When a pregnant dog has milk
A pregnant dog requires special care. In order for the birth to go smoothly, without complications, and the puppies were born strong and healthy, the dog owner must know the basic questions of veterinary medicine.
In a healthy dog, pregnancy lasts an average of 60–66 days. However, the possibility is not excluded that the pregnancy may end on the 57th day or, conversely, drag on for another week. The occurrence of abnormalities is primarily due to the long time interval between mating and ovulation. For example, if ovulation occurred on the 4th day after mating, fertilization will occur in 3 days, that is, already on the 7th day. You need to contact a veterinarian if the deviations in terms are more than 10 days.
A pregnant dog requires special attention and gentle care
Changes in the dog’s physical parameters and composition of the diet
In the first 3 weeks of pregnancy, the condition and behavior of the bitch does not undergo any special changes.
At this time, the conditions of her detention do not change either.
In order for the pregnancy to proceed without complications, it is necessary to exclude the dog’s stay with sick animals, and also not to treat it with toxic agents. In the second half of pregnancy, the dog’s appearance changes significantly as a result of the groin drooping. Usually the dog loses its appetite, gets tired quickly during walks. The duration of walks should be increased only before childbirth.
The number of walks is determined by the condition of the dog. If she asks to go outside at night, it is necessary to fulfill her demand, because in recent weeks the uterus is strongly pressing on the bladder.
Walking for a pregnant dog should be regular and done on demand.
A few days before giving birth, a pregnant bitch swells nipples and colostrum appears.
Throughout pregnancy, the dog may experience nausea and refusal to eat. The latter is sometimes associated with her intolerance to some products.
In the event that bloody or greenish discharge appears, an urgent need to consult a veterinarian.
False breeding usually develops in unfertilized bitches 5–8 weeks after mating. The main signs are swelling of the mammary glands and the appearance of colostrum in them. The dog is very restless, whines, refuses food and walks. Sometimes she prepares a birthing place for herself and brings toys there. Usually such bitches are used as wet nurses if they let other people’s puppies near them.
In order to help the dog cope with this condition, it is necessary, after consulting a doctor, to give her sedatives and psychotropic drugs. Dairy products are excluded from the diet, and the amount of fluid consumed is reduced to a minimum.
Your dog should wear a muzzle to prevent breast stimulation. Sometimes changing the place of rest and feeding and increasing physical activity help. If the mammary glands produce a lot of milk, they should be bandaged with an elastic bandage.
The time when the dog prepares to bring the puppies is one of the most important periods in the breeder’s work. Not only its health, but also the health of the future offspring depends on how correct the care of the dog will be.
A room is allocated for the dog in the house where it will whelp, and a special place is prepared. She will occupy this room for about 3 weeks. She is transferred to a prepared room about 7-10 days before delivery and left for about 14 days after birth.
For childbirth, the dog is allocated a separate room, preferably impassable
It is not advisable to transfer the dog to the place of birth at the last moment: she may not accept him, get nervous and give birth where she likes, but it is inconvenient for the owners.
The bitch must get used to the new place, so she is arranged there no later than 1 week before giving birth.
For the convenience of the dog, you can make a special box for childbirth. It can be of any design, but it is desirable that one of the boards be removable for easy cleaning and care of the puppies.
The box is made to fit the size of the dog, since many bitches during childbirth rest their paws against the walls to facilitate the process. The material for the birthing box should be selected that is easy to clean and does not absorb odor after disinfection.
A protrusion is made around the perimeter of the birthing box so that the dog does not accidentally crush the crawling puppies against the wall.
Immediately before childbirth, the bottom of the box is lined with oilcloth, and a bedding made of old fabric is placed on top, which can then be thrown away.
The place in the room where the birthing box will stand must be dry and clean, out of reach of drafts and direct sunlight. It is recommended to keep the temperature at 28-30 ° C to prevent newborn puppies from catching cold.
In the cold season, additional heating of the birthing box is arranged. For this purpose, an infrared lamp with a height regulator is best suited, which is positioned so that the hand feels warm at the level of the delivery site.
During childbirth, there should be no strangers in the room who can irritate the bitch. In addition, sometimes the dog, having given birth to the first puppy, begins to defend him, showing aggressiveness.
About 1 month before giving birth, the dog’s belly enlarges. When 3 weeks remain before delivery, vaginal edema begins and outflows appear. The female mammary glands swell 10-15 days before delivery.
One indicator of an impending birth is a change in the dog’s behavior. 1 week before childbirth, she begins to get nervous, look for a place, may refuse to eat. In this case, she is fed in small portions and the condition of her feces is checked. If its color turns yellowish or dark green, and the smell is extremely unpleasant, then the dog urgently needs to be shown to the veterinarian.
Before giving birth, the dog’s behavior changes: she begins to get very nervous, look for a place
A decrease in body temperature is also a sign that childbirth is near, therefore, starting from the 57th day of pregnancy, you need to measure the temperature of the dog in the morning and in the evening.
Milk appears in a dog 2-3 days before childbirth.
An increase in temperature to 39 ° C shows that not everything is well with the dog, so an urgent need to call a doctor. Sometimes this condition of the dog is a sign of fetal death.
