Scabies mite in dogs
The scabies mite in dogs is a highly contagious parasite that can affect not only pets but also humans. At the slightest suspicion of infection with scabies, the dog must be isolated from all pets and households. All examinations and treatments should be carried out in disposable clothing and gloves until the diagnosis is confirmed or disproved.
Note! Symptoms of a scabies mite infestation do not appear immediately, so if your dog gets sick, you are more likely to get infected as well. Immediately after confirming the diagnosis in your pet, consult a dermatologist and start preventive therapy for all family members.
How to distinguish an encephalitis tick?
Many owners are afraid of encephalitis ticks and it should be noted that the fear associated with parasites is very well founded. Unfortunately, the encephalitis tick does not have any visual differences from the parasite, which is not a carrier of the virus.
It is possible to determine whether a tick was a carrier of encephalitis only by laboratory means.
The tick removed from the dog must be placed in a glass container and covered with a lid. The parasite is handed over to a laboratory for research. In the process of laboratory examination, the carriage of piroplasmosis and encephalitis can be detected, which is equally dangerous for both dogs and humans.
Tip Tuesday Video. how to tell if your pets has mites or fleas
Research for piroplasmosis (usually) takes 4-5 days, which makes it useless, since the first symptoms appear after 2-3 days. If during the study it was revealed that the tick was a carrier of encephalitis, preventive therapy is necessary. It is important to understand that an encephalitis tick bite does not always lead to the development of the disease. The dog’s immunity will fight the virus, which can be expressed by feeling unwell, fever, refusal to eat.
Symptoms and signs of infection
The first symptoms and signs of demodicosis depend on its type. In veterinary medicine there are:
- Local demodicosis. leads to the formation of 2-3 inflamed areas of the skin.
- Non-local demodicosis. causes widespread inflammation of the skin on the limbs and body.
In addition, depending on the type, demodicosis primarily affects:
- Ears and the area behind them.
- Front legs.
- Back at the base of the tail.
Most often, Demodex lesions are found on the face and ears. Breeds of dogs with loose, folded skin are prone to demodicosis, which affects the limbs.
With demodicosis, the skin becomes loose, due to a violation of the integrity. The affected areas turn red, swell, and become painful. If untreated, the affected areas of the skin begin to bleed and the ichor is constantly released from them. Weeping wounds become infected a second time, which leads to the formation of crusts and purulent inflammation.
Ticks in dogs
What do ticks look like in dogs, what are the symptoms and signs of infection? It all depends on the type of parasite! Grassland mites, scabies, ear mites and subcutaneous mites are the most common types of mites that can be found on dogs. The forest (ixodid) tick or encephalitis tick is a relatively large parasite that is easy to spot. When infected with microscopic parasites, long-term treatment and prevention is required.
Treatment and prevention of scabies in dogs
Treatment and prevention of itch mite require close attention of the owner. Complex therapy is used to eliminate parasites that are already attacking the skin. Ticks do not survive in an anaerobic environment, therefore, as an alternative treatment, they use means that do not allow oxygen to pass through:
- Fatty creams.
- Special, veterinary oil solutions.
- Fuel oil or engine oil waste.
It is important to understand that the skin will only heal if the parasites are completely destroyed. In addition, dry skin promotes healing, so you should not get carried away with the use of folk remedies. To kill ticks, use means that are rubbed into the areas of the affected skin:
- Hyposulfite solution.
- Sodium Iosulfite.
Shampoos containing the active ingredients listed above give good results. Bathing with medicinal shampoos is performed at intervals of 2-3 days and is relevant for extensive skin lesions.
If local treatment does not give positive results within 1-2 days, injections are used:
All of the above drugs are analogous and very effective in the fight against subcutaneous mites. However, these drugs are quite toxic and put a significant burden on the liver, therefore, you should consult your veterinarian before using them.
Important! To prevent scabies mites, the dog must be treated with complex insecticides (drops, sprays) once every 1-3 months, depending on the active agents.
Symptoms and signs of a bite
Alarming symptoms and signs of a tick bite appear after 2-3 hours, when the anesthetic effect of the parasite’s saliva passes. The dog becomes restless and tries to remove the parasite with his paw. If the dog manages to rip off the tick with its claws, the head and paws will remain in the skin, which leads to inflammation.
