home Aquarium What ph should be in the aquarium

What ph should be in the aquarium

Driftwood

Need to acidify the water? The driftwood will help us. In the water, they release tannins, which help acidify the water, and therefore lower the pH level.

We put one large snag or several small ones and lower it into the aquarium. And that’s it, you don’t need to do anything else. The acidity level will decrease smoothly, which is a big plus. Fish will not get stressed or die from shock.

aquarium

If you need to raise the pH

How do I raise or lower the pH of my water? If it is relatively clear with the second question, then with the first it is not very.

In order for the water in the aquarium to become alkaline, it is recommended to use aragonite. It is a very rich mineral in calcium. It is placed in water and increases the hardness and pH.

PH standards

How do I lower the pH of my fish to keep them comfortable? A little patience, we’ll get to that soon. First, let’s find out which indicators indicate the acidity of water, which ones about alkaline reactions and which ones about neutrality.

PH values ​​5.5-8.5? This suggests that the water is neutral. From 0 to 5.5. acidity is increased. From 8.5 to 14. a lot of alkali in the water.

How to determine the pH level?

What is needed to determine the pH level of water? This is done with test strips or an electronic tester.

The stripes change color depending on the amount of hydrogen ions.

As for the electronic tester, opinions about this thing are very ambiguous. Some people like it very much, while others are dissatisfied. It also has significant disadvantages:

  • Electronic tester price bites.
  • Requires constant calibration, a special solution is required. It must be fresh.
  • The appliance is kept damp. And before using it, wash it thoroughly. If you do not follow these requirements, then there is a great risk of error in determining the pH level.
  • Service life is one year.

Alder broth

How do I lower the pH in my aquarium? With the help of a decoction of brown alder cones. The more cones, the richer the broth. If you need to acidify the water faster, we recommend pouring a decoction of six cones into the aquarium. In 17 days, the pH level will decrease from to 3.8.

Just remember that a sharp decrease in it leads to stress and shock for fish. The latter react to tinted water quite normally.

Why pH doesn’t drop?

We’ve figured out how to lower the pH in an aquarium. But what if all else fails? The point is carbonate hardness. She is some obstacle to lowering acidity.

But this does not mean that carbonate hardness should be completely absent from the aquarium. On the contrary, it is useful. If it is not there, then the pH will begin to drop rapidly. over, constantly.

Experienced aquarists advise avoiding such methods. This is due to the fact that in the aquarium, firstly, there is carbonate hardness, which we talked about above. And secondly, chemicals can cause dramatic fluctuations in pH. And they are quite painfully tolerated by fish. 30% of the reservoir population is at risk of dying.

Improvised means

What is meant? Driftwood, peat crumbs, alder cones decoction. It is these products, and not purchased ones, that experienced aquarists advise.

Ready? Then let’s start talking about them.

How to find out with a TDS meter?

It is a lightweight, convenient and compact device that allows you to measure the concentration of impurities in water. Its principle of operation is to create an electric field in water, where ions of salts and other chemicals can be easily fixed.

The device is lowered into a separate container with water and after a second shows the number of impurities in one liter of water in milligrams.

The TDS meter requires little maintenance. It runs on AA batteries and does not fail for about 1-2 years.

Thus, the advantages of a salt meter are as follows:

  • Easy to measure;
  • Fast results;
  • Ease of use and storage;
  • Cheapness .

How to measure with test strips?

  • Fast results;
  • Measurement can be carried out directly in the aquarium;
  • Easy availability and cheapness of the test.

The disadvantage is the inaccuracy of the result. The strip acquires a shade that matches the palette, and the hardness is determined “by eye”. over, you will have to translate foreign degrees into Russian ones, because tests use European standards.

How to increase the level and make the liquid harder?

Increasing the rigidity in the aquarium is necessary if its inhabitants require mineralization. For example, some plants, crustaceans, and molluscs cannot thrive without adequate calcium.