2-3 days before giving birth, you need to exclude fish and meat products from the dog’s diet and reduce the amount of salt. If this is not done, you can provoke eclampsia in the bitch. Symptoms are seizures, high blood pressure, and edema.
Eclampsia can be congenital or acquired, resulting from the fact that the diet of the bitch in the last week of pregnancy contains hard-to-digest protein.
Childbirth in a dog can proceed in different ways. If the bitch is experienced, then she will cope on her own, and the owner can only follow the process.
During the normal course of labor, the dog often needs help, especially the first time. If complications arise during childbirth, you will need the help of a veterinarian. It is advisable to show the dog to the doctor in advance if there is a suspicion that it may have problems during childbirth.
No matter how the birth of the dog takes place, you should be ready for any situation and know how to act in this or that case. Before childbirth, a table is prepared and placed next to the birthing box, laying out everything that may be required on it:
disinfected gauze wipes and towels;
a thermometer to check the temperature in the birthing box;
a cuvette with a disinfectant solution for instruments;
scissors with rounded ends for cutting the umbilical cord;
sterile harsh threads for cord ligation;
woolen threads of different colors or bottles of colored varnish to mark puppies;
a pen and a table for recording data on puppies born;
veterinarian phone number;
light broth or sweet milk tea (to your dog’s taste).
A few days before giving birth, it is recommended to start a special notebook and draw a table on its first page, in which data on the puppies born are entered. In the future, this notebook will become a diary of observations of the development of babies. The table is split into several columns:
It is necessary to prepare the postpartum overalls in advance, which protects the nipples of the bitch from cold, dirt and dust during a walk.
the number and color of the thread with which the puppy is marked;
notes on individual characteristics.
There should always be a bowl of water near the birthing box. The bitch is prepared before the onset of childbirth: the croup, perineum and external genitals are washed with warm water and soap, and then treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate (1: 1000) or furacilin (1: 5000).
In the event that the owner will help the dog during childbirth, before the start of the contractions, he should cut his nails on his hands, wash them with soap and wipe them with a 0.1% solution of iodized alcohol.
Just before labor begins, the dog seeks solitude, scrubbing and digging the bedding, trying to make itself a nest. She breathes often and heavily, lies without getting up, refuses food, is nervous, her body muscles tremble finely and the fruits appear to move.
Before the onset of labor, the dog most often refuses food and is very nervous.
The bitch’s temperature decreases in the last days before giving birth and increases during childbirth, which can last from 3 to 12 hours. The dog’s temperature reaches its maximum at the time of birth of the last puppy.
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As a rule, this stage lasts from 6 to 30 hours and is accompanied by contractions, that is, contractions of the muscles of the uterus. Under their influence, the cervical canal opens, into which the presenting fetal bladder is then introduced. The progress of this process is invisible from the outside.
Temperature measurements should be taken every 12 hours during the week: 4 days before delivery and 3 days after.
The beginning of this stage is considered to be complete dilatation of the cervix. Periodic contractions and later attempts (contractions of the muscles of the abdominal wall) force the presenting fetus to move into the birth canal to be taken out.
Puppies can be born head or pelvis forward depending on presentation. The fetal bladder ruptures during its passage through the birth canal or after exiting. The bitch bites the umbilical cord of the puppy, frees it from the membranes, licks it, massaging it and stimulating blood circulation and breathing.
If the birth of the first puppy is delayed, there is no need to try to speed it up. This process should be natural.
The use of drugs that enhance the contraction of the uterus can lead to its rupture, since it is in good shape.
Immediately after the appearance of the fetus, the placenta is born, which the bitch eats. Sometimes the afterbirth is delayed and comes out after the next puppy appears.
The afterbirth is rich in biologically active substances that are necessary for the bitch to continue childbirth and lactation, that is, to produce milk. Outwardly, the afterbirth resembles a piece of raw liver. The dog should not eat all the afterbirths, as this may cause black diarrhea with a pungent unpleasant odor. For the normal functioning of the body, the bitch needs to eat 1–2 afterbirth.
Newly born puppies are licked by a dog
Sometimes dogs who are giving birth for the first time may feel the urge to eat them when licking the puppies. This behavior is a consequence of birth shock and can last for several hours. The owner must be prepared for this situation in order to protect the newborn.
To avoid possible troubles, you should stay close to the puppies during the first 24 hours after birth.
The length of time a dog will normally give birth depends on various factors. Each subsequent puppy is born 1-10 minutes after the previous one. Sometimes the interval between the appearance of babies can reach 1 hour. Usually childbirth lasts from 3 to 12 hours.
If more than 2 hours have passed since the last puppy came out, we can assume that the birth is over.
It often happens that the last afterbirth is born within 15-60 minutes after the appearance of the last puppy. At this time, you can give the bitch an injection of oxytocin, calculating the dose depending on her weight. Under the action of the drug, the uterus will contract, and the expulsion of the remaining placenta will be easier and faster.
The exit of the placenta may be accompanied by slight bleeding and green discharge. This is due to the fact that hematomas form in the placenta, in which hemoglobin turns into a green pigment that stains the discharge.
