What substances determine the taste of vegetables?
Taste method. a method based on the perception of taste with the help of taste buds.
Taste is a feeling that occurs when the taste buds are excited and is determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative definition of taste is caused by the effect of substances on the taste buds, which are located in the papillae on the tongue, on the mucous surface of the oral cavity, the walls of the pharynx, tonsils, and larynx. The gustatory bulb (kidney) consists of several sensitive chemoreceptor cells connected to sensory neurons and surrounded by supporting cells. The total number of taste cells in the human oral cavity reaches 9 thousand.
Usually, taste is understood not only as sensations arising from irritation of chemoreceptor cells, but also tactile sensations (consistency and astringency; a pungent, burning taste is felt as a result of a burn of the mucous membrane with pepper, mustard) and olfactory (when chewing food, volatile substances pass into the nasal cavity and irritate the sense of smell).
Chemoreceptor cells respond to certain chemicals. All substances that determine the taste of food are soluble in water, only in a dissolved form can they affect the chemical analyzers of the taste apparatus.
Signal recognition by a receptor is a basic property of the brain. It classifies objects, information about which is transmitted by the receptor. Recognition is defined by weak interactions realized with structural conformity. However, to affect the nerve endings that cause taste sensations, a certain minimum concentration of the substance is required, called the “sensation threshold”. For example, the threshold for sensing sucrose is 0.4 g per 100 ml of water; table salt. 0.05; hydrochloric acid. 0.003; hydrochloric quinine. 0.000008 g. The sensation threshold also depends on the temperature of the solution. The best perception of flavoring substances occurs at a solution temperature close to the temperature of the human body (35 ° C). When assessing taste, the speed of the taste is also important: the salty taste is perceived the fastest, then sweet and sour. Bitter taste is perceived most slowly.
Food flavors can be divided into the following groups:
Glucophoric (sweet) substances. mono- and disaccharides, saccharin, glycerin, glycine. Carriers of sweetness. Glucophoric groups. CH (OH). Different substances are characterized by varying degrees of sweetness:
saccharin. 5500.0% to the sweetness of sucrose, and therefore the threshold of sensation.
Acid substances. mineral and organic acids, acidic salts cause a sour taste due to the presence of free hydrogen ions.
Salts are low molecular weight chlorine salts. Salty taste is determined by the presence of free chlorine ions.
Bitter taste. salts KC1, CaCl, MgCl and other glucosides, essential oils, such as onion vegetables, citrus fruits (naringin, hespyridine), alkaloids (theobromine, caffeine).
Food products have either one flavor or a combination of basic flavors. In this case, we can talk about a harmonious or inharmonious combination of taste.
Harmoniously, as a whole, sweet or salty taste is combined with sour or bitter (sweet-sour taste of fruits, sweet-bitter taste of chocolate, sour-salty taste of pickled vegetables, salty-bitter olives). Combinations of salty-sweet, bitter-sour are considered inharmonious, since these combinations are perceived as 2
different tastes, they are unusual for food products, are rare and usually arise as a result of spoilage.
When assessing taste, it is necessary to take into account such phenomena due to the physiological characteristics of the sensory organs as adaptation and fatigue.
Adaptation is a decrease in the impressionability of the organ of taste caused by prolonged exposure to a taste impulse of the same quality and constant intensity.
Fatigue reduces the perception of taste due to fatigue of the taste buds under the influence of a repetitive impulse.
The diet must also contain organic acids, the source of which are vegetables and fruits. Therefore, one apple a day is the minimum that should be present in the diet of any person. The English have a proverb that translates something like this: “An apple a day. and a doctor is not needed”, the Greeks: “Two apples a day; one is for health, the other is for beauty. “
Organic acids (lemon, milk, wine, salicylic, benzoic, tartron, etc.) are contained in various products of plant origin. There are many of them in cauliflower and white cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, pumpkin, zucchini, green peas, eggplant, various berries and fruits. They not only give a pleasant specific taste, but also:
1) create the necessary environment for normal intestinal microflora, that is, suppress decay, fermentation and stimulate its emptying;
2) regulate the acid-base state in cells;
3) have a bacteriostatic effect (benzoic acid in lingonberries);
4) cause a diaphoretic effect (salicylic acid in raspberries);
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5) inhibit the conversion of carbohydrates into lipids, inhibit lipogenesis (tartronic acid in apples, quince, pears, carrots).
The daily requirement for organic acids, as noted above, is about 2 g. Their insufficient intake with food provokes various pathological conditions, especially those associated with aging processes.
Tannins (tannins), being present in fruits, give them a tart taste (bird cherry, persimmon, pomegranate, etc.). Due to the structural features (the presence of conjugated systems in molecules), they have P-vitamin activity, in addition, they are characterized by astringent properties.
Useful for diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, diarrhea of non-infectious etiology.
Pigments, found in food, belong to anthocyanins, flavones, carotenoids.
Red, blue, purple anthocyanins rich in plums, cherries, cranberries, lingonberries, strawberries, sweet cherries, raspberries, eggplants, beets. Their main biological action is participation in various redox reactions.
Flavones. compounds capable of binding anions of organic origin, many of them are attributed to P-vitamin activity. There are many similar dyes in citrus fruits, persimmons, yellow plums, rutabagas, turnips. It should be remembered about their sensitivity to heat treatment.
Carotenoids. substances of yellow-orange color, dissolve in organic solvents, including vegetable fats, serve as precursors of vitamin A. Their presence determines the color of carrots, tomatoes, yellow corn, red and yellow peppers, rose hips, etc.
Phytoncides. light aromatic structures, which, first of all, have a bactericidal, antiviral effect. There are quite a few of them in garlic, onions, horseradish, radish, spicy greens, in citrus peels, in the leaves of currants, mountain ash, eucalyptus.
Long-term study of them in garlic revealed the following mechanisms of action of phytoncides:
significantly reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, reduce the level of hypercholesterolemia;
prevent thrombosis (the occurrence of heart attacks, strokes);
increase appetite in infants (recommended for nursing mothers).
It is advisable to consume at least 1-2 cloves of garlic daily. However, one should not forget one, but an important negative property. an unpleasant smell.
Extractive substances present in various foods: muscles (meat), brain, liver, kidneys, sorrel, spinach, cocoa, coffee, ripe peas, soybeans and other legumes, black tea. These include purine bases, their derivatives, creatine, creatinine, carnitine, carnosine, anserine, and even some amino acids. All of them, being nitrogen-containing compounds, stimulate the work of the glands of the stomach, pancreas, contributing to a better assimilation of the breakdown products of proteins and lipids. Once in the body, they have a local and general irritant effect; their accumulation in cells can adversely affect the functioning of the central nervous system, and most importantly, the kidneys (hyperuricemia. increased urates. the end products of the conversion of purines. provokes the formation of stones in the urinary system). In addition, the low solubility of the salts of this acid leads to their crystallization and complexation with glycosaminoglycans of the connective tissue, especially in small joints (gout).