If a tick bitten by a dog turned out to be a carrier of the piroplasmosis virus, alarming symptoms will appear within 2-3 days. After finding and removing a tick from a dog, carefully monitor its health.
The clinical picture of piroplasmosis usually develops in the following order:
- Decreased appetite.
- Increase in baseline body temperature.
- Pallor of mucous membranes.
- Weakness in the hind legs.
- Bright signs of intoxication.
- Decrease in baseline body temperature.
- Dark beer staining urine.
- Disruption of the central nervous system.
- Yellowness of the mucous membranes of the eyes and gums.
If you find one or more of the above symptoms immediately contact your veterinarian. Pyroplasmosis can be stopped, but it develops rapidly and severely damages the liver. The favorableness of the prognosis directly depends on the speed of assistance, that is, the introduction of an antiviral drug.
What does an ixodid tick look like?
Let’s see what an ixodid tick looks like. Only females of ticks parasitize, that is, bite, they are slightly larger than males. An adult, hungry female grows to 0.4 mm in diameter. When the parasite drank blood, its body swells, as a result of which it can reach up to 1 cm in diameter.
The hungry tick is dark in color and runs fast. When a tick drank blood, its color brightens. The color can range from whitish gray to light brown. When the ticks are full, it can move, although it does so slowly and very awkwardly.
Ear mites in dogs: symptoms, treatment and prevention
Very often, dog owners do not pay enough attention to the strange behavior of their pets, they most often believe that scratching behind the ear is an action that dogs do all the time. And only when the pet’s ears are torn to blood, and the dog continues to scratch them with force and aggression, when he begins to shake his head, whine and run restlessly around the house, only at these moments the owners begin to understand that something is wrong.
All of these signs indicate that your dog has ear mites. Ear scabies (or otodecosis) occurs when a dog is infected with Otodectés cynotis mites. Once in the ear, they are conveniently located in the ear canal and on the inside of the auricle. This parasite feeds on particles of earwax, epidermis and blood of its host.
You can get infected with otodecosis from a sick animal. And this does not mean that a dog can only get infected from another dog. Oddly enough, but most often the tick is transmitted to dogs from cats, in which this disease occurs much more often.
If a dog is sick with this disease and was not treated before mating, then with a probability of 100%, the puppies will also have an ear mite.
And although otodecosis can appear in dogs at any age, it is still more common in babies or growing dogs. This is due to the fact that the puppies have not yet developed immunity.
If ear scabies is not promptly cured, then it can subsequently cause serious complications with the pet’s health, such as: inflammation of the middle ear, tearing of the eardrum, inflammation of the meninges (meningitis), labyrinthitis, arachnoiditis. These complications can not only cause complete loss and hearing, they can also lead to death.
First of all, you need to contact your veterinarian, if you really care about your pet, then you should not self-medicate. An experienced specialist will conduct the necessary studies, take tests, check the ear with an otoscope, and only then will he confirm or refute your concerns about otodectic mange.
The treatment for ear scabies itself usually starts with brushing your dog’s ears.
The veterinarian may then prescribe ear drops and injections (in advanced cases). For treatment, drugs such as Tera-Delta, Otovedin, Mastiet-Forte, Otibiovin and Aurican are used. But, remember that in no case should you prescribe these drugs yourself, since they are chemical products, and you simply cannot find the exact dosage and only harm the health of your dog.!
Ear scabies is a very contagious disease, so if some other pets live in your house, then they also need to be examined and, if the disease is not detected, then preventive treatment should be carried out.
How to properly bury ear drops for a dog?
Before starting the procedure, clean your pet’s ears, otherwise the effectiveness of medications may significantly decrease. The main thing is to do everything slowly, carefully and without frightening your dog.
- Open the vial of medication drops.
- Gently take your dog’s head with one hand, you can also hold the tip of your dog’s ear, take drops in the other hand. Try to keep your dog still, but do not squeeze it too hard or it will cause more ear pain. But be prepared for the fact that she may twitch during the ingress of drops into the ear.
- Bury your pet’s ear.
- Gently massage the base of the ear to distribute the medication evenly over the entire surface of the ear canal.
