this genus has a body, the length of which does not exceed 27 cm.
Shovelnose stalks adhere to pebble and sandy shoals. They can also be found in the ducts. It is not only a flat and wide snout that helps these fish to stay in fast streams of water. Their pectoral fins, which play the role of peculiar suckers, are also distinguished by a special folded shape.
Reproduction of shovelnose stalks occurs on sandy coarse-grained shoals, as well as on stony placers that are found in river beds at a depth of one and a half to two meters. Spawning in these fish occurs in March-April, when the water temperature reaches 14-16 degrees.
The main food of shovelnose sturgeons is benthic invertebrates and fish eggs. Large individuals prefer juvenile sabrefish, barbel and other large prey.
Salmon and sturgeon. AgroXXI
The costs are primarily associated with the need to ensure certain conditions for these types of fish and the use of specialized feed.
Taking into account the biological characteristics of salmon and sturgeon, their breeding in open water bodies is not possible everywhere; an alternative method of cultivation is closed water supply installations. In addition to being demanding on the environment, salmon and sturgeon fish need certain types of food and a certain food base, since both lack and excess of food are almost equally harmful. At the same time, the organization of your own fish farm at this time does not present great difficulties and is limited only by financial capabilities. There are a lot of offers on the market from manufacturers of closed water supply installations, ranging in size from pools with a capacity of about 2 m³ to industrial.
Regardless of the size of the pools, a closed water supply installation must be equipped with:
Water supply pump;
Filters to remove organic contaminants;
Devices for bactericidal treatment of supplied water and its aeration.
As a rule, closed water supply installations are equipped with automatic feeders and devices for regulating the water temperature. Considering that the RAS is located in the room, the effect of environmental factors on the fish in the form of temperature drops is excluded. In turn, this leads to an acceleration in the growth and maturation of fish, since under natural conditions during the wintering period, many of them hibernate or limit their activity as much as possible. The creation of comfortable conditions for keeping and feeding allows the fish to grow all year round.
It should be borne in mind that in addition to the costs of purchasing specialized feeds or ingredients for their own production, electricity costs, replenishment of pools with fresh water and wastewater disposal, as well as a backup generator in case of a power outage, are inevitable, since even a short shutdown of the pump and aeration installation can lead to massive death of fish. At the same time, the price for salmon and sturgeon products, with a competent approach to business, more than pays for all costs.
Description and characteristics of the family of sturgeon fish species
The habitat of individuals of the sturgeon family is the northern hemisphere of the planet (water bodies of North America, Eurasia). A commercial underwater inhabitant is valued for the taste of meat, caviar.
Some representatives are called anadromous: they migrate for spawning, wintering from the seas, oceans to freshwater rivers, then return back. The family also includes semi-anadromous (move to river mouths), freshwater species.
They hunt at the bottom of the reservoir (habitat depth from 2 to 100 m).
Omnivorous. they consume worms, molluscs, crustaceans, insect larvae. The smallest representatives (sterlet) reach a meter in size, weighing 5 kg. Sturgeon giants (beluga) grow up to 6 m in length. Weight about one and a half tons.
Centenarians reach sexual maturity by 10-12 years. Spawn several times in life. usually after 2-4 years.
The appearance is similar in different sturgeon breeds. The body is oblong. The head is protected by strong bony shields.
Different types of sturgeon belong to the same family, but differ in the shape of the snout (xiphoid, elongated, short pointed-conical). The mouth is toothless, slit-like or lunar.
The mouth of sturgeons is toothless, slit-like or lunar
Main engine (tail fin) unequal cavity, covered with scales in the form of a diamond.
Sturgeon in Krasnodar
Ingredients:. 1500 grams of sturgeon carcass without tail and head;. 300 grams of mayonnaise;. 4 onions;. vegetable oil;. herbs, bay leaves, salt and black pepper to taste.