Discharge from the uterus in the first days after childbirth has a greenish-brown or reddish color, then they become light and viscous, after 7-8 days become transparent, after 20. stop completely. Sometimes the discharge lasts about a month.
If the dog has any complications during childbirth, the owner should be ready to help her. If there is a delay in the release of the fetus, which has already appeared from the genital slit, you need to help the bitch in a way that depends on the presentation of the fetus.
In this case, you need to gently pull the puppy by the head and limbs or by the folds of the skin on both sides of the fetus’s neck in time with the pushing. When removing the puppy, proceed slowly and carefully, rocking the fetus to the right and left. Do not pull too hard on the head to avoid damaging the puppy’s spinal cord. It is good to grab the puppy that appears with a gauze napkin.
The fetal limbs bent at the shoulder joints can be easily straightened by picking them up with a bent index finger.
Presentation types: a. head presentation; b. pelvic
This is a dangerous situation for the puppy, so you should rush to provide assistance, otherwise he may die from asphyxiation due to prolonged squeezing of the umbilical cord. You need to pull the fetus by the hind limbs and the tail or skin of the knee folds, depending on how far it has come out of the genital slit of the bitch.
If there is dryness of the birth canal, lubricate the mucous membrane with sterile petroleum jelly or pour in petroleum jelly using a syringe or rubber catheter.
When the dog’s efforts are weakened or stopped during childbirth due to fatigue (many puppies), it is necessary to support its strength by giving it warm broth or sweet tea with milk. However, a dog should not be given a lot of tea, as this can increase milk production, and newborn puppies will not be able to suck a large amount of it. Excess milk in the bitch can become inflamed and hardened nipples and develop mastitis.
If your dog is very tired during childbirth, you can try to take him outside so that he empties his bowels and bladder.
All other cases of obstetric care for a giving birth dog require professional skills. Only a veterinarian can correctly assess the situation and make the right decision.
Sometimes it happens that dogs, especially those giving birth for the first time, do not know what to do with the puppies they just gave birth to. In this case, you will have to help the kids.
The same help should be given to puppies if the bitch is very tired due to prolonged contractions or the labor is so fast that she does not have time to lick all the newborns.
In these cases, it is necessary to carefully and quickly open the membranes in the area of the puppy’s head and remove mucus from the mouth and nasal openings of the newborn so that he does not die from suffocation. Mucus is removed with a gauze swab or sucked off with a small syringe.
Then you need to lift the umbilical cord so that all the liquid that is in it flows out to the puppy. This substance is rich in nutrients that a baby needs. Then the umbilical cord is tied with a sterile harsh thread no closer than 2 cm from the belly of the newborn and cut off over the dressing.
A long umbilical cord should not be left on, as the puppy may step on it and develop an umbilical hernia. You can try to cure this disease yourself: a flat solid object of a suitable size is glued to the hernia site with an adhesive plaster. After a while, the hernia may disappear. If this does not happen, the puppy may need surgery.
After the umbilical cord is ligated, the puppy should be wiped off with a towel and a massage should be done to stimulate breathing and circulation. If the puppy does not breathe or his breathing is difficult, the baby is taken in his arms, the head is fixed with his fingers and shaken with sudden downward movements to free the respiratory tract from mucus. Almost immediately, the puppy will snort and squeak.
There is another way to help the puppy in this situation: open the mouth and remove the mucus with a piece of gauze rolled into a thin tube.
Occasionally, a newborn has a tongue that needs to be pulled out.
A sluggish puppy with weak breathing should be massaged with light pressure on the ribs in a rapid rhythm, about 2-3 times per second. If this does not help, as a last resort, you can moisten the back of the baby’s head with cold water, repeat the massage and rub his body with a dry towel.
A newborn puppy must be attached to the mother’s nipple, having previously massaged it so that colostrum appears, and wait until the baby begins to suck. When the puppy has eaten, it is wrapped in a dry cloth and placed in a box, which should be positioned so that the dog can see its pups.
The box for the mother and puppies should be with special borders so that the dog does not accidentally crush the babies
Sucking milk and the presence of puppies stimulates the birthing process. The squeak of babies that the dog sees does not irritate him. There is an opinion that at the birth of each puppy, all the babies that appeared before him should be put back to the mother. This is quite tiring, but the bitch calmly gives birth to the next puppy, without being nervous or distracted.
Immediately before childbirth or during its course, the bitch produces colostrum, which is necessary for newborn puppies. The babies are applied to the mother’s nipples in turn so that the first feeding takes place without competition.
Sometimes it happens that the dog has not yet begun lactation by the time of birth. In this case, each puppy needs to be drunk from a pipette with goat milk or a specially prepared solution of a double portion of milk powder. A few drops are enough for a newborn. Although artificial feeding is not a substitute for breast milk, it will help weak puppies bounce back. If childbirth proceeded normally, then after the birth, you just need to make sure that all puppies are alive, processed and suckling milk.
It is important that each puppy receives the same amount of colostrum, which should be as large as possible. In the first 6 hours of his life, the baby absorbs the greatest amount of antibodies from colostrum, and in the future, the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines will not allow them to enter the puppy’s body.