Preventing ear mite infestations in dogs
In order to prevent your pet from contracting ear scabies, you must follow simple rules:
-regularly inspect your dog’s ears, clean them in a timely manner with cotton swabs;
Ear mites in dogs
Ear mites in dogs and other animals lead to the development of otodectosis disease. If you skip the onset of infection, the process becomes chronic and threatening, up to the death of the animal. To avoid the sad consequences, the owner needs to know the features of the tick infestation of the pet, the symptoms of the disease and the main directions of treatment.
Does the disease depend on the season
An ear mite can “cling” to a pet at any time of the year. unlike ixodid ticks, this parasite is active in winter as well. Their reproduction does not depend on air temperature, daylight hours and other conditions. Since they live in the ear canal, they do not have a rest period. This means that the owner must be on his guard even in severe frost, not allowing contact between his pet and stranger dogs.
Treatment for ear mites in dogs is based on the mandatory use of medications. Without the use of drugs, it will not be possible to get rid of the parasite. The owner should be patient, as the process can take a long time. Since insect larvae persist in the environment, careful treatment of the room in which the dog lives, as well as the items of care for it, will be required to prevent re-infection.
What is an ear mite
What does a parasite look like? This is a very small insect, not reaching one millimeter, with a grayish-white translucent body, which has a gnawing mouth apparatus. He gnaws at the skin and makes moves under it, laying eggs in them.
The wounds become inflamed and fester. The larvae, feeding on suppuration products and lymphatic fluid, reach sexual maturity after 3-4 weeks, and then also lay eggs. In a short period of time, an ear mite can damage not only the skin of the dog’s ear, but also the eardrum, and penetrate further into the inner ear and brain.
The disease develops imperceptibly. when the animal begins to show signs of the presence of a tick, then, as a rule, a significant part of the ear is affected. In addition, it was noticed that the activity of the insect is subject to some cyclicality: the period of activity and vivid symptoms are replaced by more or less calm intervals. Perhaps this is due to the cyclical development of the parasite. When the pathology takes on threatening forms, there are no rest periods.
How to prepare your dog’s ear for treatment
Before you drip drops from the ear mite, you need to clean the pet’s ears from the accumulated mass. If the dog resists (not all animals tolerate this procedure stoically, especially if they are in pain), it is better to carry out the procedure together. For small sizes, you can throw a blanket over it or wrap it in a towel. If the pet is large, you should use a muzzle.
During the cleaning process, you must adhere to the following recommendations.
- You need to use sticks, not cotton swabs or discs, as there is a risk of pushing the accumulated mass deep into the ear canal.
- You should start cleaning from areas close to the edges of the ear, gradually moving deeper.
- Stick movements should be outward.
- If the masses are dry, you can wet the cotton end with peroxide or chlorhexidine. You cannot bury them in the ear.
- It is advisable to use specially designed lotions for cleaning your ears.
- If long hair grows on the dog’s ears, then for the period of treatment it needs to be cut.
Ear mite symptoms
You can suspect an ear mite in a dog when a dirty brown mass is found in the external auditory canal. It is formed from skin scales, particles of the outer integument of faded parasites, and the secretion of the ear glands. All this is mixed with purulent secretions from damaged areas of the epidermis and excrement of mites, and leads to severe skin irritation and inflammation.
- hyperemia of the skin of the ear canal;
- severe itching;
- swelling of the ear folds.
The dog is nervous, shakes its head, often itches. When combing and while shaking the ears, particles of the accumulated mass can fly out of the external auditory canal.
How does the disease arise and progress?
The main cause of infection with an ear itch mite in a dog occurs through direct contact of sick animals with healthy
For example, on a walk, when communicating with stray animals, which, most often, become the source of the spread of the disease.
In addition, given that the parasite retains viability, for some time, outside the body of the animal, infection can be carried out through the care items, hands, shoes of the owner, and other objects with which the dog comes into contact.
Mites live on the surface of the skin and feed on the epidermis (cells in the top layer of the skin). By damaging the skin, ear parasites cause chemical and mechanical irritation of the skin receptors. Severe itching occurs. The damaged area becomes inflamed, accompanied by redness, swelling, and inflammatory effusion.
Inflammatory exudate, mite excrement, dead skin cells, dust and earwax mix and dry to form brown scabs on the skin surface. Dried crusts, accumulate in the lumen of the external auditory canal, contributing to blockage, and the accumulation of inflammatory effusion in the ear canal.