Cooking. Cut the sturgeon into layers of one and a half centimeters, salt and pepper. Cut the onion into rings. Lubricate a deep frying pan with vegetable oil, put a layer of onion in it, on it. a layer of sturgeon, a little bay leaf and herbs, on top again a layer of onion. Lubricate generously with mayonnaise. We spread in such layers until the depth of the dishes and, in fact, the sturgeon is enough. Cover with a lid and bake in an oven preheated to a temperature of 250 degrees Celsius.
Sturgeon: composition, benefits and properties, sturgeon caviar, recipes for cooking sturgeon
The old man sturgeon is a fish that survived the dinosaurs, and all subsequent cataclysms, because the age of this fish is at least 250 million years old. But it seems that there is something more terrible than natural metamorphosis, wars, glaciations and floods. This is a passion for the profit of two-legged creatures, because the sturgeon was “lucky” to have real wealth inside itself. Caviar.
The value of caviar does not decrease over the years, and poaching is increasing. The sturgeon and fish belonging to its family are at risk of disappearing from the watery expanses of the Earth. Maybe the situation will be changed by the fact that all over the world enterprises for growing sturgeon fish in artificial conditions began to develop intensively.
Sturgeon species include sturgeon, beluga and sterlet. Sturgeon are considered the best fish among fish.
Ingredients:. 1500 grams of sturgeon fillet;. 500 grams of tomatoes;. 300 grams of sweet peppers;. 300 grams of onions;. half a lemon;. 150 grams of dry white wine;. 50 grams of vegetable oil;. to taste salt, black pepper, bay leaf.
Cooking. Sturgeon is the best fish for barbecue. The fillet should be soaked for about two hours in a marinade of wine, lemon juice, vegetable oil, onions, salt and ground black pepper. Then fish fillets, tomatoes and sweet peppers are cut into portions. Put on the spit sequentially. fish, pepper, fish, tomato, bay leaf, fish, etc. You need to fry from all sides over hot coals or on a wire rack, until browning. In the summer heat, sturgeon meat deteriorates very quickly, so sturgeon kebabs are good for a cooler time.
Sturgeon in weight loss. Calorie sturgeon
Calorie content of grain sturgeon caviar 203 Kcal.
Sturgeon belongs to fish of medium calorie content, therefore, for a long diet in order to lose weight, it can only be suitable under lemon juice, which, in combination with protein food, greatly accelerates the metabolism and assimilation of the product.
Sturgeon in sour cream
Ingredients:. 800 grams of sturgeon fillet;. 2 eggs;. 100 grams of oil;. 120 grams of sour cream;. 1 tablespoon flour;. fish broth;. flour and bread crumbs;. salt, pepper, parsley, dill to taste.
Cooking. We cut the sturgeon into pieces, salt, pepper and roll in flour. Then coat with a loose egg and roll in breadcrumbs. Fry in oil until browned. We transfer to a fireproof vessel. And in the oil that remains after frying, add flour, stir it and pour in the broth, bring it to a boil. Remove from heat and add, stirring, sour cream, salt and pepper. Pour the sturgeon with this sauce. We bake it without a lid, until tender (about 10 minutes) in an oven preheated to 200 degrees.
Sturgeon in cooking, recipes for cooking sturgeon
This fish is suitable for any culinary delight. It can be stuffed, baked, fried, poured, made into barbecue, soups, hodgepodge.
Sturgeon can be smoked by hot or cold smoking.
Sturgeon meat is called red, although, in fact, it is white. But in this case, red means. beautiful, as in the old days they called everything valuable and auspicious.
Sturgeon fish breeds provide a small amount of inedible parts. up to 14%. After all, cartilage and the vertebral cord (chord) are also used for food.
From the dried dorsal string without internal cartilage mass, a visiga is prepared, used as a filling for pies. And boiled cartilage, of which the skeleton and head consist, are added to hodgepodge, pickle.
