Why do you need to defend water?
The main reason for this is contaminants that can harm the inhabitants of our aquarium. After settling, sometimes solid particles appear and precipitate. Initially clear water may become cloudy after a while.
Many aquarists leave the water for the change to breathe for several days, and in order for all the harmful suspensions to evaporate. for a week. This assumption is partially true, but it cannot guarantee the quality of the treated water.
Before we do something, we always know why it needs to be done. By keeping tap water outside the pipeline, we are trying to improve its performance so that it does not harm our fish. In other words, when settling water, we get rid of most of the harmful components.
Conditionally harmful substances in water can be divided into:
- Solid (precipitates to the bottom);
- Gaseous (volatilize from water into the environment);
- Liquid (initially dissolved and remaining in water).
The settling process can only affect solid and gaseous mixtures, and it does not affect liquid substances in any way.
What should be the temperature of the water in the aquarium?
The water temperature for the aquarium plays a decisive role. The health and ability of fish to reproduce depends on it. For each type of fish, completely different water temperatures are suitable. Conventionally, all the inhabitants of the aquarium can be divided into heat-loving and cold-loving.
The heat-loving fish are those that live in water, the temperature of which is not lower than 18 degrees. Cold-loving fish are individuals that easily adapt to low temperatures. They can easily live in an aquarium, the temperature in which will not exceed 14 degrees. Cold-loving fish are only possible in large and spacious aquariums.
It is noteworthy that if you put heat-loving fish in cold water, they practically stop swimming. This suggests that significant harm has been done to their health. When preparing water for an aquarium, it is worth using tips for beginners, which can be found in special literature. So, you can choose the optimal temperature for water only after it becomes known which species of fish will live in it.
The thing is that in the literature for each species of fish, an acceptable threshold for the highest and lowest temperatures is given, at which fish will feel comfortable. In accordance with these parameters, it is possible to select the future inhabitants of the aquarium in such a way that they all feel comfortable in the same temperature conditions. This will avoid a huge number of problems associated with m and caring for fish.
How much to defend water for the aquarium?
AERATION IN THE AQUARIUM AND EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT IT. AQUARIUM SPRAYER AND EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT IT.
What should be the water in the aquarium. How to prepare water for an aquarium. full description. Change of water in the aquarium, what kind of water is needed for the aquarium?
Let’s talk about the questions asked in order:
In order for the chlorine to evaporate and the excess of dissolved oxygen, 24 hours will be enough for the tap water to settle. The maximum water for the aquarium is defended for 14 days. This should be done in a wide-mouth dish.
Frequently asked questions: About changing the aquarium water, for example, is it possible to change the aquarium water (1/4 volume) with unsettled tap water?
When changing your aquarium water, always remember that old water is always better than fresh water. In many sources, it is said about the need to change the aquarium water to fresh weekly. I personally disagree with that. Since the older the aquarium water, the better the biological balance is in it. I change the aquarium water in my aquariums about once a month, and I think this is enough. For ten years of aquarium farming “complaints” from aquarium fish about this has not been reported.
Drawing conclusions and summarizing the results, I will emphasize:
I also recommend that you read the article AQUARIUM WATER from which you will learn about the high-quality components of aquarium water and methods of balancing them at home.
About changing the water in the aquarium:
Aquarium for beginners
Aquarium water temperature
Boiled melt or distilled water for the aquarium. Category: Aquarium articles / EQUIPMENT AND AQUARIUM EQUIPMENT | Views: 34 635 | Date: 5-03-2013, 10:11 | Comments (2) We also recommend reading:
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Aquarium water hardness
Very often, having decided to take up aquarium hobby, amateurs carefully choose a container for a home reservoir, think over where to place it, what fish and plants to fill. However, they completely forget about the main and most important component of this entire system. water. Typically, aquariums are filled with the most readily available water, most commonly tap water. Few people think about its parameters. And if he thinks, then only about whether she is suitable for fish. However, plants are no less demanding on water, although they react more slowly to its quality.
In this article, we will touch upon one of the important parameters. stiffness. After all, it depends on it not least whether the aquarium will become the way it was conceived or not.