How do I increase the level? There are several ways to increase the hardness of the aquarium water:

  • Mix aquarium water with harder water from another source. It is important to respect the proportions and not overdo it, i.e. pour in water gradually, periodically repeating the study.
  • Boil water in an enamel bowl for about 60 minutes, then carefully pour 2/3 of the top. Gently pour the bottom remaining part into the aquarium.
  • Add shells, marble and other limestone rocks to the aquarium. The disadvantage of this method is that the rigidity cannot be controlled. Therefore, you can use shells as a filter for aquarium water.
  • 1 tsp baking soda in 50 liters of water helps to increase the kH by 4 degrees.
  • 2 tsp calcium carbonate by the same volume increase gH and kH by 4 degrees.
  • Add 1 ml of 10% calcium chloride and 1 ml of magnesium sulfate to 1 liter of water. Hardness will increase by 4 degrees.
  • Pour magnesium in a 25% solution (1 ml per 1 liter of water). This will increase the hardness by 4 degrees.

Another way to increase water hardness can be found in the video below:

Normal and critical indicators

The norm for stiffness indicators is relative. It all depends on what purpose it is intended for.

A low total hardness indicates a low calcium content in the water, which is essential for the growth and development of plants in an aquarium. Normal gH is considered to be from 4, and preferably from 6-8 mEq / L. If the indicator drops to 3, we can talk about a lack of rigidity.

Conventionally, the levels of water hardness in the aquarium can be distinguished:

  • 0-4. very soft;
  • 4-8. soft;
  • 8-12. medium hardness;
  • 12-30. very tough.

Non-carbonate

Non-carbonate hardness is a constant value that does not change after boiling. It is provided by calcium and magnesium salts of strong acids. sulfates, chlorides and silicates.

Chemical reagent Trilon “B”

The measuring principle is complex, confusing, long. To do this, you will have to conduct a whole chemical experiment.

By the amount of Trilon B. the sodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, which looks like an ordinary white powder, it is possible to determine the calcium and magnesium salts dissolved in water.

The change in the color of the indicator also depends on the pH of the water, therefore, auxiliary substances are used. a buffer mixture NH4OH NH4Cl, which maintains a pH of about 10.

For the experiment, you will need a conical flask with a volume of 200-250 ml, test water, buffer mixture, Trilon B solution and indicator solution.

  • A solution of Trilon B is made from 9.3 g of the substance and distilled water so that the total output volume is 1 liter.
  • The buffer mixture is prepared by mixing 20 g of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and a small amount of distilled water, then 100 ml of 20% ammonia hydrate (NH4OH) and such an amount of distilled water are added so that the total volume of the solution is 1 liter.
  • For the indicator, you need 0.5 g of eriochrome black T, 10 ml of buffer solution and ethyl alcohol in such an amount that the solution output is 100 ml.

50 ml of water from the aquarium, 5 ml of the buffer mixture and 10-15 drops of the indicator (until a cherry-red color appears) are poured into the flask. The flask is shaken continuously and titrated with Trilon B solution until the solution turns purple. At this stage, the titration slows down and continues until a blue color with a green tint appears. After that, calculations are made:

  • x is the amount of calcium and magnesium salts soluble in water, mg-eq / l;
  • v. used amount of Trilon B;
  • v1. volume of the investigated water.

To convert to degrees, the resulting figure is multiplied by 2.8. To determine the hardness of water, a special table of V.P. Datskevich is used, according to which it is easy to find out the desired value, based on fractions of a degree.

The advantage of the method is the accuracy of the study.

  • Long and complicated process;
  • Difficult to find substances;
  • Sometimes Trilon B is sold only in high weight (from 25 kg), and, accordingly, has a high cost.

What it is?

Water hardness refers to the salts of alkaline earth metals, which are sometimes called “hardness salts”. these are mainly calcium and magnesium. The hardness index is also influenced by beryllium, barium, strontium, radium and unbinilium. Accordingly, a large amount of dissolved salts make the water hard, and a small amount. soft.

For the aquarium ecosystem, hardness is even more important than acidity. Its role can hardly be overestimated:

  • Magnesium and calcium salts are involved in the construction of the skeleton of fish;
  • The strength and hardness of the shell of crustaceans and molluscs depends on their number;
  • The development of the genitals depends on rigidity;
  • Ensures normal plant growth and absorption of nutrients.

The optimal level of water hardness in the aquarium should approximately correspond to the same indicator of the natural habitats of each specific species.

Distinguish between general hardness, carbonate and non-carbonate.

How to determine at home?

Number of lamps and their placement

For a tank with a small volume, one lamp with a low wattage will suffice. But in large tanks, you will have to equip two, three lamps with high power.