When childbirth is over, you should take the bitch for a walk, then wash her genitals with warm water so that the amniotic fluid does not irritate the mucous membrane, and wipe dry with a towel. Then the dog is sent to feed the puppies, making sure that they all eat.
When the dog is walking, a family member or person who assisted during childbirth should clean up the birthing box, change the bedding and make sure the puppies are warm.
Some bitches show symptoms of postpartum tetany after giving birth. When the seizure subsides, the dog revives and tries to get up, when it intensifies, it continues to lie with a fixed gaze. The bitch will refuse to eat and stop defecating. In this case, she needs urgent medical attention. It is necessary to wrap it up warmly, apply a heating pad to the extremities, give about 30 drops of valocordin or corvalol and immediately call the veterinarian.
If it is not possible to see a doctor, medications should be given to the bitch. It is necessary to inject 10% calcium gluconate solution (from 2 to 5 ml, depending on the dog’s body weight) and 25% magnesium sulfate solution (4 ml) intramuscularly. Sulfocamphocaine and cordiamine (0.5-2 ml) are injected subcutaneously.
To prevent tetany, a pregnant bitch should be fed food containing a sufficient amount of minerals and vitamins, exclude raw meat from the diet in the last week before giving birth and start giving it again only a week after giving birth. As a prophylaxis of this disease, sunbathing and an increase in the norm of calcium in mineral feeding are useful for a dog.
Some dogs are very difficult to experience the consequences of childbirth, so it is better to invite a veterinarian to them.
In the first days after giving birth, the dog needs to be taken outside on demand. You should thoroughly wash the dog’s paws after walking and wipe the nipples with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. The nipples of a nursing bitch generally need constant care: they need to be carefully examined every day in order to detect cracks or symptoms of mastitis in time. Dressings with synthomycin emulsion should be used if cracked nipples are found.
Within 2-3 days after giving birth, the bitch may have no appetite, but she must be fed after 6-8 hours. On these days, the dog should have constant access to water.
Feeding the dog on the following days of the 1st week should be done 4 times a day.
The diet should include vitamin and mineral supplements. You need to feed the bitch mainly with liquid food: milk, cottage cheese, liquid cereals, with good tolerance, you can give fermented milk products. Meat soup with cereals and boiled meat are included in the diet in small portions and gradually.
In the 2nd week, the bitch can begin to feed raw meat in small pieces.
At 3 weeks of age, feeding the dog should become more varied and abundant so that both she and the puppies can get enough nutrients.
The diet of a lactating dog is compiled depending on its physiological characteristics
Puppies will be stunted if their mother is not adequately nourished. The bitch needs to be fed 3 times a day, depending on what condition she is in and how many puppies she has.
In order for the lactating bitch’s need for minerals and vitamins to be fully satisfied, bone meal, greens, fresh vegetables and vitamin preparations should be included in her diet.
It is good to give ascorbic acid with glucose every day to a nursing dog.
To increase lactation, the animal can be given walnuts and apilak, which is a biogenic stimulant. It is also good to give it a coffee drink with milk and honey. In the period from 4 to 6 weeks after birth, as the puppies begin to receive complementary foods, you can begin to reduce the amount of food for the bitch, but you cannot reduce her calorie content.
To increase lactation, the dog is advised to give nuts
You should gradually reduce the amount of fluid consumed in order to reduce lactation, and for its complete cessation, you need not feed the bitch for 1 day and limit her drinking. At this time, the dog needs to do a light massage of the nipples 2-3 times a day, lubricating them with camphor oil with vitamin A, and apply a warm towel. It is also useful for stopping milk production.
The bitch will begin to shed vigorously a few weeks after giving birth, but this is a natural process and not a cause for concern. The dog should be combed twice a day until the old coat is completely replaced by a new, shiny and smooth coat.
By the time the puppies are distributed, their mother is allowed to the babies only so that they suck milk from her and so that she makes sure that everything is in order with them.
Puppies should be given away gradually, otherwise the dog will experience serious stress.
Culling of puppies is carried out not only to remove weakened individuals with unfavorable traits from reproduction, but also for economic reasons. Culling should be done around the 4th day after puppies are born. Individuals with obvious defects are immediately discarded: the presence of an incomplete palatine septum (when sucking milk enters the nose), inappropriate color, albinos. Puppies that cannot suck are also discarded.
If culling is forced (litter is too large), then the criterion may be the sex of the puppy.
biotonus (viability). Puppies that are unable to suck milk and find its source from the first days of life;
weight (if the weight is less than the norm, the puppy is not viable);
head volume (large heads in viable puppies).
After culling, the dewclaws are cropped to the remaining puppies. This operation can only be performed by an experienced breeder or highly qualified veterinarian.
By the end of the first month of pregnancy, the dog’s belly gradually rounds, the mammary glands increase in volume. The dog begins to move with caution, becomes less agile and more sedate. It is at this time that the needs for nutrients increase, more calories, protein, vitamins and minerals are needed. For the correct development of the puppies and the support of the mother, it is very important to have an increased calcium and phosphorus ratio in the feed. Vitamin E (tocopherol) is also needed, its name translated from Latin means “I bear offspring,” it, together with the mineral selenium, is needed for the safe bearing of fruits. By the end of the first month, it is worth transferring the expectant mother to puppy food.