The benefits of sturgeon
Fish oil contains substances that act as a balm on the human brain and heart. Sturgeon has a medium fat content, while the amount of fat and calorie content are balanced. about 90 kcal per 100 grams. This fish is ideal for regular consumption.
The composition of caviar, which is marked by a high amount of fatty polyunsaturated acids, is exactly what is necessary for normalizing blood pressure, normal development of the body and skin cells. It is customary to feed caviar to the weakened and seriously ill.
Sturgeon harm and contraindications to its use
But caviar can be not only healing, but also a real poison.
In the intestines of sturgeon, causative agents of botulism live, which easily get into the body of the fish or into its eggs, if not cut while still alive. This is possible only in specialized factories using modern equipment. That is why it is dangerous to buy caviar from hands, because poachers are not able to comply with all conditions and norms of caviar production so that it does not cause harm to health. Caviar poisoning is not uncommon.
Earlier, boric preparations were added to caviar to increase the shelf life. Boron, as a toxic element, is able to accumulate in the human body, disrupting its metabolism. Recently, other preservatives have been used, which are considered environmentally friendly. So, when purchasing caviar from trusted suppliers, you don’t have to worry about your health.
Of course, the sturgeon meat itself is valuable, both in terms of its composition and taste. It has a high biological value, there are complexes of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Sturgeon meat contains glutamic acid, therefore its taste is peculiar, reminiscent of meat. Very high polyunsaturated fatty acids, sulfur-containing acids, as well as valuable ones such as eicosopentaenoic and docosahexaenoic in an ideal ratio for the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Sturgeon caviar is rich in proteins and lipids. source of valuable fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E.
Sturgeon fish: description, habitats and main species
The sturgeon family belongs to the delicious species of fish, united by the common name. red fish. over, the definition “red” does not characterize the color of meat. It is associated with the old, historically established meaning of the word. beautiful, best, rare, expensive.
The sturgeon is the most valuable commercial fish, part of the national wealth. Black caviar is a kind of visiting card of Russian exports.
General description of the family
The sturgeon belongs to the class of ray-finned fish, a subclass of cartilaginous ganoids. This is a very large (up to 6 meters) fish, its weight can reach 800 kg. In a fossil form, sturgeons have been known since the Cretaceous period, that is, 70-80 million years ago. They were very widespread, as evidenced by the location of modern species throughout the planet.
The main difference between fish of the sturgeon family is the absence of a bone skeleton. This fish, one of the oldest on earth, has a chord instead of a spine, and retains it throughout its life.
What the sturgeon and other representatives of this family look like can be represented by the main external features:
- The body is elongated, fusiform, the scales are completely absent, on the sides there are longitudinal stripes of bony scutes, usually, depending on age, there are 10-20 pieces. These scutes, closer to the tail, do not grow together, which is also their distinctive feature of this fish.
- The head is small, conical, there are four antennae on the nose, and a rudimentary spyglass is located on the operculum. There are no teeth in the mouth. An interesting fact is that the fry have them, but then they fall out. Lips. fleshy soft cartilage.
- Instead of scales, star-shaped plates are randomly located on the sturgeon skin. The anterior pectoral fins are very stiff. Caudal fin rays bend around the end of the tail.
- The body of the sturgeon is gray, the sides are brown, and the belly is lighter in color.
- The swim bladder is large and developed.
- The caviar is small, black in color, one individual can contain more than a million eggs.
The sturgeon family is not only one of the most ancient, but also the most long-lived fish. Their lifespan is the same as that of humans. There are real centenarians over 100 years old. How long a sturgeon lives depends on its species. Some of them live only 40-60 years, but there is information describing large deep-seated individuals that have lived up to 150 years.
Many people find it difficult to ask whether sturgeon is a sea or river fish. It is impossible to determine unambiguously its belonging. Most sturgeon species thrive in any water, but they need fast river flow and hard rocky or sandy bottoms to spawn.