Finishing the chapter on good nutrition, the following should be highlighted:
not abundant in vinegar, sucrose, fried foods, smoked meats,
with a sufficient amount of vegetable oils, dairy products,
with a predominance of vegetables and fruits. must be brought up from early childhood.
And if until the middle of the last century calories were the main thing in a rational diet, now it is:
b) a full set of vitamins, microelements;
e) maintaining unity with the environment (more local food sources are better).
Flavors and aromas are natural and synthetic.
Natural flavors include aromas obtained from processed products of cocoa beans, coffee, as well as fruit and berry syrups, wines, etc.
Synthetic flavors are produced chemically.
An important condition is the ability to combine the natural smell of products with the used aromatic substances. Some types of products have their own specific aroma and taste, therefore, flavorings should not be added to products prepared from such products.
Spices are dried and crushed parts of plants that contain aromatic substances. They give the products a specific aroma and taste.
Before use, spices are freed from impurities and shells, crushed to the desired size and sieved through a sieve with cells with a diameter of 1.5-2.5 mm.
They store spices in a tightly sealed container, without breaking the packaging, each type separately, as they easily convey their aroma.
Cinnamon is the bark of a cinnamon tree. It has a bitter taste and spicy smell, which is explained by the presence of essential oils (3.5–5%) in it. It contains cinnamic acid aldehyde, phellandrene and eugenol. Chinese Cinnamon Oil does not contain eugenol.
Cinnamon comes in the form of a powder in paper packaging of 25 g or in the form of bark pieces. It should not have moldy, musty and other foreign odors.
Cinnamon has a strong, distinctive aroma, pungent, bittersweet taste. As a spice, it goes well with other hot and tart spices. It is used in the preparation of all dishes where sugar is used: fruit soups, casseroles, compotes, jelly, puddings, fruit rolls and pies, grog, punches, liqueurs, hot wines and coffee. A small amount of cinnamon is added to minced goose and duck meat, to chicken (grilled), ham, cutlets, schnitzels before roasting. Many people like to add cinnamon to boiled fish, beef, and pork; it is also used in the manufacture of certain types of dough, fillings, when making jam from low-aromatic fruits.
Promotes digestion, induces appetite and strengthens the stomach.
Carnation is the dried flower buds of the tropical clove tree. The clove tree blooms twice a year. Flower buds are harvested during the period when they turn pale pink: first, whole inflorescences are plucked, then the buds, which are used to prepare spices, are separated, and the stalks with inflorescence branches. to extract oil. Clove buds are dried in the sun for 4–5 days, after which they turn reddish or dark brown. From 4 kg of fresh buds, 1 kg of spice is obtained.
The spice itself is unopened buds, which contain up to 20% of essential oil, consisting of 96% of eugenol, as well as acetoeugenol, vanillin, caryophilene. Essential oil and caryophilus give the spice a hot-aromatic taste.
Clove is used in medicine to improve digestion, strengthen memory, in the treatment of eye diseases, in dentistry, clove oil is used as an antiseptic. If the carnation floats in the water in a horizontal position, it is of poor quality. It is delivered to production in a ground and whole form in a special package.
Clove has a strong distinctive aroma and spicy taste. It is used to prepare bitter gastric liqueurs, hot drinks with wine, punches, fruit juices and compotes. It is added to dishes of red cabbage, pork, lamb, to dark meat gravies, to brawn and poultry pate, to mushrooms and jellied meat, when pickling herring. Together with kohlrabi leaves and onions, it improves the taste of sauerkraut. Very sparingly, in the form of a powder, it is used in the preparation of fish, spaghetti and sauces for them, as well as pizza.
Capsicum. round grains with a rough surface. Today, a large number of its species are known, among which there are long-fruited, with large fleshy fruits, and small-fruited (up to 1 cm), the so-called cherry pepper, various types of sweet peppers. from fruit to extremely hot.
The alkaloid capsaicin gives a hot taste to the pepper, in addition to it, pepper contains fatty oils, carotenoids, capsorubin, capsanthin and carotene, sugar, vitamins C, A and B.
When consumed in moderation, it has a firming effect, improves digestion and increases appetite; irritates the skin.
Black pepper is a typical tropical plant. It grows on tall rods like hops. To obtain black pepper, unripe, reddish fruits are harvested: they are dried in the sun for 7-10 days, sometimes they are immersed in hot water for a short time to speed up drying. During the drying process, the fruits turn black. White peppers are obtained from ripe fruits when their color turns yellow-red or red and they fall off easily. The fruits are dried and peeled from the outer shell. White pepper has a more delicate taste, noble and strong aroma. When unripe green fruits are harvested, the most aromatic of the above spices, green peppers, is obtained. Its production requires special processing.
The pungency of the pepper depends on the piperine content. In addition, it contains pyroline, havicin, essential oil, fatty oils, starch and sugar. Essential oils volatilize if stored improperly.
Allspice, or pimenta, is a round grain with a rough surface. Contains up to 4% essential oils.
Allspice contains pimento oil, which is used in the production of liqueurs, as well as in the cosmetic industry in the production of perfumes and soaps. Its main components are eugenol, caryophyllene, cineole, fellandrene.
Tea brewed from allspice helps with indigestion and flatulence.
The scent of pepper is spicy, it combines the aromas of cinnamon, black pepper, nutmeg and cloves. The taste is hot, and this should be taken into account. add a few whole grains or a pinch of ground pepper to the dish, since allspice not only gives the dishes aroma, but also changes their taste. In small quantities, it gives a peculiar taste to fruit compotes, puddings and liver.
Nutmeg. The core of the tropical nutmeg fruit is egg-shaped.
The seeds contain up to 15% essential oil, 80% terpenes. The seed kernel contains a fatty oil. A toxic substance of narcotic action related to phenylpropane derivatives was found in the fat.
Eating too much is dangerous. nutmeg and nutmeg are poisonous. There is evidence that the use of 3-4 chopped nuts has a narcotic effect.
Muscat aroma. slightly spicy, taste. at first weak, and later strongly spicy.
Nutmeg is mainly used for the preparation of chocolate products, various sweets, apple rolls, fruit cakes, pear compotes, jam, baked apples. It is also used to flavor pre-meal spirits and cocktails, as well as punch, hot wine, cocoa, milk drinks and even tomato juice.