Lamps are usually placed on top, on the lid. And also the lighting in the aquarium can be placed on the sides of the walls.

Characteristics of aquarium lighting

Basic power standards for lighting devices:

  • 0.1-0.3 watts per liter of aquarium. Preferred by inhabitants with a nocturnal lifestyle, catfish. From plants, weak vigor is suitable for Javanese moss, Vallisneria.
  • 0.4-0.5 Watt / l. In such a reservoir, plants will grow slowly. Shade-loving plants should be planted, because other species will be drawn to the light source, become thin, weak.
  • 0.5-0.8 Watt / l. This is the best option for a standard aquarium. Plants grow well, do not lack aquarium light.
  • 0.8-1 Watt / l. This power is suitable for fish, plants living in constant direct sunlight. Such an indicator is also necessary for aquascaping, aquaristics with the number of plants exceeding the frame.
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In addition to Watt / L, another unit of change is used. lumens (lm), which are now more accurate than Watt / L. Because Watt / L does not take into account the characteristics of the lamp, and they are too different.

Another main characteristic of illumination is power. With insufficient power, it will not be possible to grow healthy plants, other inhabitants.

In a tank without plants, light is not very important, fish are undemanding to it.

General characteristics of aquarium lighting

Daylight hours and control options

500 rubles), unlike mechanical timers, they do not go astray when disconnected and power surges, which is important!

Also, at the moment, there is a good dimmer for LED lighting (a thing that makes dawn-zenith-sunset of LED sources).

Common mistakes

Novice aquarists often choose the wrong time for lighting the aquarium, forcing the inhabitants to experience light excess or lack of light. To avoid this, the following are the main mistakes beginners make:

  • Choose white as it is more comfortable for fish and greens than blue and red. These colors are used as backlighting.
  • With too long lighting, thread, beard and other algae begin to multiply abundantly.
  • Choose metal halide lamps or mix different lamp types.

The light in the aquarium is one of the first characteristics that should be taken into account when arranging a home for fish and vegetation. Approach his choice responsibly, choosing high quality equipment.

Light is one of the most important elements that directly affects the life and development of aquarium plants.

In order for plants to begin to form useful organic substances that contribute to their development, a large amount of light is required.

But if the illumination turned out to be small, then these same plants, instead of producing O2, on the contrary, begin to actively absorb it.

over, the aquarium starts to release carbon dioxide, which kills all the nutrients in the greenery. As a result, decomposition processes begin.

What kind of light sources can be used in aquariums? Previously, the following were common:

    incandescent bulbs and energy savings
    fluorescent round lamps T5 and T8

Today, the following are more common:

    LED strips and Led rulers
    modern LED lamps
    metal halide lamps

But the main thing is not what type of source you choose, but with what intensity it will shine. And will it be enough.

That is why here it is required to make a preliminary calculation and not buy what is called at random or choose the lamp that shines the brightest. Your fish and plants, as well as you, do not like being under the light every day like from a welding machine.

Although lighting is primarily needed for plants, and not for fish. They can coexist without any problems in the twilight. Indeed, in natural conditions, no one specifically illuminates them with searchlights.

Before proceeding with the calculation methods, it is worth mentioning some terms and characteristics directly related to lighting equipment.

It indicates exactly how much the power source consumes when it is glowing at maximum brightness.

Let’s say you have a surface of 1m2 and a luminous flux of 1 lumen falls on it. This is exactly the same illumination of this surface and will be equal to 1 Lux.

Measured in Kelvin. details about its effect will be discussed below.

Here is a breakdown by wavelength and what color is better to “irradiate” the plants.

How does all this relate to calculating the amount of light for an aquarium? Let’s take a closer look at the three main methods.

Oddly enough, many still calculate the lighting level for aquariums, only based on the power of the bulbs. And this method really works in certain cases.

But this is for a slow herbalist or a small amount of plants inside the tank.

It would seem that it could be simpler, take and simply multiply the volume of the aquarium by 0.5 or 1W. And voila. lighting choices made.

Such advice was replete with books and textbooks on aquaristics in the pre-Internet era. Today this is true if the main light source is simple incandescent bulbs or round fluorescent T5 and T8.

It is impossible to apply this calculation method to LED models and strips, which were then just entering into use.

For example, you can have two light bulbs with the same watt parameters, but one will be fluorescent and the other LED.