In such cases, perforation of the tympanic membrane may occur, while the inflammatory process continues, in continuation, to the middle, and then, to the inner ear of the dog.
In the most advanced cases, if untreated, the inflammation spreads to the lining of the brain, meningitis develops, and the animal dies.
Of course, the veterinarian must make the final diagnosis of the animal. But according to some external manifestations and symptoms of ear scabies, the dog owners themselves can guess that she has otodectosis:
The animal scratches the ear, or rubs it against various objects. On the inner skin surface of the auricle, scratches appear, and on the outer, a crust forms at the base of the ear, from constant scratching
What is this otodectosis?
Ear mites in dogs are, invisible to the human eye, arthropods, oval in shape, beige in color. Parasitizes the mite on the skin surface of the external ear canal of the dog and the inner surface of the ear.
This, as a rule, causes itching, inflammation, otitis media, often leading to more complex consequences. The parasites damage the top layer of the animal’s skin and feed. blood, lymph, or tissue fluid. Subsequently, these fluids mix with the epidermis and form dark brown crusts.
There are two types of ear mites. Cats, dogs, and many other animal species are parasitized by the scabies mite, Otodectes cynotis. Parasite dimensions, do not exceed 0.5 mm.
- Nymph, first stage of development (protonymph)
- Nymph, second stage (telonymph)
- Adult insect (imago)
The whole cycle (egg. adult tick) takes 18-25 days, the cycle duration depends on the ambient temperature. Outside the shells of the ears, on the body of the animal, that is, without feeding, the parasite can maintain its viability for 22 days. In the environment, at temperatures ranging from 3 to 7 C, and high humidity, it can be vital for about 25 days. At low temperatures, below 3, dies within 5 days.
In the initial stage, when there are no symptoms of otitis media, the disease is easily treated. For treatment, it is enough to destroy the ear mite from the dog. For this purpose, insecticidal preparations are prescribed, made on the basis of the same substances that are used in the treatment of skin scabies in animals.
How Can I Treat My Dogs Ear Mites at Home [3 AMAZING Home Remedies]
The drugs used to effectively treat ear mites can be topical, in the form of drops, sprays and ointments, or general, in the form of injections. The drops and sprays used for the treatment of otodectosis, as the main active ingredient, include one of the insecticidal acaricidal agents.
In addition, the composition of drugs may include anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, antiallergic and antiseptic drugs.
Drugs for the effective treatment of canine otodectosis:
Drops: “Bars”, “Otoferonol Gold”, “Oricin”, “Dekta” and others;
Ointments: sulfur-tar and birch tar;
Injectables: Ivermec 1%, Otodectin.
Before using acaricidal agents, it is necessary to clean the dog’s ears as best as possible, from accumulated scabs. To do this, they are moistened and softened with one of the antiseptic agents (boric acid, hydrogen peroxide, furacilin solution, ear lotions), preventing fluid from flowing into the ear canal.
Having carefully cleaned the skin of the inner surface of the ear and the cavity of the ear canal, from softened scabs, one of the anti-otodectosis drugs is instilled, observing the dosage given in the instructions. Given the development cycle of the parasite, drugs are usually used twice, observing a weekly interval between procedures.
Injectables work most effectively. If the dog has no contraindications, then this is the best treatment option. They ensure the destruction, not only of skin parasites, but also helminths, acts more long-term and reliably than drops, sprays and ointments.
Important: you need to remember that all insecticidal drugs are potent drugs and can be dangerous, not only for animals, but also for people. The use of otodectic agents requires strict adherence to the order of application and dosage, according to the instructions and taking into account the weight of the animal.
Clusters in the ears
Accumulation on the inner side of the auricle and in the lumen of the external auditory canal of crusts, dirty brown.
In cases of complications, symptoms appear:
- Otitis media (inflammation in the middle ear). discharge from the ear, fever, unpleasant odor from the auricle
- Labyrinthitis (inflammation of the inner ear). disorders in coordination of movements are added to the symptoms of otitis media, the dog keeps his head turned 90-120 degrees;
- Meningitis. twirling, seizures and convulsions.