He meets these increased nutritional needs. As a rule, the daily feed intake is written on the food bag, not only for puppies, but also for mothers. The same food will be needed for feeding the dog during lactation and for the gradual transfer of already grown puppies to independent nutrition. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), contained in such diets, affects the development of the brain and visual analyzer in fetuses in the second half of pregnancy, as well as in puppies receiving the first complementary foods. DHA is found in milk replacer formulas for both puppies and human babies. It has been proven to be effective for the development of the brain in babies of all types of mammals! At the end of the first month of pregnancy and for the entire second month, it is advisable to increase the number of feedings for the dog and reduce the portions. Thus, the dog will consume its daily allowance in 3-4 times. This will allow not to burden the stomach and intestines and relieve the expectant mother from the heaviness in the stomach. The dog’s body spends a lot of resources for the formation of fetuses, the puppies in the uterus quickly increase in size, their organ systems develop, the puppies begin to move, and this becomes noticeable!
The second half of pregnancy is a period when the abdomen rapidly increases in volume, and milk may appear in the mammary glands. The expectant mother needs special care during this period. Nutrition is still puppy food from 1 to 12 months.
Keep walking your dog, it should get moderate exercise, walking in the fresh air is a great option! It is advisable to go out for walks more often, 3-4 times a day. After all, a dog in the second half of pregnancy cannot endure for a long time, the urge to urinate is becoming more frequent, the overflowing bladder simply does not fit in the stomach!
By the end of the second month of pregnancy, the dog’s body begins to prepare for childbirth. The dog’s behavior changes, a few days before giving birth, she begins to “build a nest”: digs bedding, the appetite may decrease slightly. About a day before giving birth, the rectal body temperature drops by 1-1.5 degrees (up to about 37 degrees), the abdomen “sinks”, the dog begins to worry and look for a suitable place for childbirth. During this period, the owner of the dog should be ready to receive offspring. In advance, you need to prepare the place where the birth will take place, diapers, clean ironed sheets, sterile napkins, threads for tying the umbilical cord, scissors, alcohol, cotton pads (in order to disinfect the scissors before cutting the umbilical cord and disinfect the umbilical cord of the puppy). Immediately before childbirth, water leaves (the dog assumes a posture for urination), the time of discharge of water must be recorded, as well as the time of birth of each puppy. It is imperative to make sure that the number of puppies born coincides with the number of successions. Normal labor can last up to a day. It is necessary to keep the phone number of a doctor or a 24-hour clinic ready, where they can help if something goes wrong. But more often than not, fortunately, dogs cope on their own, without the help of a doctor.
Pregnancy and childbirth are exciting times for the dog owner. But all the difficulties and worries will pay off a hundredfold when you watch adorable babies and a happy mother!
When a pregnant dog has milk
Pregnancy lasts 58-66 days. The first signs of pregnancy appear in a month. The bitch becomes calmer, sluggish, sleeps more, drinks, eats. Based on these observations, external signs of pregnancy have been established: increased belly and weight of the dog. there are 30-35 days left before whelping; discharge flows from the female genitals, the external genital organs increase. no more than 20 days left; discharge flows from the nipples, the udder has increased, you can feel the puppies through the abdominal wall. 10-15 days left; body temperature decreases, colostrum appears. no more than 2-3 days left; body temperature drops by 1.5-2 ° C, appetite decreases or completely disappears. no more than 1 day left;
Sometimes embryos at an early stage of development resurrect and disappear. But the development of the fetus that has begun triggers the corresponding functions of the body: the belly, udder and nipples of the bitch increase, even milk appears. The behavior of the bitch changes greatly, she prepares the nest, does not eat, etc. This phenomenon is called false pregnancy. Sometimes it even occurs in unpaired bitches. At first, babysitting for a pregnant bitch is not much different from the previous one. You just need to walk with her as much as possible, since clean air and sun are very useful for future puppies. In the first half of pregnancy, the bitch can be trained and taken to her usual work, only difficult obstacles must be avoided, and she must not be overworked. In the second half of pregnancy, the bitch does not participate in training, she is protected from overexertion, sudden movements, jumps, blows to the stomach. Under no circumstances should the bitch be allowed to gain weight, otherwise it will be difficult for her to whelp. The place where the bitch should whelp should be prepared in advance. It should be isolated and darkened so that no one interferes. In kennels, the bitch is transferred to a special department, isolated from other dogs. Most long-haired dogs rip the fur on their nipples before pupping. But it is better to cut the fur around the nipples and genitals. Usually a bitch whelps without human help. But you need to watch her and, if necessary, help. Pupping is divided into 2 stages: preparatory and removal of the fetus. During the preparatory period, the behavior of the bitch changes. she becomes restless, gets up, lies down, moves from place to place, etc. Cause of concern. mild spasms, which are caused by the contraction of the muscles of the uterus when the cervix is opened and the position of the fetus changes. In the second period, the bitch is whelping. The contractions intensify. The bitch lies on her side. In one litter, a bitch has from 1-2 to 20, but most often 6-7 puppies. So much is best and leave them to the bitch, and they themselves are born small, weak, sometimes undeveloped. Puppies are born one after the other every 15 min-2 hours, and sometimes at a greater interval. Therefore, a bitch whelps from 6 to 12 hours, less often. day. If this continues for longer, you should contact your veterinarian. When each new puppy appears, the bitch bites the umbilical cord, removes and eats the shell of the fetus, licks the puppy and pushes him to the nipples with her muzzle. If the bitch herself cannot tear the fetal shell and gnaw the umbilical cord, she must be helped, after thoroughly washing her hands with soap and water. First, the shell of the fetus is torn. The umbilical cord is tied with a strong boiled thread in two places at a distance of 2 and 4 cm from the puppy’s abdomen, cut with boiled scissors between the threads and the incision is treated with iodine. The puppy is wiped off with a clean cloth and placed against the bitch so that she licks him and pushes him to the nipples. Before you put the nipple into the puppy’s mouth, you must press on it so that colostrum splashes out. The first 2-3 days after whelping, the female mammary glands produce colostrum. yellowish, thick liquid with a specific odor. It contains many substances that increase the puppy’s immunity, and antitoxins, it helps to establish the normal functioning of the digestive tract.