Do you think they will work with the same intensity and performance? And if you compare an incandescent lamp and an LED? Here the gap will be even more significant.

Therefore, this method is considered quite working, only for fluorescent models and simple incandescent lamps.

To make a calculation by this method, again you need to know a certain constant value. a constant from which you will have to actually “dance”.

Many experts use these averaged indicators and they are right. But at the same time, there are certain nuances here.

First, as you can see from the above data, the number of plants in the container and the types of this greenery play a significant role.

Secondly, all light sources shine in different ways. For example, fluorescent lamps emit light in all directions, and LEDs at an angle of 120 degrees.

What does this mean for the aquarium? Simply put, if you choose sources with LEDs and fluorescent lamps, then with the same indicators in lumens, in the second case, not all lumens will get into the aquarium water.

Of course, the problem is solved in some way by installing reflectors, but it is not always possible to mount them in the cover of a factory lamp.

Thirdly, do not forget about the size of the aquarium, its width and height. The higher it is, the less light will penetrate to the very bottom.

In the end, it is more important to you how well the surface of the plants and their leaves is illuminated, and not how well the lamps themselves glow.

And plants are different. Some like more light, others a little less.

Here is a table summarizing the selection of some lamps, depending on the size of the aquariums (recommendations from ADA):

It turns out that sometimes both methods give not entirely correct results. In this case, when using fluorescent, and most often LED lighting, the calculation is made in lux.

What are suites? Imagine a light source that has a luminous flux of one lumen. At the same time, this luminous flux evenly floods with light an area of ​​1 square meter. This is 1 suite.

So how, knowing this formula, calculate the minimum required lighting for your aquarium? Here again, some calculation constants will be required, which are taken from what is called from experience.

If you have a standard aquarium, whose height is less than its length, and at the same time ordinary plants that are not demanding on light grow in it, then for them this value is 6000-10000 lux.

That is, the order is as follows. Initially, you calculate the bottom area based on the dimensions. multiply the width by the length. Next, multiply the resulting number by the illumination value specified by the standard in lux. That’s all.

As a result, you get what you need, but already in lumens. Lumen data for each lamp, the manufacturer usually does not indicate either on the housings or on the packages.

However, they can be easily found on the Internet in the summary tables of correspondence for different types of bulbs. A similar plate has already been given above in the text.

Here is a rough estimate for a 60 liter aquarium with a bottom area of ​​0.18m2. Light-loving plants at the bottom (10-15 thousand lux).

Substituting the data into the formula for calculating the illumination, we get the following result:

This turns out to be 2700 lumens. That is, for a 60 liter aquarium, you need a light source that emits at least 2700 lm.

Do not forget about the depth loss. A certain percentage of the light flux is lost with every centimeter. Here are the calculated loss data depending on the depth of the aquarium.

And also the reflection from the surface plays a great role. In practice, it can reach up to 40% in an open container. These losses can be reduced by up to 20% if the aquarium is closed with a white lid from the inside.

And if you use reflectors, then even less.

If you have several bulbs, then the calculation is the same, only all lumens are summed up according to your liters.

Not everyone likes the calculated minimum data. Therefore, they are taken as a starting point and a light source is chosen with some margin, taking into account the depth and effect of reflection.

But you don’t need to overdo it here either. And then some will plant 3 bushes per 100 liters, give 5000 Lm inside and hello swamp.

And if, on the contrary, there is not enough lighting and only one lamp is provided in the lid, what to do? Then you will have to give up the cover and switch to suspended and hinged models, with the possibility of increasing the power and their number.

But it is not always possible to do this. For example, if you have active fish, then without a cover you will often have to collect them from the floor.

It is widely known that the sun shines with a spectrum that we see as supposedly “white”.

At the same time, sunlight during the day, constantly changes its color temperature. At 12 noon, it equals 5500 Kelvin.

Therefore, if you want plants and fish to look natural in your aquarium, try to choose light sources close to this value.

If your light is about 5000K, then the aquatic plants will look unhealthy and give off yellowness. Although they’ll actually be okay.

Luminaires with a temperature of more than 7000, sometimes used for marine aquariums.

But in the light of 10,000K, the plants become too green and begin to look like artificial.

Here are the recommendations for different aquariums:

At the same time, do not be confused, this parameter (color temperature) does not mean what color the light source shines in. It mainly shows how your eyes will perceive colors in a lighting object.