What water should be in the aquarium
Home. Fishes. Aquarium. Aquarium water
An aquarium requires water that meets the following requirements: clear, clean, with dH 5-20 °, pH 6.5-7.5. Usually tap water is fine, but it contains a lot of chlorine and oxygen. This problem can be solved by settling for 1-2 days, boiling, aeration, filtration through activated carbon, various chemicals.
After pouring water into the aquarium, various processes begin to take place in it. The water can become whitish-cloudy due to the beginning of the processes of decay of dead plant parts and the reproduction of microorganisms. After 2-3 days, the water will become clear again, but in order to accelerate the appearance of a favorable environment for fish life, it is recommended to add a little water from a long-established safe aquarium. If you bend over a normally functioning aquarium, you can smell the plants. Any other smell, like ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, indicates a malfunction of the processes taking place in the aquarium. In this case, it is necessary to clean the soil and replace part of the water.
The water in a normally functioning aquarium becomes completely transparent, but when it is drained into an opaque container, it turns out to be slightly yellowish.
When servicing the aquarium, it is recommended to replace some of the water with fresh water weekly. over, the larger the aquarium, the smaller part needs to be replaced. With an aquarium volume of 60 liters, about 1/4 of the volume needs to be changed weekly. And with a volume of 250 liters, the water change procedure can be carried out every two weeks, even if less than 1/5 of the water volume is changed.
Filtration of water plays a significant role. The filter produces:
Water purification from inorganic particles in suspension in water.
Removal of dissolved organic compounds and nitrogen-containing metabolic products from water.
Removing certain solutes from the water, such as medications after fish treatment.
Creation of water circulation in the aquarium.
Enrichment of water with certain substances dissolved in it.
Aeration of water in the aquarium
The concentration of oxygen dissolved in water is in direct proportion to the population of the aquarium, its depth, water surface area, illumination mode, water temperature and some other factors. Aquatic plants play a huge role in maintaining normal oxygen conditions in the aquarium. In large aquariums that are well planted and contain relatively few fish, oxygen can be self-sufficient as it is produced in sufficient quantities by photosynthesis. At first glance, its additional supply by aeration, i.e. Blowing air through the water is unnecessary. However, in practice, as a rule, there is a lack of oxygen.
Factors affecting oxygen in water
Oxygen in water is affected by the temperature of the water: the warmer the water, the less oxygen it contains, and vice versa. In addition, an increased temperature accelerates metabolic processes in fish, as a result of which their oxygen demand increases precisely at a time when it decreases in water. This problem can be dealt with by more intensive aeration.
Plants are often prized for their ability to produce oxygen. However, it should be remembered that at night they consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. Thus, while plants can actually help meet the oxygen needs of fish during the day, at night everything in the aquarium competes for oxygen, which decreases at this time of day. Therefore, in aquariums with dense planting of plants, there may be a lack of oxygen at night.
Snails and other living things.
A large population of snails can have a significant effect on oxygen in the aquarium. Bacteria can do the same. Oxygen consumption by aerobic bacteria involved in the nitrogen cycle is acceptable because they provide significant benefits in return. However, if there is excess organic waste in the aquarium (for example, due to regular overfeeding of fish), the bacterial population will grow and absorb more oxygen than when the fish are fed rationally. Snails, of course, also increase organic waste.
The importance of aeration of the aquarium water, which is produced with the help of special compressors blowing air through it from sprayers, is not only in saturating the water with oxygen. Aeration, among other things, causes mixing of water layers with the help of air bubbles, helps to equalize the temperature in the aquarium at all its levels, and especially, if the water is artificially heated, eliminates sudden changes in water temperature, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the circulation of water created by the powerful air flow simulates the specific environmental conditions required by various types of aquarium fish. Aeration of the aquarium water helps to increase the flow of the soil, ensures the creation of the necessary conditions for the normal functioning of soil bacteria, which prevents the accumulation and decay of organic residues and thereby the formation of gases harmful to fish, such as ammonia, methane and hydrogen sulfide.
Filtration of water in the aquarium
Filtration of water in an aquarium is necessary for mechanical water purification from suspended matter, for chemical purification of water from waste products of fish and other aquarium population.