Add nutmeg to soups, meat broths, sauces (especially tomato), rice, meat, vegetables and fish dishes, mashed potatoes, pea and vegetable salads (including cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, spinach, onions) leek, asparagus).
Anise, or thigh-anise, is the two-seeded fruit of a herbaceous plant. Anise owes its typical aniseed aroma to the anethole contained in essential oil (up to 90%). In addition, the fruits of anise contain fatty oils, proteins, sugar, furfural, caffeic and chlorogenic acids and other substances.
As a medicinal plant, anise has an expectorant and disinfectant effect, improves digestion, and helps to increase the amount of milk in nursing mothers. It has an antispasmodic effect on gastric and intestinal colic.
Anise has a sweetish taste and peculiar aroma, contains up to 6% essential oils. In cooking, ground fruits are used, which have a refreshing, spicy aroma and a sweetish taste. Most often, anise is added to pies, cookies, gingerbread, pancakes, muffins, used to prepare dishes from milk (milk and fruit soups), oatmeal, sweet rice dishes, puddings, fruit salads, creams and cakes. It gives a peculiar taste to vegetables. beets, red cabbage, cucumbers and carrots, as well as fruit compotes, especially from apples, plums and pears. It is also used in crushed form for sprinkling products and in the form of an infusion.
Cardamom. dried unripe fruit in the form of bolls containing 9-18 seeds. Cardamom is a tropical perennial plant in the ginger family. The seeds contain 4–8% essential oil, which includes limonene, terpineol, borneol, their esters and cineole, which in its pure form is a liquid with a camphor smell.
Stimulates the work of the gastrointestinal tract, regulates the formation of gastric juice and increases appetite.
The taste and smell of cardamom is spicy, aromatic, pungent. Thanks to this, the spice gives a special aftertaste to cookies, marzipans, honey cakes, yeast dough pies, cakes with fruits, compotes and fruit dishes.
Lovers of this spice add finely ground cardamom powder to black coffee.
Stored in a well-sealed container, protected from light, in a cool place.
In Asian countries, cardamom is used for the preparation of chewing products, often with the addition of betel leaves, as well as for flavoring coffee.
Ginger is a dried rhizome of a tropical perennial herb of the ginger family. Depending on the processing method, several types of ginger are distinguished: black, unpeeled. “Barbados”, white, peeled. “Bengali”.
The fruit is a capsule with small black seeds. As a spice, the rhizome is used, dried whole, ground, candied or canned in syrup.
The characteristic very spicy aroma of ginger is given by cingiberen, which is part of the essential oil. A sharp burning taste is due to the m in the rhizome of various resins (gingerol, tsingerol, shogaol, etc.). The pungent spicy taste of ginger aids digestion, stimulates gastric juices and improves appetite.
It is used for the production of gastric and bitter liqueurs, such as benedictine, fruit juices and punches, and in England. the popular ginger beer. Add ginger to cookie dough, puddings, various sweets, pear compotes and canned pumpkins, cucumbers, in the manufacture of marmalade, jelly and candied fruits.
Caraway. the seeds of a biennial plant of oblong-oval shape. Has a strong aroma and bitter-spicy taste, contains up to 6% essential oils. Used for sprinkling products.
Sowing saffron. dried stigmas of crocus flowers. It is used as a fragrance and coloring agent. Contains 0.6% essential oils.
Eating small amounts helps to improve digestion. In the pharmaceutical industry, they are used for the preparation of various drugs. tinctures, extracts and eye drops.
Saffron has a strong peculiar aroma, bitter-spicy taste. In Sweden, saffron is used to color dough products. Gourmets recommend dissolving it in a small amount of warm milk or water before use.
Saffron is added to the dough when kneading in an amount of 0.1 g per 1 kg of baked products. Saffron is dried, ground, poured with boiled water or alcohol and infused for 24 hours. After that, the infusion is filtered and used in the manufacture of products from yeast dough and some types of muffins. The sediment remaining after filtration is used to flavor the gingerbread dough.
Vanilla. unripe pods of a tropical plant 12-25 cm long with a characteristic strong aroma due to the presence of vanillin (up to 3%) and other aromatic substances.
Use vanilla in ground form or in the form of an alcohol extract.
Vanillin is a synthetic product; is a white crystalline powder with a very strong aroma. Therefore, very little of it should be put into the product. Usually a solution of vanillin or vanilla powder is used. Dissolve 10 g of vanillin in 200 g of hot water (80 ° C) or rectified alcohol with a strength of 96 ° in a 2: 1 ratio. To prepare 100 g of vanilla powder, vanillin (40 g) is mixed with ethyl alcohol (40 g), the mixture is heated until the vanillin dissolves. After the solution is mixed with 1000 g of icing sugar, dried and sieved.
The amount of vanillin in confectionery products should not exceed 0.5%.
Common almonds grow as a bush or tree with reddish twigs. The fruit is a leathery, hairy drupe that cracks when ripe. Its surface is smooth or wrinkled.
Sweet almonds differ from bitter ones by the absence of amygdalin, which carries the typical almond flavor. Three varieties of almonds are most commonly grown:
1) bitter. contains the glycoside amygdalin, which is easily decomposed into sugar, benzaldehyde and highly toxic hydrogen cyanide. Therefore, it is not recommended to consume bitter almonds without preliminary processing, and generally it is not recommended to eat them for children. For a child, the lethal dose is 10 tonsils, for an adult. 50. During the process of roasting, roasting and boiling, hydrogen cyanide disappears;
2) sweet. with sweet seed and negligible mamygdalin. Its spice is much weaker. It is used for frying fish, especially trout;
3) fragile with fruits that have a thin and fragile shell and sweet seeds. Sweet and fragile almond seeds can be eaten without pre-cooking.
Bitter and sweet almonds are used as a medicine, in cosmetics, nutrition, and as a spice. In the pharmaceutical industry, galenic preparations are produced from it.
Green fruits of sweet almonds are salted or candied in jam. Mature kernels are used in the confectionery industry.
Bitter and sweet almonds are used in various dough products, sweets, in the preparation of liqueurs and delicate dishes. Roasted salted almonds complement drinks well.
From the cake, which remains after pressing the oil from the kernels, prepare flour used for the preparation of medicines and confectionery.
Tarragon, or tarragon, is a perennial spice and medicinal plant. Cultivated in most European countries. It has been known as a spice for a very long time. In cooking and medicine, tarragon greens are used, which are harvested at the beginning of the flowering of the plant. The collected greens are tied in bunches and dried under a canopy in a draft.
Tarragon greens contain an essential oil consisting mainly of tarragon, terpenes, aldehyde, linalacetate, fellandrene, as well as tannins, bitterness, resin, etc.