In fact, the 6500K value plays a more decorative role. She is, as they say, for beauty.

Someone bothers even more and wants to get a beautiful picture not only from the inside, but also from the outside. To do this, using lighting, an indescribable play of the sun on the waves is created. Just like the sea.

To create such an effect, Led floodlights are used, with the formation of water vibrations on the surface from the filter.

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But another light parameter. the spectrum, not only clearly demonstrates a certain color and is responsible for the beauty of the picture, but also significantly affects the health of underwater greenery.

As you know, light is a wave. For our eyes, visible waves are in the range of 380-780 Nm. If the wave is longer or, on the contrary, shorter, then we simply will not see it.

But it is in this range that we perceive all other waves as different colors. Yellow-green-red, etc.

At the same time, we came up with the names for them ourselves and agreed among ourselves on such a gradation.

    we call the shortest waves purple
    the longest. in red

And in between there are a whole bunch of shades and colors. So, unlike the color temperature discussed above, there are already significant differences in what color to shine on underwater plants. Basically, the same applies to ground.

Depending on this, their photosynthesis will also change. Here is this dependence in the form of a visual graph.

What conclusions can be drawn by looking at it? If you have a light-loving plant in your aquarium, give it more red and blue. And then everything will be all right with him.

But if you have attached to the bottom, the so-called shade-loving soil-coats, then it is enough to shine only blue on them.

But if you make a mistake and choose sources with large peaks of red and blue, where they are not needed, the plants will have big troubles in the form of thread, beard, etc.

When buying light bulbs, pay attention to the packaging. It usually indicates the spectrum that prevails in a given light source.

However, choosing the right power and color of lighting is not the key to success. It turns out that you need to take into account another third parameter. the length of daylight hours.

In natural conditions for plants, it is 8-12 hours. There will be a lack of lighting time, and this will all again affect the greenery.

They will stop accumulating nutrients, their growth will slow down. And if, on the contrary, to make it almost round the clock, then algae will appear.

Time adjustment can be made very easily through an inexpensive mechanical or electronic timer plugged into the socket.

It is enough to connect all the lighting exactly through it. Settings are set with literally two button clicks.

What conclusions can be drawn from all of the above? Think about the plants themselves before calculating the lighting in the aquarium.

What species will you keep. light-loving or shade-loving. How much? How big is your aquarium, how deep is it??

For different types and calculations will be different. At the same time, it will not make much difference which lamps to use, fluorescent or LED. And with both, the growth will be the same.

Of course, progress does not stand still and LEDs every day win in many advantages:

Aquarium lighting and lamp selection

In the first video, another trash video is mentioned, who wants irony, here it is.

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What do aquarium plants need

They forget about lighting for an aquarium with plants, or they think that they do not need special care, certain conditions for life. Knowledge of the basics of biology will be useful to create a comfortable environment.

Plants need inorganic, organic substances, carbon dioxide, light, water for life.

Where to place the lighting for the aquarium

Backlight, spotlights are located at the top next to other lamps or on the side walls. Less often, the backlight is built into the ground or among the greenery.

Aquarium water parameters: hardness, pH and others

One of the most important components of the aquarium world is water as a habitat for aquarium fish and plants.
The parameters of the aquarium water, its characteristics directly affect the well-being of your pets and the condition of the plants. It’s no secret that dirty, muddy water kills fish, spoils the appearance of the aquarium, however, clear water does not always mean that its composition is ideal.

The main parameters and indicators of the quality of aquarium water are:

PH of Aquarium Water? How to Test? Raise or Lower

HARDNESS OF AQUARIUM WATER (hD). due to the presence in the water of carbonates. calcium and magnesium salts: CaCO3 and MgCO3 bicarbonates Ca (HCO3) 2 and Mg (HCO3) 2, sulfates CaSO4 and MgSO4, chlorides CaCl2 and MgCl2. Their concentration in the aquarium water is TOTAL HARDNESS, which can be divided into TIME (KH) and CONSTANT (GH).

The temporary hardness of aquarium water (KH) is the concentration of calcium and magnesium bicarbonates. This rigidity can change during the day. For example, during the daytime, aquarium plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, which accumulates in the water. If there is not enough carbon dioxide for the consumption of it by plants, they will begin to synthesize carbon from the composition of bicarbonates, as a result of which the temporary hardness of the water will increase.