Ear mites in dogs (otodectosis): effective treatment
Otodectosis or ear scabies. chronic invasive disease caused by microscopic scabies skin mites.
In addition to dogs, the ear mite most often affects cats, ferrets and fur-bearing animals (arctic fox, sable, mink, fox, rabbits). A person who has carnivore scabies does not get infected.
Curious nuances of the life of the parasite
The size of an adult ear mite does not exceed 0.5 mm, so the parasite can only be examined in detail under a microscope:
These parasites are characterized by a rounded body, and the females are slightly larger than the males. The oral apparatus has sharp chelicerae, with the help of which the tick literally cuts the victim’s skin.
Eggs are whitish-gray, oval in shape, reaching 0.3 mm. The female lays them in the ears or on the fur of a sick dog. After a short period of time, small larvae emerge from them. they are distinguished from adults by three, not four pairs of legs.
Further, the larvae molt into nymphs, which in turn turn into adults. The full development cycle (from egg to sexually mature individual) lasts about 3 weeks.
The photo below shows ear mites in the invasion focus:
At any stage in their life cycle, ear mites can be transmitted from one animal to another. Eggs scatter very quickly through the coat, especially when the animal is combing the affected areas. In fact, a sick dog spreads eggs, larvae and adults of parasites everywhere, so timely treatment of the pet and deacarization of the room where it lives is very important. The ingestion of literally a couple of eggs or larvae on a healthy dog is fraught with possible infection.
Common symptoms of having ear mites in dogs
Ear scabies is manifested by a sharp systematic itching in the area of the auricle and ear canal. Because of this, the dog shakes its ears and head strongly and often, and combs the ears with its paws. Sometimes the disease quickly turns into a stage of purulent otitis media.
Although ear scabies and purulent otitis media are often identified, it is relatively easy to distinguish them even at home (this can be important for choosing the direction of treatment, since before starting it, it is necessary to understand what exactly caused the disease). Classical otitis media is not preceded by prolonged itching, animals do not scratch their ears, as they experience severe aching pain in the ear canal. The nature of the discharge from the ears of the dog is also significantly different: when affected by an ear mite, there is a dark brown viscous mass, it smells bad, crusts are formed, while with otitis media, the discharge is usually relatively liquid, is a derivative of suppuration.
If the disease is not detected in the initial stages, inflammation can lead to perforation of the eardrum. This will be followed by inflammation of the inner ear, followed by the upper meninges of the brain.
The following are the main symptoms that appear when a dog is infected with an ear mite:
- animals shake their heads sharply, often scratch their ears;
- there are pathological changes in the positioning of the head (dogs tilt their head, turning the affected ear downward);
- the pet becomes irritable;
- sleep is disturbed, the dog does not eat well;
- puppies do not gain weight;
- sometimes there is also an increase in body temperature.
The disease is often chronic. Itching can occur sporadically due to the temporary activity of ticks. Sometimes the symptoms of otodectosis in a dog are very mild, but it can infect other dogs with which it comes into contact.
As noted above, the disease is often complicated by the accompanying microflora. At the same time, multiplying bacteria can create conditions unfavorable for otodect mites, and after a while the population of parasites in the dog’s ear canals can even be significantly reduced because of this. When treating in such cases, much attention is paid to the destruction of foci of staphylococcal infection.
When treating otodectosis in dogs, you should not rely only on your own strength or seriously rely only on traditional methods of treatment. it is important to consult a specialist in time. The final diagnosis is made after laboratory studies of the discharge from the dog’s ear (using a microscope, ticks are found in them).
It is important to understand that due to the small size of the parasites and their large number, it will not be possible to simply pull out or somehow wash the ticks out of the dog’s ear canal. In this situation, only drug treatment is effective, which should be started after consultation with a veterinarian.
Effective drugs used to treat otodectosis in pets
When getting rid of a dog from an ear mite, it is important not only to start treatment quickly, but also to choose a really effective drug that will destroy parasites and help reduce the severity of unpleasant symptoms accompanying the disease.
Today, there are a large number of high-quality drugs on sale (primarily ear drops and sprays), which, in addition to acaricides and antimicrobial components, also contain anesthetic and anti-inflammatory substances. Let’s take a look at some of them:
This list contains just a few of the really effective and time-tested remedies that can quickly cure your dog’s ear scabies. over, this does not mean that they are best suited for your case. only qualified treatment under the supervision of a specialist will help to achieve the desired result in the shortest possible time.