Wines containing tarragon extract (tarragon) stimulate the digestive tract, increase the formation of gastric juice and increase appetite. In folk medicine, tarragon is used to increase appetite, as well as for diseases of the walls of blood vessels.
Tarragon has a mildly spicy aroma and a tart pungent taste.
Fennel ordinary. outwardly similar to meadow caraway, powerful (up to 2 m in height) biennial or perennial plant of the umbrella family. Fennel is cultivated for a fruit with a sweet, spicy aroma reminiscent of anise and a sweetish, slightly pungent taste. The characteristic odor is caused by m in the plant of anethole and fenchone. Fruits contain: up to 6% essential oil, up to 12% fatty oil, as well as proteins, sugar, etc.
Fennel fruits are used in the production of liqueurs, confectionery, mainly cookies, pies and puddings.
Star anise is an evergreen tropical tree. Dried fruits are used as a spice. Star anise contains up to 5–7% of aromatic essential oil, the main component of which is anethole. In addition to it, the essential oil contains terpenes, resins, tannin, sugar, etc.
Star anise has an anti-spasmodic effect, and also improves the functioning of the stomach.
The star anise has a spicy, sweetish taste. It is used in the production of liqueurs, punch, grog and compotes from plums, pears, apples and quince. Star anise perfectly complements the taste of dough (especially cookies), various fruit soups, puddings.
Star anise goes well with black pepper, fennel, cinnamon, cloves and ginger. Therefore, it can be used to obtain various mixtures that are added to pork and poultry dishes. Some connoisseurs cannot do without adding a pinch of ground star anise to sweet strong tea.
Cocoa powder is obtained by grinding and partially defatting cocoa beans. The powder contains 14% fat, its moisture content is not more than 7.5%, it has a taste and aroma characteristic of cocoa. It is used in the preparation of dough and creams.
Natural ground coffee is obtained by roasting and grinding the seeds of a tropical coffee tree. Humidity. 7%, the amount of water-soluble extractives. 20-30%. It imparts coffee flavor to creams and doughs.
Table salt improves the taste of products. It is a crystalline sodium chloride, soluble in water. Store salt at 75% relative humidity. Before use, it is sieved through a sieve. The salt in the crystals is preliminarily dissolved and filtered through a sieve with cells with a diameter of 0.5 mm.
Rules for the use of spices. For more than one millennium, people have been using herbs and roots, dried fruits and grated nuts as seasonings for meat, fish and vegetable dishes. They help to diversify the range of flavors and are very healthy. Trace elements contained in spices have a beneficial effect on the digestion process. Essential oils of thyme, fennel, sage, garlic and clove have a strong disinfectant effect.
Many spices, such as Mac, cinnamon, cloves, anise, cardamom, have an exciting effect on people. They are traditionally added to Christmas cakes and cookies. These spices contain substances that reduce fatigue and increase tone, which is especially important in winter, when many people are prone to depressive moods. Such conditions are caused by a lack of warmth and light. important stimulants of mood.
There are some peculiarities in the storage of spices. The less they are crushed, the better their flavor is retained. In a dry, dark, well-ventilated place, spices can be stored for two to five years. Chopped spices lose their zest after a few weeks. Therefore, it is recommended to grind the spices just before use. To do this, use metal or ceramic mortars and hand mills.
Grape wines and cognacs are used to flavor creams, jellies and blots. Used table wines, fortified, flavored. Wines must have their own characteristic aroma, taste and color. Presence of sediment or turbidity, foreign taste and smell is not allowed. When dosing, it is necessary to take into account the strength of the wine.
Essences come in one-, two- and four-fold concentration. In the formulations, the consumption rate of the essence of a single concentration is given. If a more concentrated essence is used, then the rate is reduced by 2 or 4 times. If a certain essence is indicated in the recipe, then it cannot be replaced with another.
Essences are introduced into creams, dough and syrups only chilled.
Flavoring products improve the taste of finished products, and some prevent sugar (acid).
Tartaric acid is obtained from wine-making waste in the manufacture of grape wines, has the form of colorless crystals or powder.
Tartaric acid should be dissolved in water at a ratio of 1: 1, ie 100 g of hot water (70–80 ° C) should be taken per 100 g of acid. In the manufacture of confectionery, the dosage of dissolved acid indicated in the layouts of the recipe book is doubled, that is, instead of 2 g of acid, 4 g of solution must be taken.
Citric acid is obtained by fermenting sugar with a fungus or extraction from lemon. The appearance, use and storage of citric acid are the same as that of tartaric acid.
Lactic acid is obtained by fermentation of carbohydrate-containing raw materials (sugar, starch, molasses) with lactic acid bacteria. It is produced in dissolved form of 40 and 70% concentration or in the form of a paste. In terms of taste, this acid is worse than citric acid and tartaric acid. Lactic acid of the 1st grade is usually colorless or slightly yellow, the 2nd grade is yellow or light brown, the 3rd grade is yellow or dark brown. The lactic acid solution must be free of turbidity and sediment.
Acetic acid is available in 3-, 6- and 8% concentration. When dosing in formulations, the strength of the acetic acid solution should be taken into account and diluted with water before use.
Used for tinting confectionery.
Natural dyes. coffee, cocoa, chocolate, juices, roast and animal and vegetable dyes.
Synthetic. harmless confectionery paints approved for use by the Department of Health, such as tartrazine and indigo carmine.
Tartrazine is an orange-yellow powdery dye that is readily soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol and insoluble in fats. To obtain a solution, take distilled water, add a dye and boil for 10-15 minutes until the paint is completely dissolved. The resulting solution is filtered through 2 layers of gauze or through a sieve with cells with a diameter of 0.5 mm.
Indigocarmine is a bluish-black paste. Gives blue color. The paste is diluted in hot water at a temperature of 70-80 ° C (5% solution) and filtered as described above.
Carmine is red paint. Obtained from insects living in the tropics. Soluble in water, alkali and alcohol. 10 g of paint is combined with 20 g of ammonia, after 1 hour, 200 g of water is added and boiled until the smell of ammonia disappears, and then filtered. Carmine produces a red or pink coloration. On contact with metal, the paint turns purple.
Safflower is obtained from flower petals. Contains two dyes: yellow and red. Yellow is obtained by boiling safflower in water or fats, and red in alcohol or alkali. Paints deteriorate quickly under the influence of light, air and moisture, so they should be diluted in small quantities and stored in a dark container in a cool dry place until use.
Burnt sugar (burnt sugar) is a product of sucrose caramelization. It stains creams and biscuits brown. Burning overdose can impart a bitter taste to products.