The constant hardness of the aquarium water (GH) is the amount of dissolved sulfates, chlorides and some other calcium and magnesium salts. When boiling such water, the concentrations of these cations and anions practically do not change. hence the name “constant hardness”.

Water hardness is essential for the life of the aquarium world. Firstly, calcium and magnesium salts are used in the construction of the skeleton and have an impact on the construction of the entire body of the fish. For different types of aquarium fish, the water hardness indicators are different and non-observance of them can lead to a deterioration in the well-being of the fish, to a violation of the reproductive function and fertilization of eggs.

The total hardness of aquarium water is measured in German degrees (hD). 1 ° hD is 10mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water.

Aquarium water with hardness parameters:

from 12 to 30 ° hD. considered very hard;

Most aquarium fish feel comfortable with a hardness of 3-15 ° hD.

How to change the hardness of the aquarium water:

2.) Reducing stiffness (everything is more complicated here):

HOW TO MEASURE the total hardness of aquarium water at home without special equipment and preparations (titration of the sample with soapy water):

The peculiarity of this method is that 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water is neutralized by 0.1 g. clean soap.

60-72% laundry soap is taken, crumbles.

Water (distilled, snow, melted water from the refrigerator) is poured into a measuring cup (or other measuring vessel). further distillate.

Soap crumb (measured in grams) is added to the water so that you can calculate the portion of soap in the resulting solution.

Pour 0.5 liters of test aquarium water into other dishes and gradually add portions of soap solution (0.1 g each), shake.

First, gray flakes and rapidly disappearing bubbles will appear on the surface of the water. Gradually adding portions of soap solution, we wait for all the calcium and magnesium oxide to bind. stable soap bubbles with a characteristic rainbow overflow will appear on the surface of the water.

This concludes the experiment. Now we count the number of consumed soap portions, multiply them in half (the aquarium water was 0.5 liters, not 1 liter.). The resulting number will be the hardness of the aquarium water in degrees. For example, 5 soap bars2 = 10 ° hD.

If the experiment is carried out carefully, the error may be.1 ° hD.

When a hardness result of more than 12 ° hD is obtained, the measurement accuracy decreases, it is recommended to carry out the experiment by re-diluting the aquarium water by 50% with distillate, the result obtained is doubled.

The pH of the water or “acidity of the aquarium water” (pH of the aquarium water) determines the neutral, acidic and alkaline reaction of the water at a certain concentration of hydrogen ions.

In chemically pure water, electrolytic dissociation occurs. the decomposition of molecules into hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions, the amount of which in it at a temperature of 25 ° C is always the same and equal to 10-7 gion / l. Such water has a neutral reaction. The negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions is conventionally used to denote the pH value and in this case is 7. In the presence of acids (not chemically pure water) in the water, the amount of hydrogen ions will be greater than that of hydroxyl. water acquires an acidic reaction with a lower digital pH value. Conversely, in alkaline water, hydroxyl ions will prevail and the pH will increase.

Aquarium water with pH parameters:

The pH parameters can change during the day, due to the variable concentration of carbon dioxide in the aquarium water, which in turn is stabilized by constant aeration.

Sharp fluctuations in pH values ​​are harmful and painful to aquarium fish and plants. Most aquarium fish prefer a pH between 5.5 and 7.5.

How to change the pH of your aquarium water:

PH measurement in aquarium water:

There are specials. measuring device. PiAshmetr. Not used for home aquariums (expensive, and not why at all). After all, the main thing is not the frequent measurement of pH parameters, but the conditions of keeping the fish and the aquarium. In a well-groomed, not overpopulated, not packed to the brim with plants aquarium, with aeration. pH will always be normal and often do not need to be measured.

Redox potential (rH of water, ORP of water).

The essence of the redox process in aquarium water boils down to the fact that all substances in it react with each other. In this case, one substance gives up its electrons and is positively charged (oxidized), while the other acquires electrons and is negatively charged (restored). As a result, an electrical potential difference arises between the substances of different discharge. Simply put: oxidation is the reaction of combining nitrites with oxygen, and reduction, on the contrary, is the decomposition of nitrites with the release of oxygen.