Why is it dangerous to have an ear mite in a dog?
Otodectosis is a chronic disease, and its danger to the dog’s health is the higher, the longer the activity of the ear mite continues in the pet’s ear canals.
Otodectomy mites damage the skin in the ears and feed on secretions from wounds. lymph and suppuration products. As a result, severe inflammation occurs, accompanied by pain and intense itching. In places of parasitization, significant accumulations of tick waste products (excrement, chitinous integuments remaining after molting) appear, which mix with pus, dead tissues, earwax and particles of the epidermis, which is why a dark brown mass accumulates in abundance in the dog’s ear canal, forming plug.
The animal furiously scratches the ears, additionally injures and contaminates them, due to which there are foci of reproduction of bacteria, often turning into purulent otitis media. This is followed by severe inflammation of the tympanic membrane, its perforation occurs (holes are formed in it), and the inflammation goes to the inner ear, and then to the meninges. Usually, if left untreated for otodectosis, dogs die due to purulent meningitis.
As a rule, the dog after infection with an ear mite is not very worried about the primary symptoms, which appear in the form of a still relatively mild itching. Much more severe irritation is caused by inflammatory reactions caused not only by active feeding of ticks, but also by the multiplication of microorganisms on the affected skin areas. Therefore, treatment must be directed both at the destruction of parasites and at disinfecting wounds and reducing the pain of the animal.
Algorithm for treating ear mites in dogs
When treating dogs for ear mites, various acaricides are used, and the first thing you should pay attention to is the variety of drug forms.
So, there are four main types of anti-mite medicines:
Most of them are quite suitable for home use, but before using this or that drug, you should definitely consult with your veterinarian. Firstly, only a specialist can make a final diagnosis, and secondly, the choice of the drug and concentrations will largely depend on the intensity of infection (how much otodectosis has been started). Thirdly, it is often also necessary to remove the concomitant symptoms of the disease caused by its complications.
Despite the significant difference in approaches to the treatment of ear mites, there is a certain algorithm of actions that should be followed.
First you need to limit the contacts of a sick animal with healthy ones. It is helpful to wash your dog regularly and thoroughly, but make sure that no water gets into the ears. Before administering medications, the ear canal must be cleaned of secretions and crusts. To do this, you need to pour a saline solution into the ear (either a chlorhexidine solution or a special lotion to cleanse the ears), wait about 5 minutes, and then very gently massage and clean the softened mass with a cotton swab. Only then can you start to administer the drug.
An example of a good lotion for cleaning ears in cats and dogs is Otifree:
It should be borne in mind that in a dog with otodectosis, massage in the auricle area can cause significant pain, so this procedure should be carried out as carefully as possible, without excessive pressure.
The drops are injected into the ear canal with a pipette, after which the base of the ear is gently massaged again. If ointment is applied, this is done with a tampon. Powders are carefully poured into the auricle and distributed with a cotton swab (without deepening into the ear canal). Also very convenient are sprays that are sprayed into the ear and on the animal’s hair according to the instructions.
Drops and sprays are considered the most effective drugs for ear mites that give a quick result, since they contain a high concentration of active ingredients and effectively penetrate the focus of the disease. In some cases, it is possible to combine funds. for example, the simultaneous use of a spray and ointment.
Do not forget about the possible complications of the disease due to the accompanying microflora. In some cases, in addition to the external use of acaricides, intramuscular administration of antibiotics is necessary.
Separately, it should be said about some folk remedies, which are often used to deal with ear mites. For example, you can often find recipes based on oily substances (olive and sunflower oils, kerosene), which are mixed with caustic components (garlic juice, iodine). In this case, it is assumed that the oil, getting into the ears, will envelop and suffocate the tick, and garlic or iodine will disinfect the inflamed ear from bacteria.
However, it should be borne in mind that garlic juice, iodine and kerosene can cause chemical burns to the skin, thereby increasing severe irritation at the sites of otodex parasitism. If such mixtures get deep into the ear canal (especially if the eardrum is already perforated), the animal can become irreversibly deaf.