Beet dye. To prepare it, the layers are cut off from the beets from the side of the rhizome and tops, washed thoroughly, peeled off to a depth of 3 mm and cut into 6–8 pieces. Place the beets and skins in a stainless steel dish, pour cold water so that the water only covers them on top, add citric acid, bring to a boil and boil for 2-3 minutes with low heat. Filter the juice, add sugar, bring to a boil and boil for 1-2 minutes. Cool and use the resulting dye. It can be stored for up to two months in the refrigerator. Beets. 700 g, citric acid. 0.5, sugar. 1200 g. Yield. 1000 g.
The value of vegetables and fruits in nutrition
Vegetables and fruits are of great importance in national nutrition. They are food and flavoring products. In addition, fruits and many vegetables can serve as medicinal agents.
The nutritional value of potatoes, vegetables and fruits is determined by the amount of carbohydrates (starch, sugar), proteins and other nitrogenous substances, mineral or ash substances and vitamins in them. Carbohydrates and proteins in the body serve as source of vital energy. Protein is also needed to build and repair body tissues. Minerals are needed for proper blood circulation, regulation of intracellular pressure, building a skeleton, various organs and nervous tissue.
Fruits and vegetables are used as flavoring agents because they contain various fruit acids, tannins or astringents (in fruits) and essential or aromatic substances, on which the smell of fruits and many vegetables depends. dill, parsley, celery, parsnips, tarragon, horseradish. onions, garlic, etc.
Aromatic substances and fruit acids, tannins and dyes of fruits and vegetables stimulate appetite, improve digestion, increase the digestibility of meat and loaf food. Enzymes found in fresh fruits and vegetables also help to improve digestion.
Many fruits and vegetables are used as medicinal products because they are rich in vitamins, contain minerals, of which some. iron, phosphorus, iodine, potassium, calcium, etc. play an important role in the metabolism of the body.
Onions, garlic, radish, horseradish contain phytoncides. substances that kill infectious bacteria.
In the treatment of a number of diseases, grapes, lemons, oranges, apples, pears, plums, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, rose hips, black currants, beets, carrots, radishes, garlic, onions, spinach, tomatoes, etc.
Fruits and vegetables are widely used in the medical nutrition of patients suffering from disorders of the nervous system, blood circulation, metabolic disorders, heart disease, liver, gout, as well as vitamin deficiencies.
Avitaminosis is a disease caused by a lack of vitamin in the body.
The human need for vitamins is insignificant. several milligrams (thousandths of a gram) per day, but, despite this, the role of vitamins for health and life is enormous.
About 20 vitamins are known. Some of them are still not well understood. Vitamins are designated by letters, since their chemical nature has not been precisely established before. Currently, most vitamins are not only isolated in their pure form from plants or animal organs (liver), rich in vitamins, but also obtained artificially and chemically.
Enzymes, which are rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, play an exceptionally important role in the metabolism of the body.
The composition of fruits and vegetables contains a variety of substances, most of which are soluble in water. The sugar contained in fruits and vegetables, some of the proteins, minerals and vitamins, as well as all fruit acids, tannins, dyes of black currants, cherries, etc. are in the cell sap in a dissolved state. Other substances. starch, fiber, most of proteins, some mineral salts, a number of vitamins, fats, aromatic and coloring substances of tomatoes, apricots, carrots, etc. are insoluble in water. They are found undissolved in the cells of fruits and vegetables.
Water. Vegetables and fruits contain a lot of water. from 75% (in potatoes and green peas of waxy maturity) to 95% (in cucumbers, tomatoes, lettuce, etc.). This water contains a variety of nutrients in the form of weak solutions. As a result, fresh fruits and vegetables are relatively easily affected by microorganisms. molds, yeast and bacteria. the smallest animal creatures invisible to the naked eye. Due to the content of a large amount of water and rapid damage by microorganisms, fresh fruits and vegetables are perishable and not easily transportable products.
Sahara. Fruits and vegetables contain beet sugar, or sucrose, fruit or fruit sugar (fructose) and grape sugar (glucose). Fruit sugar is considerably sweeter than beet sugar, and this latter is sweeter than grape sugar, or glucose. Grape and fruit sugars are easily absorbed by the human body, which uses them as source of energy (thermal, mechanical. during work) and for the formation of reserves in the body. fat.
sugar in fruits ranges from 4 to 14%, depending on their type. sugars were found in grapes. from 16 to 22%. Of vegetables, beets and onions (up to 14.5%), carrots (up to 8%), melons (up to 18%), and watermelons (up to 11%) are rich in sugars. In other vegetables, sugar is from 1.5-2.0 to 3-4%.
Fructose predominates in pome fruits from sugars, sucrose in apricots and peaches. There is almost no sucrose in berries, they contain (in almost equal amounts) glucose and fructose. Sugars in watermelons are dominated by fructose, while beets, carrots and melons are dominated by sucrose.
Starch in large quantities in potatoes (from 14 to 22% and more). A lot of starch in sweet potatoes, overripe green peas and sweet corn, beans and beans. In other vegetables and fruits, there is little starch, for example, in carrots, about 1%. In unripe fruits, it reaches 1.5%.
Cellulose is contained in potatoes and in all vegetables and fruits in an amount from 0.5 to 3%, depending on the species, variety and place of cultivation. The rougher the fruits and vegetables, the more fiber they contain. The cell walls are composed primarily of fiber and other water-insoluble substances. Fiber is not absorbed by the human body, but it gives a feeling of fullness and aids digestion (improves intestinal motility).
Fruit or organic acids (apple, lemon and wine) are found in fruits in various quantities. from 0.10% in pears and up to 3.5% in currants. Most of the acids are found in lemons. up to 8%. In vegetables, fruit acids. citric and malic. are abundant only in tomatoes (from 0.22 to 1.39%).
Sorrel, rhubarb and spinach contain oxalic acid. Lingonberries and cranberries contain benzoic acid, which has a detrimental effect on bacteria. Therefore, these berries keep fresh well.
Raspberries and strawberries contain trace amounts of salicylic acid (along with malic acid). Salicylic acid is a diaphoretic. Therefore, raspberries are used to treat colds. For fruits and vegetables, acids are reserve substances and can be used during respiration.
Mineral salts or ash substances are available in fruits and vegetables in small quantities. from 0.3 to 1.8%.
Protein and other nitrogenous substances close to them are contained in fruits and vegetables in insignificant quantities. But green peas, beans and beans, i.e. legumes, are rich in proteins. Cabbage, especially cauliflower, as well as spinach, lettuce contain a lot of protein and nitrogenous substances (1.43-3.28%). Proteins are the most important part of food.