There are bitches who have a weak maternal instinct. They do not take good care of the puppies, even abandon them. Often young bitches are restless, carry puppies from place to place and pull them to death. In such cases, it is necessary to take measures to preserve the offspring. Sometimes puppies can be given to another bitch who has few of her own, or they can be artificially fed. If the bitch does not have milk and her maternal instinct is weak, the puppies are also given to another bitch, who whelped at the same time, who has few puppies or they died. Before you bring the bitch other people’s puppies, she is taken out into the street and returned no earlier than an hour later. A muzzle is put on the bitch and laid next to the puppies. While the bitch is walking, other people’s puppies are placed between her puppies so that they are saturated with their scent. And when the bitch is laid down again with the puppies, her head is supported for some time, while the puppies are put to the nipples so that they begin to suck. After feeding, it is recommended to keep the bitch in a separate room, and the puppies all together. Later, the bitch will no longer distinguish her puppies from strangers and will raise puppies of any breed. On the first day after puppies, do not touch the puppies, as this will unnecessarily bother the bitch. The puppies are examined and weighed a day later, while the bitch is walking. On the 7-15th day, discharge with an admixture of blood appears from the genital organs of the bitch, subsequently they become colorless. If the discharge becomes greenish and gives off a stench, an urgent need to consult a veterinarian. After whelping and during the feeding period, bitches most often lose their hair. In addition, with insufficient or inadequate nutrition, metabolism is disturbed (eczema appears, the coat becomes brittle, the skin becomes bald). To avoid this, the bitch must be fed with food rich in vitamins, with mineral supplements (bone meal, calcium glycerophosphate, gluconate, etc.).
Since the bitch is whelping in a warm room or during the warm season, you can lay a small rug that will not be difficult to wash and dry. Thick mattresses are not suitable because the bitch tears them apart or curls up in them while preparing the nest, and the puppies may suffocate. If the bitch is outside the house during the cold season, a thick bed of straw or hay should be made for her. As soon as the bitch is whelping, the owner is obliged to immediately inform the administration of the club about this, which sends a commission of specialists to draw up the corresponding act. If there are many puppies in the litter (12-15), some of them, weak and of little value, must be immediately discarded and destroyed, leaving 6-8 puppies. When the puppies of the service breed are 30 days old, but decorative. 45-60, they are taken from the mother and distributed to new members of the club who have attended the theoretical course. Before the distribution, the club’s specialists examine the puppies, fill out the second part of the act, evaluate the litter, and set the approximate price of the puppy. According to the rules of the club, the owner of the bitch gives one puppy to whoever he wants, the second. the owner of the dog, and the remaining administration of the club distributes according to the statements of its members. A new member of the club takes a puppy, having received a direction from the club, in which the address and surname of the owner of the bitch, the nickname of the bitch herself, the sex of the puppy and its approximate price are indicated (currently are negotiable). All pedigree dogs of the club 2 times a year (in spring and autumn) must be exhibited at dog shows (of their clubs) and once a year. at the republican show (dogs that did not participate in the republican show may be deleted from the list of purebred dogs).
When a pregnant dog has milk
BIRTH OF A DOG: PREPARATION AND PROCESS
Your actions before childbirth and their approach
The normal gestation period is 63 days, but a four-day deviation to either side of this date is completely normal. About a week before giving birth, prepare a place for whelping, it should be a warm, dry place where there is no draft and dampness, preferably not the most fussy one in your house, since immediately after giving birth, the bitch will worry about the safety of her babies, even if there is no the reasons. It is better to make small sides around the place so that the puppies do not crawl.
Bitches love to whelp on the couch or any other place where they feel comfortable. Dogs with an approaching birth can hide in dark and narrow spaces under a sofa, under an armchair, in a closet, and even under a bath (so it is better to close all unnecessary rooms). Just make sure that the bitch is not left unattended for a second in order to avoid known troubles.