According to their habitats, sturgeons are divided into the following types:
- Freshwater or inhabited. the most common species, constantly living in fresh water of rivers and lakes of the temperate zone;
- Anadromous are those species that enter rivers during spawning or during the winter;
- Semi-anadromous. a species of sturgeon that lives in the Atlantic waters of Europe and America, has the ability to reproduce in both salt and fresh water.
The places where the sturgeon lives should be rich in food, which for it are molluscs, crayfish and crustaceans, mysids, worms, lampreys and fish.
The most famous representatives
The sturgeon family includes 17 species, most of them are extremely rare, some are listed in the Red Book:
- Siberian sturgeon. A native Russian species of the sturgeon family. A very large freshwater fish, up to two meters, weighing about 200 kg. Inhabits Siberian rivers: Ob, Lena, Angara and Lake Baikal.
- White sturgeon. A large representative of the genus sturgeon. With a length of 6 meters, individuals weighing about 800 kg are found. Only beluga is larger than it. The white sturgeon is found in the Pacific Ocean off the western shores of America, belongs to the semi-anadromous, because it can spawn in both salty and fresh streams and rivers.
- Russian sturgeon. As a result of the tyranny of poachers, this species was almost completely exterminated. Differs in high taste of meat and caviar, is the main source of their production and for these purposes it is bred artificially. Main habitats: Black, Caspian and Azov seas. To restore the Russian sturgeon population, special fish farms are being opened. Fry grown in artificial reservoirs, as they mature, are released into their natural environment to replenish the stock of valuable and tasty fish. The average weight of the Russian sturgeon is 20 kg, length. 2 meters.
- Sakhalin sturgeon. A rare species, little explored, listed in the Red Book. Outwardly differs from its congeners in greenish color and blunt muzzle. Fish through passage. It constantly lives in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan, swims for spawning in the fresh waters of the Amur.
- Beluga. The largest fish of the sturgeon, due to the depletion of stocks, is listed in the Red Book. There is information that there were individuals weighing 75 pounds (1200 kg), only one caviar in them was about 150 kg. Its main habitat is the Caspian Sea.
- Sterlet. Completely exterminated and restored on the basis of descriptions and drawings by selection of a breed of sturgeon fish, living in the seas of the Arctic Ocean, rivers of central Russia and the Caspian. Small (up to two kg.) Fish of commercial value, more often than other species used for breeding in artificial ponds and lakes.
- Spike. A valuable, but almost destroyed species of sturgeon fish. The sizes are medium, the taste is high. It is found in the Caspian Sea, spawns in the Volga. Actively reproduced by artificial means.
- Stellate sturgeon. Anadromous deep-sea fish living at a depth of 100 meters, which is of great commercial value. Medium size, weight 5-10 kg.
- In addition to the most famous listed, there are 9 more species of sturgeon fish living in the northern seas of Russia, on the western coast of North America, in the seas of Korea, China and Australia.
Commercial value of sturgeon
Sturgeon is a delicious and expensive delicacy, good in any form. Sturgeon or sterlet fish soup is a classic of Russian gourmet cuisine. And also it is fried, stewed, salted, smoked, dried. Russia is the largest supplier of sturgeon meat on the world market.
Black caviar is a valuable, healthy, high-calorie product. Small black caviar is the main difference between the sturgeon family and other red fish species.
Large swim bubbles are used to make fish glue.
Vizigs. a food product made from the dorsal string of sturgeon.
Artificial reproduction is the path to the development of the fishing industry and the expansion of industrial production of sturgeon meat and black caviar, which is important for maintaining Russia’s position in the world fish market.
Sturgeons can live from 40 to 60 years, while the beluga can overcome the 100-year barrier, the Russian sturgeon. half a century, and the stellate sturgeon and sterlet live a maximum of 30 years. The life span of sturgeons is influenced by many factors, including natural ones associated with seasonal fluctuations in water temperature, as well as anthropogenic ones, in the form of pollution of the waters of the seas and oceans.