Vitamins. Potatoes, vegetables and fruits are such products due to which a person covers his need for vitamin C. Meat, loaf, cereals, fish do not contain this vitamin. In the absence of vitamin C in food, a person becomes ill with scurvy. Vitamin C is rich in: rose hips, green unripe walnuts, black currants, strawberries, etc., and from vegetables. bell peppers, cabbage, horseradish, spinach, lettuce, sorrel, parsley, etc. In cucumbers, beets, onions, garlic vitamin With little.
In the absence of vitamin A, or carotene in food, a person becomes ill with night blindness (eye disease. xerophthalmia); the growth of the young is delayed. With a lack of this vitamin, the body’s resistance to diseases decreases. There is no vitamin A in fruits and vegetables, but in the body this vitamin is formed from carotene. Carotene are rich in carrots, sea buckthorn, peaches with yellow pulp, apricots, turnips, as well as all greens. Carotene is similar in structure to chlorophyll and therefore always occurs with it.
Fruits and vegetables contain vitamins: B1, B2, PP, K, etc., which also prevent various disorders of the body and its diseases.
The highest vitamins are observed in fruits and vegetables at the time of their full maturity. Further, during storage, their number decreases.
vitamins in vegetables and fruits are calculated in milligrams per 100 grams of product and are designated in milligram percent (mg%). For example, potatoes contain vitamin C from 6 to 20 mg%, cabbage. from 40 to 60 mg%, onions. from 3 to 15 mg%. In carrots, the amount of carotene reaches 8 mg%.
The daily requirement of an adult for vitamin C is on average 50 mg, for vitamin A. 1 mg. Vitamin A can be replaced with carotene (2 mg per day).
Tannins give the fruit a tart taste. they are in fruits from 0.02% (in pears) to 1.31% (in blueberries). Due to the high content of tannins, blueberries are used in the treatment of stomach diseases.
Dyes determine the color of fruits and vegetables. They are found in very small quantities in colored apples and pears, in apricots and peaches, in mountain ash, carrots, beets, tomatoes, etc. The green color of vegetables and fruits depends on the presence of chlorophyll in them, red and yellow. from carotene (the coloring matter of carrots. apricots, sea buckthorn, etc.), lycopene (coloring matter of tomatoes and rose hips), xanthophyll (coloring matter of the skin of colored apples) and anthocyanins (coloring matter of beets, cherries, plums, currants, red gooseberries, etc.).
Essential or aromatic substances are contained in small quantities in fruits, in many vegetables (spicy roots, dill, etc.). Fruit skins are especially rich in aromatic substances.
There are also other substances in vegetables and fruits: enzymes, phytoncides, etc. enzymes in the cells of living organisms, including vegetables and fruits, life processes take place. respiration, growth and development. Phytoncides. special substances that have a detrimental effect on bacteria. These substances are secreted by the cells of vegetables and fruits, for example, when they are damaged. Consequently, phytoncides in vegetables and fruits play a protective role. Phytoncides of onions, garlic, carrots, mustard, radish, horseradish, bird cherry, mountain ash, black currant, oranges are very active.
If you chew garlic or onions for 5 minutes, then all germs in the mouth will be killed.
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Methodical development of a lesson on the topic: “Drawing up technological schemes for the preparation of semi-finished products from poultry
Professional module PM.05 “Cooking Meat and Poultry”
Profession: Cook, pastry chef
Topic: “Drawing up technological schemes for the preparation of semi-finished products from poultry”
State budgetary professional
“Drawing up technological schemes for the preparation of semi-finished products
Completed by: teacher of special disciplines Dzhumanova O.A.
Professional module PM.05 “Cooking Meat and Poultry”
Topic: “Drawing up technological schemes for the preparation of semi-finished products from poultry”
Formation, confirmation and verification of theoretical knowledge of the technological process of mechanical culinary processing of poultry, methods of dressing and preparation of semi-finished products from it.
Develop the ability to compare, analyze, establish dependencies between certain technological operations, draw conclusions and generalizations; work in a group.
Carrying out form: Frontal (group).
Types of control: Individual, brigade.
Forms of control: Teacher, studying in groups.
Anfimova N.A. Cooking: a textbook for primary vocational education, M.: Publishing Center “Academy”, 2010.
Kharchenko N.E. Collection of recipes for dishes and culinary products: a textbook for primary vocational education, M.: Publishing Center “Academy”, 2008.
V.V. Usov. Organization of production and service at public catering establishments, textbook for primary vocational education, M.: Publishing Center “Academy”, 2010.
Cooking. Meat dishes; illustrated textbook, M.: Publishing Center “Academy”, 2010.
Mechanical and Poultry Cooking Posters Set.
Board decoration; checking whether students have notebooks for laboratory work, stationery; group head attendance report.
Group work. Each of the groups performs an assignment given by the teacher or by drawing lots.
- Why poultry meat is absorbed by the human body easier than beef?
- Why is it better to use an adult bird for making broth??
- Why they don’t use old poultry for making broth?
- Why are young poultry not used for making broth??
- What is the condition of poultry entering catering establishments?
- How are poultry divided by fatness and quality??
- For which soups can you use broth from boiling ducks and geese?
- What substances determine the special taste of poultry?
- Why game meat, unlike poultry meat, has a specific taste and aroma?
- Why is game mainly used for roasting??
- In what condition does the game enter public catering establishments??
- What is the classification of game entering catering establishments?
- For what purpose is the bird tucked into the ??
- What are the ways of refueling poultry and game?
- What portioned semi-finished products are prepared from poultry fillets?
- What poultry waste is used for cooking?
- What semi-finished products are prepared from poultry cutlet mass?
- What are the sequential operations of mechanical culinary processing of poultry?
Various semi-finished products are prepared from poultry: whole poultry carcasses (for cooking and roasting), portioned, small pieces and chopped.
To prepare them, you need to remove and clean the fillets. To do this, separate the inner muscle (tenderloin) from the outer (large fillet). A tendon is pulled from the tenderloin, and the pulp is beaten off. A bone is removed from a large fillet. a fork, the humerus is cleaned from the pulp and tendons, shortened, leaving 3 4 cm, the thickened part of the bone is chopped off. The fillets are moistened in cold water, placed on the board with the inner side up and cut off the outer film. After that, longitudinal cuts are made in the large fillet and the fillet is opened.
Breading is the application of breading to the surface of a semi-finished product. For a better attachment of the breading to the product, it is moistened in a special liquid. llezone, which is a mixture of raw eggs with milk or water, with the addition of salt.
Set poultry mechanical cooking sequence.
- Defrost in air at a temperature of 8 15 0 С.
- Chop off the head.
- Rub with flour or bran.
- The legs are cut off 1 2 cm below the tarsal joint.