The surest sign of an impending birth is a drop in body temperature by about 2 degrees, i.e. up to 36.5 degrees and below. In this case, the dog should whelp within the next 24 hours. Therefore, in order not to be taken by surprise, it is necessary to measure the body temperature during the next week twice a day.
It is very important to build a place in advance and accustom the bitch to it, otherwise she will rush around the apartment in search of a den. Actually, after the expiration of the gestation period, if your dog began to breathe frequently, walk from corner to corner or from room to room, began to behave restlessly in the bed, then sit down, then lie down, then stretch out, then wait for the birth. At this time, the fuss grows, she begins to dig and get more comfortable, there is a chill, alternating with shortness of breath, the dog looks as if it is very cold, it shakes it, there is a tremor of the skin. Then the chill disappears, the dog becomes hot, rapid breathing appears, the mouth opens, the tongue hangs down, and the heart rate increases. This condition is a reliable sign of imminent birth.
She can also follow you, peer into your face in search of an answer and help, then run away, hide in a couch, lie down, then run again. The preparatory period can be short or long, from several hours to a day. It depends on the physical condition of the dog, the level of hormones in the body. The loop becomes soft, colorless mucous discharge appears. Milk appears (it may appear several days before delivery).
The bitch may begin to refuse food for at least a few hours a day before giving birth. For some, there is no change in appetite, and after eating, they can begin to give birth, and the process of childbirth can be quite easy. It’s easier for a bitch to give birth when the stomach is not full.
Everything that is required during childbirth should be prepared in advance:
A thermometer, a pair of sharp sterilized scissors, several packages of sterile large gauze napkins, a small box of 30×30 cm in order to place already born puppies there while the bitch prepares to whelp next, as well as a bowl with a diluted antiseptic (for example, a weak solution of potassium permanganate) for disinfection hands. Prepare the scales as well. Keep a record of the progress of labor. Write down the time of birth of the puppy, gender, color, weight, omens.
The process of childbirth is quite multifaceted, so some concepts should be distinguished.
Contractions and straining: The longitudinal muscle fibers of the uterus contract and cause the cervical ring to expand. This is also facilitated by pressing into the cervical canal during contractions of the fetal bladder filled with amniotic fluid. This period ends with the opening of the cervix. After a period of contractions, attempts begin. the dog begins to push, as during a bowel movement, sometimes in the same position (and can also be lying down, sitting). Usually, the onset of attempts is preceded by the discharge of the first waters. the fluid surrounding the membranes in the uterus. When you find that the frequency of pushing increases, be especially careful, this indicates that the puppies are starting to move along the birth canal.The intervals between pushing become smaller and smaller until a bubble appears at the entrance to the vagina.
Fetal Positions and Assistance: Puppies can be born with their head (muzzle and front legs appear) or hind legs (legs appear). Both positions are correct. If the fetus comes out for a long time with difficulty, then during the attempts, gently pull the puppy in the amniotic fluid, covering as much of the bladder with your hand as possible. But in no case pull on the fetal bladder, as its premature rupture can lead to the death of the puppy. If the bubble bursts and the liquid leaks out, don’t panic. Gently pull on the hind legs (taken above the hock) or on the head. Pull gently, smoothly and slowly and ONLY in sync with the next push, while maintaining the natural direction of movement of the puppy’s back! In this way, you help the puppy to move. Do not pull on the tail or fingers (can be torn off) or by the jaw (can be broken). Can’t pull when there is no push.
Breathing: The puppy should start breathing as soon as possible. If the bitch does not try to burst the bubble, or does it slowly and hesitantly (first born), you will have to help the puppy into the world. First of all, rupture the fetal bladder, free the puppy from the membranes, wipe the airways (nose, mouth) with a napkin first. After making sure the puppy is breathing and squeaking, dry the puppy’s torso. Then cut the umbilical cord.
Reflexes: Newborn puppies have innate reflexes to find food, they can find nipples and suck milk. They are usually oriented by warmth. If the puppy cannot find the nipple, help him. squeeze out a drop of milk and place the nipple in the mouth. The first milk (colostrum) is very important for a newborn, it contains antibodies, globulins, which will help him cope with the new environment. Sometimes the puppy does not take the nipple in the first minutes after birth, do not despair, perhaps he had a difficult birth canal and needs to rest. If he is not lively enough, you can massage and try again. No later than 1 hour after birth, the puppy should receive a portion of colostrum.
Maternity instinct: Give the puppy to the mother. She will thoroughly lick the newborn. This is necessary for him to stimulate respiration and excretion of original feces. Sometimes bitches lick their puppies so actively that they tumble, roll to the side. Some owners are afraid of such violent manifestations of motherhood and try to take the puppy away from the bitch. Do not be afraid, she will not do anything bad to the puppy. In the intervals between births of puppies, the bitch also licks her firstborn. Puppies suck milk and this is very important, since irritation of the nipples promotes the release of oxytocin into the blood and activates labor, as well as strengthening the maternal instinct. The prepared box for puppies will be needed at the time of the birth of the next puppy so that the bitch does not damage them during attempts. After processing the next newborn puppy, all puppies should be immediately placed under the bitch.