Thus, when a dog is infected with an ear mite, the most effective, safe and quick treatment option will be the use of medication. Without the intervention of a veterinarian, the disease threatens with serious complications, often leading to the disability of the dog, and sometimes even death.
Let’s now look at examples of some of the drugs used today to treat dogs with otodectosis.
How infection usually occurs
In dogs, otodectosis is constantly recorded in all parts of Russia, but this disease does not reach epidemic proportions. Usually, foci of otodectosis are distributed locally, their boundaries correspond to farms, fur farms, as well as sleeping quarters where a large number of stray animals gather.
This tick-borne disease is not seasonal. dogs get sick at any time of the year.
The lack of seasonality in the life cycle of ear mites is an additional problem in the prevention and treatment of ear and subcutaneous acarosis, since infection can occur even in winter, when there are severe frosts outside.
If ixodid ticks (those that attack people and animals in the forest) are active only in the warm season, then acariform ticks do not have diapause and are able to reproduce all year round. This is due to the fact that ixodid ticks are temporary external parasites, and therefore strongly depend on the conditions of their environment, while ear mites live only inside the ear canal, where the microclimate is always favorable for them.
How They Are, and Symptoms of Ear Mites in Dogs
However, despite the fact that ear scabies does not show signs of obvious seasonality, the largest number of cases of infection in dogs still occurs in the autumn-spring period, when the air is sufficiently humid. And among urban animals living in apartments, the peak of invasions occurs in the summer, when pets are actively taken out for walks in nature.
Otodectosis occurs in dogs of different age groups. Young animals between the ages of 1.5 and 5 months are most affected, while the disease in puppies often resolves in a complicated form. Puppies usually get infected from their mother.
The most sensitive to ear mites are breeds of dogs with long ears, especially hunting dogs, to which the tick can pass from foxes, polar foxes, ferrets and other predators sick with otodectosis. Also, relatively often, ear mites are found in:
- French Bulldogs;
- german shepherd.
Healthy animals in apartments and on farms become infected through:
- contacts with sick dogs and cats (even short-term contacts on the streets during walks are enough. for example, when sniffing);
- care items that touched infected animals (ticks and their eggs remain on combs, bowls, bedding, toys for cats and dogs, so if there are several animals in the apartment, then an individual approach to their hygiene is very important);
- clothing and skin of a person who has touched animals sick with ear scabies;
- flies and fleas that are mechanical carriers of eggs Otodectes cynotis.
The photo below shows an accumulation of ear mites in a sample of a dog’s ear discharge:
For humans, the ear mite is relatively safe, however, there are several cases of infection with human mites. In the human ear canal, this parasite can live for several months, causing severe inflammation of the middle ear.
Sometimes the tick can feed not in the ears, but in other parts of the human body. where there is thin skin (armpits, groin, neck). The reasons for the transition of an ear mite to a person are not completely clear, but the fact that the parasite can be dangerous for humans should not be overlooked. In order to avoid such an unpleasant neighborhood, it is necessary to adhere to basic hygiene rules and minimize contact with stray and sick animals.
Ear mites in dogs and their danger to pets
The ear mite Otodectes cynotis is one of the most dangerous and widespread parasites of dogs and cats around the world. It is found in almost all countries of the world, regardless of the type of climate.
Millions of animals suffer from ear scabies every year, and in addition to dogs and cats, Otodectes cynotis also parasitizes other small carnivorous mammals, including ferrets and foxes. According to statistics, approximately every third pet carries ear mites, and among stray animals this figure reaches 90%.
The photo below shows what an adult Otodectes cynotis tick looks like under a microscope:
The tick affects the ear canal, eardrum and inner ear, as a result of which purulent otitis media and dermatitis develop, accompanied by severe itching, as well as pain. The danger of infection with an ear mite is that it is almost impossible to immediately notice the fact of infection, and usually the owners notice the parasite already at the stage of intensive manifestation of the symptoms of the disease. When veterinary care is postponed, the disease is aggravated by inflammatory and purulent processes, which often leads to the death of the animal.
Mostly, dogs get infected from their outdoor relatives (while walking). The tick is transmitted very quickly. a single short-term contact is enough for several individuals of the parasite to be transmitted to the skin or hair of the animal.
There are rare cases of human ear mite infection. In humans, the parasite also causes itching and inflammation of the middle ear.