Behavior and lifestyle
Sturgeons can live at depths of up to 100 meters, while they lead a bottom lifestyle, where they find food for themselves. These fish are adapted to habitat in cold water environments, as well as to prolonged starvation. Due to the peculiarities of the nature of the behavior of the sturgeon, the following are subdivided:
- On anadromous, which for their life choose coastal slightly saline waters of the seas and oceans within the river mouths. Before spawning or for wintering, anadromous sturgeon species ascend to the upper reaches of rivers, overcoming impressive distances.
- On semi-anadromous, which do not make significant migrations and reproduce directly at river mouths.
- On freshwater, for which a distinctive feature is a sedentary lifestyle.
Sturgeon are valued due to the fact that they have tasty and healthy meat and caviar, if they are cooked correctly and professionally. Fish meat is easily digested by the human digestive tract, while it is rich in proteins (up to 15 percent), vitamins and various minerals, including potassium and omega fatty acids. Sturgeon has always, for many centuries, been present at the tables of kings, boyars, nobles of many countries and even the times of Ancient Rome. Alexander the Great made long campaigns with his army, and sturgeon caviar was among the provisions.
Sturgeon are suitable for cooking various dishes, therefore, for a long time, fish soup, soups, hodgepodge, as well as sturgeon were fried, boiled, stuffed, etc. from their meat. Sturgeon meat is considered dietary, therefore it is included in weight loss recipes. The advantage of this fish is that all parts of its body, including the skeleton, are suitable for eating various dishes.
Eating dishes made from sturgeon by a person has a lot of beneficial effects. It should also be noted that sturgeon fat is only useful, helping the human body to cope with a number of ailments. No less valuable caviar of these fish. The list shows the value in descending order:
- The most valuable beluga caviar, which is relatively large and black or grayish in color.
- For Russian sturgeon, caviar is in second place in terms of value. Eggs can have different shades.
- In third place in value is sturgeon caviar, which is not large in size.
Sturgeon species with photos and names
To date, 17 species of sturgeon are known, and most of them are represented in the Red Book. The most common types are:
- Russian sturgeon is distinguished by its excellent taste, while both meat and caviar are highly valued. In our time, this species of sturgeon is on the verge of extinction. In this species of sturgeon, antennae grow at the end of the muzzle, but not around the mouth. It lives mainly in the Caspian, Black and Azov seas, as well as in the basins of these seas, or rather, in the rivers flowing into these seas. There are both anadromous and sedentary species. As a rule, adults of the Russian sturgeon weigh no more than 25 kilograms. The bodies of these fish are distinguished by brown and gray tones, while the belly is always light. The diet of the Russian sturgeon includes fish, worms, crustaceans and other food items that live at the bottom of water bodies. May interbreed with other sturgeon species such as sterlet and stellate sturgeon.
- Kaluga, as a rule, lives in the Far East. It differs from the family in that its back is green in color, the mustache of the Kaluga is somewhat larger compared to other species, and the body is covered with several rows of bony scales, with pointed ends. It feeds on everything that it can get while living in the water. Spawns 1 time in 5 years, while the number of eggs can be more than 1 million.
- Sterlet is characterized by the presence of antennae with a long fringe, as well as a large number of bone outgrowths, in the form of plates. Sterlet differs in that it is ready for spawning much earlier than other species. Sterlet belongs to freshwater sturgeon species. Adults reach a length of up to 0.5 meters, while they can weigh all 50 kilograms. Considered a vulnerable species. The sterlet’s diet includes insect larvae, leeches, various benthic organisms, while fish, although consumed, is rare. Bester is a hybrid of sterlet and beluga. Raised artificially for meat and caviar. Found in seas such as the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic seas, as well as in their basins.