In all, even properly equipped and balanced aquariums, the water should be cleaned from dirt particles, food residues, mucus and accumulated metabolic products, if dirt accumulates on the bottom and plants, the water becomes cloudy, especially if the aquarium is inhabited by fish that dig in the ground. In certain cases, water purification should be considered necessary, especially in overcrowded aquariums.
Water in aquariums is purified using filters. The principle of operation of filters is based on the following: air bubbles passing through a thin tube capture water with them, which, passing through the filler. The filter element, located at the bottom or in the ground, leaves suspended particles in it and, after being cleaned, returns to the aquarium. In most aquarium filters, water is circulated by the movement of air bubbles generated by a compressor.
In large aquariums with a large number of large fish digging in the ground, it is advisable to use centrifugal filters with an autonomous motor. For mechanical water purification from suspended particles, fillers are used in all types of filters. Sand, nylon thread, parolon, other porous neutral materials.
The filtration process consists of two phases: mechanical and biological. Dirt particles are retained on the filter material. This is a mechanical phase. But then saprophytic bacteria attack this dirt and decompose it to simple mineral substances. Ideally up to water, carbon dioxide, nitrates and some others. This is the biological phase. And if it is performed in full, the water in the aquarium will always be crystal clear.
But this is ideal, that is, if the filter substrate is densely populated with bacteria. In fact, the filter media is a giant colony of microorganisms. But the new filter has not yet managed to settle a sufficient number of microorganisms. If the filter is washed well every time, then again there will be no necessary microorganisms in the required amount! In this case, the biological filtration of the aquarium water will not be performed in full. The water of the aquarium will be saturated with semi-decomposed organic substances and microorganisms will be diluted in a huge amount right in it, making it whitish-turbid! The filter practically does not trap bacteria and it is useless to hope to filter them out.
What then to do? You don’t have to do anything. It will pass by itself. Will settle in the filter “correct” bacteria, when there are a lot of them, they will not allow the release of semi-decomposed organic matter into the water and bacteria freely floating in the water will die of hunger. The white dregs will disappear. The water will become clear, a biological balance will be established in the aquarium.
The filter media should be washed only when necessary. THOSE. Then, when its overgrowth with bacterial films and silt begins to interfere with the pumping of water. In this case, absolutely no detergent should be used. It is best to rinse it with water downloaded from the same aquarium with a partial change. The purpose of this procedure. Do not wash the filter to sterile cleanliness, but loosen the pores of the filler and restore a sufficiently free flow of water through the filter.
The process of establishing biological equilibrium can be accelerated many times if an OLD DIRT FILTER from a safe aquarium is placed in a new aquarium, or a sufficient amount (about 10%) of old soil is added. There are special bacterial preparations that also significantly speed up this process.
And in conclusion, we will answer WHY IT IS NOT PERMITTED TO DISCONNECT THE AQUARIUM FILTER. Yes, because in fact he is alive, and without an influx of fresh water saturated with oxygen, he will quickly die. Instead of beneficial nitrifying bacteria, anaerobic microorganisms will settle in it, which will begin to release hydrogen sulfide and methane. If you start, without washing, the filter is turned off, which has stood for several days, fish can be poisoned.
Currently, there are filters that not only purify aquarium water from turbidity, but at the same time are a kind of regulators of the chemical composition of the water. These filters use ion exchange resin, peat chips, activated carbon, and other materials as a filtering filler.
The choice of filter depends both on the size of the aquarium and on the number and sensitivity of the fish living in it. In principle, there are two types of filtration: internal and external.
What types of filters are there:
Bottom, installed on the ground or inside it;
internal, fixed on the inner wall of the aquarium;
external, standing separately from the aquarium or attached to the outer wall of the aquarium.
These filters have certain advantages. By creating the movement of water in the soil, these filters contribute to the development of beneficial soil microflora. However, the bottom filter can function normally only when the soil has sufficient drainage properties.
The disadvantages of bottom filters include the inconvenience of their maintenance.
These filters are simpler and easier to use. Such a filter is a spray, which is located inside a foam chamber located at the bottom. To clean it, just remove the foam cover, rinse it, wring it out and put it on again. The advantage of internal filtration is mainly that it takes place on site and the dirt is collected and removed right inside the water tank. The filter itself, if you don’t want to look at it once again, can be covered with a snag or a stone. When the cartridge becomes clogged, it can be removed and cleaned without picking up a lot of dirt.