- An incision is made on the skin of the neck from the back.
- The skin is folded back and the neck is chopped off at the last cervical vertebra.
- Through the resulting hole, gut (remove the esophagus and trachea).
- The wings are cut off at the elbow joint.
- The carcass is washed.
- The bird is gutted through an incision from the anus to the beginning of the sternum (stomach, liver, heart, lung).
- The carcass is tucked (in a “” or in one or two threads).
! Discussion of the results of the assignment
- Draw up a technological scheme for filling a poultry carcass:
Test on the subject “Cooking technology
Test on the subject “Cooking technology”
1.Categories of fatness of meat are determined by:
The temperature for serving hot soups is not lower:
Boiling time of beef bone broth:
What forms of cutting potatoes are simple:
9.The process of separating meat from bones is called:
Which part of the carcass is a delicacy:
What kind of heat treatment ensures the formation of a specific crust:
12.What does not apply to auxiliary cooking methods?
C) Blanching E) Singeing
What group of vegetables does “GARLIC” belong to??
Method of heat treatment of pancakes?
E) Sauteing E) Deep-frying
Before frying, the eggplants are salted for?
A) With skin without rib bones B) Without skin with rib bones
The main red sauce is prepared in broth:
A) Increase in volume B) Decrease in mass
C) Increase in mass E) Decrease in volume
20.Frying temperature in the main way?
What cereals are not used for making sweet cereals?
What substances determine the astringent taste of tea?
Products that have undergone several types of heat treatment, but are not ready to eat:
E) Semi-finished product of a high degree of readiness
The method of heat treatment of the dish “vegetable cabbage rolls”
E) Removal of oxygen E) Removal of carbon dioxide
After cooking, the tongue is rinsed with cold water for:
Which dish is hot sweet?
C) Vanilla cream from sour cream C) Jelly from milk E) Apricot sambuc
E) B / c, wallpaper, grit, 1st grade, 2nd grade
31 A dried mixture of whites and yolks is
What mass is used exclusively for dietary nutrition?
35 Type of heat treatment, in which the product is brought to readiness in a small amount of liquid?
For what diseases is it recommended to drink eggs?
C) Gastrointestinal diseases
Why is chicken so cheap? | The Economist
What products are not included in the quickdraw?
Cabbage vegetables are mainly prepared?
What substances determine the special taste of poultry?
When preparing filling soups, products containing acids are laid
E) After bringing the potatoes almost to readiness
48.Special taste and smell of fish broth gives?
The main tissue that determines the nutritional value of meat?
A) Soup. noodles B) Potato soup with cereals
E) Leningrad pickle E) Fresh cabbage soup
E) Brown E) Light brown
C) Soda E) Ammonium E) Mechanical whipping
Removing moisture from food is?
E) Fermentation E) Fixation
Croup is boiled directly in milk?
Of the listed mechanical methods, indicate the excess?
Frying temperature in the basic way?
62.To remove insects from cabbage, it is immersed in?
To improve the taste, milk jelly is added?
Products that are not included in the shuzhyk?
What is Concentrated Brown Broth Called??
A) Saute B) Cook C) Fry D) Stew E) Bake
74.The process of separating meat from bones is called
A) Denaturation B) Defrosting C) Preparation of p / f E) Vein E) Deboning
A) Brains B) Kidneys C) Udder E) Heart E) Liver
The curly forms of cutting potatoes include:
A) Circles B) Slices C) Straws E) Slices E) Balls
What does not belong to the group of perishable products?
A) Cheese B) Dried fruits C) Meat E) Fish E) Milk
When cooking fried eggs, the fried eggs are salted?
A) Red-hot fat, protein, yolk B) Yolk C) Red-hot fat and yolk E) Red-hot fat and protein E) Protein
A) Carbohydrates B) Proteins C) Vitamins E) Minerals E) Acids
What are the bain-marie for??
A) There is no correct answer B) For cooking C) For deep-fat frying E) For frying in the main way E) For heating the finished product
The shape is oval. flattened with a pointed end has
A) Meatballs B) Schnitzels C) Meatballs E) Meatballs E) Meatballs
82.What mass is a wheat loaf not added?
A) Into chopped B) There is no correct answer C) Into cutlet E) Into dumpling E) Into natural chopped
Cooking technology studies:
A) Composition of dishes B) Rational methods of processing food products C) The qualitative composition of raw materials E) for products E) There is no correct
The main methods of heat treatment include:
A) Slicing in different ways B) Putting on, braising C) Boiling and frying E) Not right E) Blanching
A) Technological process of food preparation B) Decoration of the finished dish C) Food product that has passed one or several stages of culinary processing E) Dish E) Salad
A) Liquid dishes of various composition B) An integral part of the dish, which allows you to diversify the taste of the product, improve their appearance C) Homogeneous delicate consistency E) Side dishes E) There is no correct
87.The basis for derivatives of sauces is:
A) Basic sauces B) Broths C) Sauteed roots E) Juices E) Mayonnaise
A) 3 h B) 1-1.5 h C) 2 h E) 1 h E) 3.5 h.
What substances of vegetables have a beneficial effect on the digestion process?
A) Fiber B) Essential oil C) Coloring substances E) Minerals E) No correct
A) Cleaning B) Marinating vegetables C) Applying grooves E) Not correct E) Washing
Why do 2-3 cuts are made on the surface of a semi-finished product?
A) For juiciness B) So that the pieces do not deform C) For even sandwiching E) There is no correct E) For beauty
A) Rusks B) Flour C) Finely grated stale loaf E) Cream E) Milk
Are beef and lamb divided into categories 1 and 2?
C) By consistency C) By biological value E) By nutritional value E) By weight
A) Pike B) Carp C) Baltic herring E) Cod E) Pike perch
95.Meat for stewing is cut into large pieces by weight?
A) 4 kg. B) 1 kg. C) Less than 1 kg. D) 3 kg. E) 2 kg.
96.When stewing, sauerkraut is excluded from the recipe?
A) Vinegar B) Tomato puree C) Onions E) Sugar E) Wheat flour
“Lyulya. kebab”, which meat is made from?
A) Venison B) Veal C) Beef D) Pork E) Lamb
What is the protein in fish meat?
A) 20%.30% B) Over 35% C) Not more than 15% E) 10%.12% E) Over 30%
How many hours does the fish soak?
A) 24 hours B) 36 hours C) 30 min. E) 1 hour E) 8-12 hours
Fruit purees serve as a basis for making soups?
A) Cereal B) Transparent with garnish C) Cold E) Puree E) Sweet
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Choose the correct answer.
What part of the lamb carcass is used for stewing?
a) brisket; b) cervical; c) hip; d) loin.