- The Amur sturgeon (Shrenk’s sturgeon) is both freshwater and semi-anadromous and is a close relative of the Siberian sturgeon. Gill rakers are smooth and differ in the presence of 1 apex. At the present time, it is also on the verge of extinction. It grows in length up to 3 meters and can weigh almost 200 kilograms, while the average weight of sturgeons is within 80 kilograms. It also differs in the presence of an elongated snout, which occupies almost half the body length of the fish. The Amur sturgeon feeds on caddis flies, mayflies, various crustaceans, lamprey larvae and small fish. The habitat extends to the Amur River and its basin. During the breeding season appears within Nikolaevsk-on-Amur.
- Sevruga represents migratory sturgeon, which are close relatives of sterlet and thorn. It grows in length more than 2 meters and weighs within 80 kilograms. Sevruga differs from the rest of its family by its elongated, narrow and slightly flattened snout, the length of which is more than half the length of the entire head. The back is black-brown, while the sides of the fish are much lighter, and the belly is white, like in most species. The fish feeds on mysids and various crustaceans, various worms and small fish species. The main habitat is represented by the waters of the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas, although stellate sturgeon is also found in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas. Before the breeding process, the fish appears in the rivers flowing into these seas.
Population and status of the species
The twenty-first century may go down in history as a century during which humanity will admit that our descendants will not see many species of sturgeon, since they are already threatened with complete extinction. Human activity is associated with the fact that many species are helpless against the deterioration of the ecological situation, against active fishing, which lasted almost until the end of the 20th century, as well as the actions of poachers who are not stopped by any prohibitions.
Scientists note the fact that a decrease in the number of sturgeons was characteristic as early as the 19th century, but active measures began to be carried out quite recently. Such activities include: combating poaching, bans on fishing, raising fry on farms, after which they are released into natural habitats. To date, bans on catching sturgeon in general are widespread.
A certain group of fish belongs to sturgeons, which represent the “sturgeon” family. Many people, when they say sturgeon, understand the meat and caviar of this family, which have always been appreciated and appreciated in cooking. Since ancient times, this fish has been associated with wealth, since its meat and caviar have always been present on the tables of nobles and other elite. Nowadays, sturgeon is considered a very rare fish, therefore, experts from many countries make a lot of efforts to preserve and increase sturgeon populations around the world.
As a rule, the body length of adults reaches 2 meters, with a weight of 50 to 80 kilograms. At one time, a sturgeon was caught, about 8 meters long and weighing more than 800 kilograms. The body is spindle-shaped, covered with scales, bony outgrowths, and also plates, which are fused thickened scales. On the body of the fish there are 5 such rows located along the body. Two of these rows are located on the belly, and the rest, one at a time, on the back and on the sides. The number of plates depends on the specific type of sturgeon.
Sturgeons have rather sensitive antennae, with the help of which the fish feels the bottom and finds food for itself. The mouth of the sturgeon is not large and toothless. It is located at the bottom of the pointed part of the muzzle. After birth, young individuals still have teeth, but as they grow up, they grind off. Sturgeons have rather stiff fins, a large swim bladder, and two pairs of gills. The skeleton of this fish does not contain bone tissue and consists of cartilage tissue, and instead of a spine, it is a chord.
What sturgeon eats in nature
This fish is omnivorous, therefore it feeds on algae, invertebrates and small fish. If the sturgeon does not have enough animal food, then it necessarily adds food items of plant origin.
Larger individuals often attack waterfowl. Before spawning, the fish tries to stock up on nutrients, so it swallows everything that comes in its way. When the spawning process begins, the fish’s appetite may disappear altogether.
Somewhere, a month after spawning, the fish begins to actively feed. The newly born fry begin to feed on small food items of animal origin. As they mature, juveniles include larger larvae, worms, insects, etc. in their diet.
The habitat is very extensive, while the fish prefer to inhabit the temperate zone, but only within the Northern Hemisphere. They are also found in the Far East, in the Azov, Caspian and Black Seas.
Those species of sturgeon that are not freshwater, during the spawning period, rise to the upper reaches of the rivers. Some sturgeon species are bred in artificial conditions, but this takes into account the peculiarities of their habitat, relating to specific geographic zones.