These filters are the most difficult to manufacture, but more convenient to use. Their filter media is outside the aquarium.
Poisonous substances of organic or inorganic origin are converted or degraded inside the filter mainly by living organisms. These processes involve mainly aerobic bacteria. Tiny living organisms, the activity of which is due to the rich m of oxygen in the water. When designing such a filter, water is given the opportunity to often take in oxygen, which is beneficial to bacteria.
The biofilter must provide the bacteria with a substrate and water with high oxygen levels. On the picture. Flow-through filter scheme, where water, having passed the granulate compartment, is passed through the upper edge of the wall into the intermediate chamber and at the same time absorbs oxygen.
Changing the water in the aquarium
No matter how well the filter system functions, they still cannot remove all harmful substances from the water. Therefore, along with water purification using filters, you have to regularly deal with its partial replacement. It is recommended to change a third of the total volume of water in the aquarium weekly. Together with fresh water, carbon dioxide is supplied to the aquarium, which the plants need. When changing water, fish and plants should not be exposed to too sharp temperature changes.
A siphon is used to remove the sludge accumulating at the bottom of the aquarium at the same time as changing the water.
The simplest siphon. This is a hose with a funnel at one end. When we drain the water from the aquarium, we stir the soil with a funnel, the sludge is released, sucked into the funnel and drained along with the water. There are many types of siphons: from a simple hose with a funnel, electric siphons, where water does not drain, but passes through a filter and returns to the aquarium, to drain and fill systems.
Simple siphons are easy to make yourself.
It is possible to recommend purchasing a separate hose of the required length and a separate flask (funnel). Flasks come in many different shapes. High ones are preferable, since the soil, rising to the middle of the flask, sinks back, and sludge, at the same time, is successfully sucked into the hose. If the aquarium is heavily overgrown with grass, then special thin nozzles are used to siphon the soil in the aquarium between and under the plants. As a rule, it is necessary to siphon the soil in the aquarium once a week. It depends on many factors: the number of fish in the aquarium, plants that require highly silted soil, and many others.
What is the optimal water temperature?
The temperature of the water in the aquarium must be monitored constantly and carefully. This is due to the following factors:
- When the water temperature drops, the animal loses appetite, the behavior becomes sluggish, followed by a decrease in immunity, if you do not take action in time, death may occur.
- Too high water temperature leads to the fact that the pet will spend a lot of time on land, as it will feel uncomfortable in the water, as a result, the rate of its growth and activity will decrease.
In order to avoid the described problems, the water temperature in the aquarium must be kept within 22-28 degrees Celsius, the maximum temperature threshold is 30. An aquarium heater with a temperature control function will help in this difficult, and important matter. Optionally, you can install a temperature thermometer for water.
Remember, the optimal temperature regime is a guarantee of health, vitality and activity of the turtle.
Water temperatures for red-eared turtle
Many people dream of adopting a red-eared turtle as an unpretentious pet, but before making a dream come true, you should find out the basic requirements that must be observed in order for a freshwater creature to feel great in a person’s home or office space.
So, what you need to pay attention to:
- What temperature regime of water to maintain in the aquarium?
- How to create optimal conditions for keeping your turtle?
- Rules for keeping the aquarium clean.
Creating conditions for keeping a red-eared turtle
Consider what conditions must be created for the red-eared turtle so that it delights you for many years in a row. In captivity, with good care, this species of freshwater lives for 30-40 years. The aquarium is selected taking into account at least 100 liters / individual, the thickness of the water layer is at least 40 centimeters. Turtles need both an aquatic environment and a land zone (the ascent to which should begin from the very bottom of the bottom), since they are lovers of soaking up the sun (and at home. in the ultraviolet rays. for the proper development of the turtle and as a prevention of diseases).
Keeping the water clean
In order to purify the water from harmful organic substances, 30-40% of the water in the aquarium should be changed 1-2 times a week, since the habitat of the red-eared turtle becomes polluted rather quickly.
To slow down the process and rate of water pollution, you can install a filter that is used when keeping aquarium fish.