What semi-finished product is cut from pork loin?
How many parts does a beef half carcass consist of??
What kind of meat goes to catering establishments in quarters?
a) lamb; b) beef; c) pork; d) veal.
Specify the thickness (cm) of the splint cut from the beef tenderloin.
Choose the correct answer.
Beef is supplied to catering establishments:
a) half carcasses and carcasses; b) half carcasses and quarters; c) carcasses and quarters; d) quarters.
What part of the beef is used to prepare the cutlet mass
a) neck pulp; b) thin edge; c) scapula; d) brisket.
a) cooking and stewing; b) cooking cutlet mass; c) frying d) baking.
What part of the meat is cut into entrecote, rump steak?
a) tenderloin; b) brisket; c) thick edge; d) edging.
a) removal of meat tendons, films, cartilage; b) breading of meat in breadcrumbs; c) separation of the pulp from the bones; d) the edges are cut off from the edges.
Choose the correct answer.
What semi-finished products are cut from the thick rim of beef? a) schnitzel, escalope; b) rump steak, entrecote; c) fillet, langet.
What does the dorsal-costal part of beef consist of??
a) thick edge, subscapularis, edging; b) thick edge, pa tires, edging; c) shoulder blades, brisket, flank.
What part of beef is used for roasting?
a) the upper and inner parts of the hind leg; b) the outer and lateral pieces of the hind leg; c) side piece, inside of the hind leg.
a) so that it absorbs the juice formed during defrosting; b) it prevents the reproduction of microbes and does not slip in the hands during cutting; c) the meat then becomes softer.
a) in water; b) in the air; c) in a combined way.
From semi-finished beef products, roast beef, steak, fillet, langette, entrecote, rump steak, zrazy chops, brass beef, beef stroganoff, goulash, azu are prepared. To do this, first, large-sized semi-finished products are cut from a large piece of meat, then small-sized semi-finished products are cut from portions only from the remaining parts.
Explain why this sequence of cutting semi-finished products is followed.?
Beef tenderloin is divided into three parts (Fig.3.9): thick (head), medium and thin (tail).
Beefsteaks are cut from the head, fillets from the middle part, splints from the tail, and beef stroganoff from the scraps obtained after cutting portioned semi-finished products.
one). What is the thickness of slicing portioned semi-finished products. beefsteak, fillet, langeta?
2). What is the purpose of beating meat when preparing portioned semi-finished products?
3). What method of heat treatment is used for portioned semi-finished products from tenderloin?
The stripped meat is supplied for heat treatment in the form of large pieces weighing 1.5. 2.5 kg, portions of 1.3 pcs. for 1 portion with a total weight of 70.200 g and small pieces.
Small poultry flock nutrition
What semi-finished products are shown in fig. 3.10?
What parts of meat are used for cutting the ones shown in fig. 3.10 semi-finished products?
What is the cutting thickness of these semi-finished products?
What small-sized semi-finished products are cut from beef?
Questions and tasks for revision “Semi-finished products from chopped and cutlet mass”
What parts of meat are used for cutlet mass?
What types of breading are used for semi-finished cutlet mass?
Specify the shape, size, thickness of semi-finished cutlets and meatballs.
List the convenience foods that are cooked with the smallest m loaf.
List the convenience foods that are cooked with the largest m loaf.
What is the purpose of using a loaf in the preparation of cutlet mass?
Specify the shape, size, breading, roll.
What methods of heat treatment are used for semi-finished cutlet mass?
Specify the sequence of cooking the cutlet mass.
What semi-finished products are prepared from chopped mass?
How are such semi-finished products as beefsteak, fillet characterized??
What parts of beef are used for chopped mass?
How to cook semi-finished lula kebab?
Questions and tasks for the test “Semi-finished beef”
What parts of beef are used for roasting?
What is the difference between rump steak and entrecote?
List the semi-finished tenderloin.
List the lumpy semi-finished beef products.
What parts of beef are used for stewing?
What parts of beef are fried in a large piece?
List the convenience foods from the thick, thin edge.
List the semi-finished products that are cut from the shoulder blade.
For what purpose is meat for frying beaten?
What parts of beef are used for cutlet and chopped mass?
What part is the entrecote, rump steak cut from??
What part of the beef is the steak cut from??
What breading is used for rump steak?
List semi-finished products for frying in small pieces.
List the portions of the forequarter of beef.
Questions and tasks for revision “Processing lamb, pork”
List the parts of meat obtained by cutting lamb.
What parts of lamb are used for roasting?
What part of the pork is cut from the escalope?
What is the shape of cutting lamb for pilaf?
What parts of lamb are used for stewing?
List the semi-finished products that are cut from the loin.
What is the difference between semi-finished pilaf and stew?
Give a description of the barbecue “in karski”.
What semi-finished products can be cut from pork leg?
What parts of pork are used for roasting?
List the semi-finished products that are cut from the brisket.
What is the difference between a chop cutlet and a natural cutlet?
What parts of lamb are used to prepare chopped mass?
What parts of pork are cut into escalope, schnitzel, natural cutlets?
What are the small-sized semi-finished pork products?
CHAPTER 4. PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL POULTRY AND FEATHERED GAME
Tasks and tests chap. 4 will help you consolidate your knowledge of poultry and game birds handling. Complete the assignments and choose the correct answers in the tests chap. four.
Why poultry meat is absorbed by the human body easier than beef?
Why is it better to use an adult bird for making broth??
Why they don’t use old poultry for making broth?
Why are young poultry not used for making broth??
In what condition does the bird enter catering establishments??
How are poultry divided by fatness and quality??
For which soups can you use broth from boiling ducks and geese?
What substances determine the special taste of poultry?
Why game meat, unlike poultry meat, has a specific taste and aroma?
Why is game mainly used for roasting??
In what condition does the game enter public catering establishments??
What is the classification of game birds entering public catering establishments?
For what purpose the bird is tucked into the “”?
What are the ways of refueling poultry and game?
What portioned semi-finished products are prepared from poultry fillets?
What poultry waste is used for cooking?
What semi-finished products are prepared from poultry cutlet mass?
What are the sequential operations of mechanical culinary processing of poultry?
Set poultry mechanical cooking sequence.
Defrost in air at a temperature of 8.15 ° C.
Cut off the legs 1.2 cm below the tarsal joint.
An incision is made on the skin of the neck from the back.
The skin is folded back and the neck is chopped off at the last cervical vertebra.
Through the resulting hole, gut (remove the esophagus and trachea).
Gutting the bird through an incision from the anus to the beginning of the sternum (stomach, liver, heart, lung).
The carcass is tucked (in a “” or in one or two threads).
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