The maximum oxidation potential of water is 42rH.

rH 40-42. maximum oxidation (pure oxygen);

rH 5-0. maximum reduction (pure hydrogen);

Almost all aquarium fish and plants feel comfortable at rH 25-35. Some species prefer narrower parameters of this value.

Measured by rH with special meters.

Increase the rH of water by regular water changes and care. cleaning the aquarium, as well as blowing air and using ozone.

We learned about the main parameters of aquarium water, the observance of which will be an unconditional guarantee of the health of fish and the beauty of plants.

There are other values ​​/ parameters that characterize the aquarium water. However, they are not as significant as hD and pH. To maintain a home aquarium, there is simply no need to know and monitor them. As Sherlock Holmes said: “. an intelligent person carefully selects what he puts in his brain attic”.

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OPTIMAL PARAMETERS OF AQUARIUM WATER (hD water, pH of water, ORP of water) ARE FREQUENTLY ACHIEVED BY BANAL CARE OF THE AQUARIUM AND OBSERVANCE OF THE RULES OF MAINTENANCE OF ITS RESIDENTS: do not constantly supply fresh water from the aquarium;.

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How to keep order?

The water in an aquarium with a turtle gets polluted quickly: there are pieces of food and life here. The water in the aquarium should be changed as it gets dirty, but at least 2 times a week.

A filter will be a good helper in the “care” of the turtle’s water. It is chosen at the rate of 2-3 times the volume of the aquarium.

There are 2 types of aquarium filters:

  • Interior. Suitable for aquariums up to 100 liters in size where baby turtles can be kept. It must be rinsed at least once a week, as the filter sponge inside it quickly becomes dirty. In adults, the water will become dirty quickly, and the internal filter will not cope.
  • External or canister filter. These filters are more powerful and can purify a large volume of water at a time.

It should be used for large aquariums over 100 liters in volume.

It is an external container connected by tubes to the aquarium. Depending on the characteristics, it can be washed once a month or less.

  • The addition to the mechanical filter will be a biofilter. The mechanism of action is the work of bacteria living in the aquarium. They recycle the ammonia generated by rotting waste products and food debris. For beneficial bacteria, you need to create conditions so that they work more efficiently, such a condition is a biofilter.
  • Some filters have a built-in aeration function. Artificial aeration is not needed for the turtle itself. However, if algae grow in the aquarium to create a microclimate close to the natural microclimate, or other living organisms are present, it is better to supply oxygen.

    The health of the turtle and the prevention of hibernation requires maintaining a constant temperature in the aquaterrarium. Installing a thermometer is an important step in setting up your turtle’s home. In the case of an aquaterrarium, 2 thermometers are installed: in water and in air.

    • alcohol;
    • liquid crystal (digital);
    • electronic.

    An immersion heater is used to heat the water, sometimes the heaters are already built into the aquaterrarium. The most convenient automatic temperature controller is a thermostat. It independently monitors the temperature and turns on / off the heating.

    How much to pour?

    In different periods of life, the red-eared turtle needs a different amount of water. Consider the volume for the period of wakefulness and hibernation.

    Aquarium pH: Everything You NEED to KNOW

    We figure out how much water is needed and what kind of water in an aquarium for a red-eared turtle?

    The red-eared turtle has become a popular pet in the home. But the red-eared turtle is far from being as unpretentious as the seller will convince.

    Water is the turtle’s habitat, where it eats, sleeps and spends most of its time. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the aquatic environment, most suitable for keeping the red-eared turtle in the aquaterrarium.

    During the waking period

    An adult grows up to 30 cm in diameter.For such an animal, the minimum size of an aquaterrarium is 150 liters.

    In this case, the water must fill at least ⅔ of the volume, that is, 100 liters. If the aquarium contains another turtle, then the volume of water should be increased by one and a half times.

    The minimum distance between the surface of the water and the top edge of the aquarium is 15 cm. The red-eared turtle is an active animal. There should be enough water in the aquaterrarium for free swimming.

    If the amphibian turns over on its back, it should be able to freely roll over in the water, that is, the water level in the aquarium of an adult turtle should be at least 30 cm.

    What should be?

    To fill the aquarium, you need to use water that has been settled for several days. Suitable from the tap, it meets almost all the characteristics described below.

    Only the chlorine level in it is not suitable for turtles, settling the water will allow the chlorine to evaporate.