Important: since the water temperature must be constant, without sudden fluctuations, in order to avoid hypothermia or overheating of the animal, replaceable water (30-40%) should be brought to the same temperature as in the aquarium. In addition, before changing part of the water in the place where the pet is kept, it is necessary to let it settle for 10 days and only then pour it into the aquarium.
If you are the lucky owner of a female red-eared turtle, and she laid and buried eggs (her future offspring) in the ground of the aquarium, the clutch will begin to ripen only if the water is heated to 25 degrees Celsius and the temperature of the ground is at least 21. Temperature the body of turtles is unstable. it can significantly exceed the temperature of water and air.
You should know that it is not advisable to let the red-eared turtle walk on the floor, as it can get sick from a draft. So, the factors that directly affect the state of her health are proper care, optimal temperature and purity of the aquatic environment, so such an unusual pet is a responsible process.
For American cichlids
They are divided into 2 groups: one lives in the warm waters of South America, the other lives in its central part. Tropical cichlids can live only in very warm water, at a temperature of 25-28 °, with difficulty even tolerating a decrease to 22. But the upper limit can reach more than 33 °.
Cichlids from Central America thrive in water with a temperature of 21-24 °. Easily carried in a cool environment at a temperature of 13-15 °. Upper limit 28 °.
These peaceful small-sized catfish also need warm water. The optimum temperature for catfish is 26-27, minimum 23, maximum 32 °.
For parrot fish
For unpretentious parrots, water from 21 to 25 ° is quite suitable. Lowering less than 18 ° will negatively affect the health of parrot fish. As non-tropical fish, parrots are not recommended to be kept in too warm environmental conditions.
For Malawian cichlids
In nature, they live in a lake with a stable temperature in the range of 24-26 °. It is she who is optimal for keeping cichlids from Lake Malawi.
The temperature can be lowered to 20 ° and raised to 30 ° C only for a short time (no more than 5-6 hours). over, cichlids tolerate cool water much easier than warm.
To measure this indicator, special thermometers are used. They are placed in the middle layer of the aqueous medium, at the maximum distance from the heater. It is best to purchase a special thermometer that is submerged in the water rather than attached to the outside of the aquarium. The latter measures not so much the water itself as the air surrounding the aquarium.
Currently, there are several types of devices:
- Electronic. A very accurate thermometer, which also starts to beep when the optimal mode is violated. The main disadvantage is the very high cost;
- Mercury. Quite accurate, cheap and easy-to-use thermometer. However, if it breaks, all life in the aquarium will die;
- Liquid crystal. An innovative thin strip instrument with a color scale. It is glued to the outside of the aquarium. The disadvantage is the low accuracy of the readings;
- Alcoholic. A cheap and convenient but short-lived device that gradually loses its accuracy.
An explanation of how to calibrate aquarium thermometers
In nature, guppies live in freshwater and slightly salty water bodies around the world. The optimum temperature for keeping guppies is 23-26 °, the lower survival threshold is 14 °, the upper one is 32.
If guppies are kept in cool water, they grow larger, but they get sick much more easily.
Why the right water temperature is so important?
Fish are cold-blooded creatures, which means that their body temperature always depends on the ambient temperature. With an optimal indicator, the fish feel good, do not get sick and do not suffer from metabolic disorders.
If the water is too cold, all processes in the body slow down, immunity decreases sharply, the fish become inactive and susceptible to any infections. With strong water heating, metabolic processes accelerate, fish become very restless, begin to consume a lot of oxygen and experience a lack of it. In this case, they float to the surface, convulsively swallowing ordinary air. Death often occurs precisely because of oxygen deficiency.
Sharp shifts in one direction or another affect the health of aquarium inhabitants even more.
Already with a difference of 3-4 °, a shock condition develops in fish, which very often leads to death.
In nature, zebrafish live in the southeastern part of Asia, inhabiting rivers and streams. The optimum temperature for zebrafish is 21-24 °, to stimulate breeding, it is increased to 28-29. Lower threshold 15, upper 31 °.
In nature, you will not see cockerels, since they are bred by selection. The optimum temperature for males is 23–25 °. Lower 19, Upper 29.
Keeping cockerels in a cool aquarium all the time can cause soreness.