    Table of water parameters for red-eared turtle:

    OptionsDuring the waking periodDuring hibernation
    Acidity, pH6.5-7.56.5-7.5
    Rigidityaverageaverage
    Temperature20-28, the best is 25 ℃, and for the young, the water temperature less than 25 ℃ is life-threatening10-15 ℃.
    Salinity,‰fresh 0.5 ‰fresh 0.5 ‰

    A responsible owner will prepare the conditions for hibernation, including lowering the fluid level and gradually (this is important) reduce the water temperature to 10-15 ℃.

    The turtles themselves need to be bathed periodically, especially if there are children in the house.

    To do this, mix settled water (23-25 ​​℃) and soda in a ratio of 1 liter to 1 teaspoon.

    The capacity must be chosen so that the turtle’s head can be above the surface, and the paws reach the bottom. After 15-20 minutes “bath” the turtle is rinsed and sent to the aquaterrarium.

    During hibernation

    In the period preceding wintering, the activity of the red-eared turtle decreases, and during sleep it will remain motionless for 2-3 months.

    Therefore, for the convenience of maintaining the aquaterrarium, the water level can be reduced almost to the ground level. Ideally, the water level is such that it completely covers the turtle.

    The red-eared turtle is demanding in terms of keeping conditions. Water control in the aquaterrarium is a guarantee of pet’s health.

    For an adult turtle, the volume of water in the aquaterrarium should not be less than 100 liters. At the same time, the parameters of the aquaterrarium itself should allow the reptile to swim freely and turn over.

    The ideal water temperature for an animal is 25 ℃. Water can be taken from the tap, having previously ensured the evaporation of chlorine.

    The aquarium must be equipped with devices for monitoring water parameters: thermometer, filter, heater.

    To care for the microclimate, you need to replace at least a third of the water with clean water 2 times a week.

    Test strips

    They are simple and straightforward to use: one strip is immersed in aquarium water, according to its color, a conclusion is made about the hardness of the water. But, unfortunately, it is difficult to acquire them, they are not often on sale.

    pH meter

    An electronic device that gives accurate and fast results. Its principle of operation is to measure the potential difference between a reference electrode (reference electrode) and a measuring electrode, which is lowered into the aquarium water. In appearance, the most common model of this device looks like a wide electronic thermometer, at the end of which there is an electrode. advanced models look like electronic components and measuring temperature probes. This device needs calibration and is not cheap.

    How to determine?

    What is ph in aquarium water and how can you influence it?

    An important part of the aquarium is water and its composition. Much depends on its characteristics, including the life of fish, plants and other inhabitants.

    This article focuses on the acid-base balance of water and its effect on life in the aquarium.

    Let’s figure out what pH is, why is it needed, which indicators are considered normal and which are critical.

    Why is rising?

    • Aeration of water: an increase in the concentration of oxygen in the water leads to a decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide.
    • Discharge from aquarium decoration items (corals, fossils, etc.) and substrate: their structure contains minerals that increase the pH.
    • Abundance of light: the amount of light directly affects the rate of the photosynthesis process and therefore the pH level.

    Is it possible to determine without tests?

    There is a simple way of determining the acid-base balance among the people without special tests. The essence of the method is as follows: 1 gram of laundry soap is dissolved in a small amount of heated distilled water. The resulting solution is poured into a glass and distillate is added there so that its height reaches 6 cm for 60 percent soap and 7 cm for 72 percent soap.

    Half a liter of water from the aquarium is poured into a flask, after which a little soap solution is added there. The onset of the reaction is indicated by flakes appearing on the surface of the liquid, and then by persistent soap suds.

    To determine the pH level, you need to multiply the number of centimeters that were poured from the beaker into the flask to obtain foam by 2. So, if 4 cm of liquid was needed for the foam solution, this means that the pH level is 8 units.

    Drip test that works in a wide range of pH values ​​(from 3 to 10)

    The essence of the test is to add a special indicator to a small amount of aquarium water, and then compare the color of the solution with the spectrum suggested in the test.

    It can be used if there is no need to make accurate measurements, but different types of water need to be tested: tap water, thawed water, from a well or source. Thus, his figures are not accurate.

    What influences?

    Normally, pH fluctuations should be in the range of 0.2. 0.8 per day. The acidity level of water depends on the level of CO2: the higher the concentration of carbon dioxide, the lower the pH.