The interval between the birth of puppies is different. From several minutes to several hours. An interval of no more than an hour should be considered normal (but if two puppies appear at once, the interval before the next may increase). Each next puppy has to go through a longer birth canal. An interval of more than 2 hours is a cause for concern, or the bitch has already given birth to all the puppies.
Revitalization: If the puppy is lethargic, breathing heavily and hardly moving, he needs help. The puppy is taken in his hands with his head down and thoroughly rubbed with a pre-prepared dry napkin. A normal healthy puppy will start to squeak loudly. If the puppy is still lethargic, does not squeak, still badly and rarely breathes. rubbing and massage are done more actively, you can do artificial respiration, massage the chest, the liquid accumulated in the nose and mouth can be sucked out with a syringe, and if you are not very squeamish, with your own mouth. If the puppy does not show any signs of life at all, you can slightly squeeze the heart area with your fingers several times, thus performing an indirect massage. These procedures should not be performed in front of the bitch. After 10 minutes, if nothing has changed, stop trying, the puppy can no longer be saved.
Umbilical cord: The umbilical cord contains three large blood vessels: two arteries that carry blood to the fetus from the placenta, and one vein with opposite blood flow. In order to cut the umbilical cord, clamp it between your fingers, drive the blood towards the puppy with a sliding motion and cut it with pre-disinfected scissors at a distance of 3-4 cm from the abdomen. Biting the umbilical cord by a bitch needs to be supervised by the breeder because some bitches chew it off too shortly and can damage the puppy’s abdominal wall. Pulling the cord too tight increases the likelihood of an umbilical hernia.
Afterbirths: Be sure to count all the afterbirths! Each puppy has its own childish place through which it was connected with its mother, the so-called afterbirth. When a puppy is born, the umbilical cord stretches behind it and the afterbirth comes out. If the afterbirth did not come out immediately, you can smoothly and very carefully pull the umbilical cord, a dark afterbirth will appear, covered with mucous membranes, the size of a palm. The separation of the placenta is accompanied by minor bleeding and often grassy-green discharge, gradually turning black under the influence of air. This color of the discharge is normal and is due to the conversion of blood hemoglobin into the green pigment biliverdin (see terms). If the umbilical cord breaks, the placenta could push the next puppy out. The traces must be counted. how many puppies, so many sequential. The bitch usually eats the placenta along with the amniotic membranes. This is a biologically important point. Fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and afterbirth, which is the remnant of the placenta, contain many hormones and other valuable biogenic stimulants. Eating them stimulates milk secretion and maintains strength during childbirth. Some bitches develop diarrhea after giving birth, which is often associated with eating afterbirth, but some veterinarians call this diarrhea physiological and not caused by eating afterbirth, but a change in the concentration of prostaglandins (see terms) in the dog’s blood. After a day or two, it passes, if not provoked by giving milk and a large amount of raw meat.
There is a widespread belief among dog breeders that eating afterbirth contributes to the onset of eclampsia. Veterinarians refute it, explaining that postpartum eclampsia (see terms), or rather postpartum tetany, is most often caused not by protein poisoning, but by a lack of calcium in the dog’s blood that occurs during pregnancy and lactation. The afterbirth itself should be considered not as a portion of raw meat, but as a portion of hormones necessary for a giving birth bitch.
The need for a doctor: The most dangerous signs requiring the presence of a veterinarian are as follows: strong ineffectual contractions and attempts for more than 2 hours, then the termination of labor (the reasons for this situation may be the large size of the puppy, its incorrect position in the uterus, volvulus of the horn of the uterus, etc.); loss of consciousness, a sharp pallor of the mucous membranes, heavy breathing, absent gaze, throwing the head back or signs of seizures, profuse bloody discharge of a bright red color indicate the presence of ruptures in the birth canal. For any complications of childbirth, do not use any instruments or stimulants. It could cost your bitch and her puppies their lives. Everything should be done by a doctor. During the phone call, be sure to discuss your actions before he arrives. If after the birth of all the puppies in the uterus there are afterbirths (this is when their registration is useful). The doctor will prescribe injections of contractile drugs. It is imperative to control body temperature.
Exercise: In case of prolonged labor, take the bitch out for a walk and relieve herself, exercise is a good stimulation of labor. Just in case, they take a sheet for a walk, suddenly someone is born on the street.
Energy: When there are a lot of puppies and childbirth is delayed, then strong sweet tea can support the strength of the bitch (this is the only case when sweet is possible). Remember that after eaten afterbirths, the bitch is not hungry.
STIHL: Try not to fuss, scream or get nervous. your condition is transmitted to the dog, and she is also agitated!
Examination: After birth, examine all puppies for congenital abnormalities or any other deficiencies not covered by the breed standard.
Prostaglandins are a group of physiologically active lipid substances formed in the body by enzymatic means from some essential fatty acids and containing a 20-membered carbon chain. Prostaglandins are mediators with a pronounced physiological effect. Strictly speaking, they are hormones, but are usually classified separately. Prostaglandins, together with thromboxanes and prostacyclins, form a subclass of prostanoids, which in turn belong to the eicosanoid class. For the first time, prostaglandin was isolated in 1935 by the Swedish physiologist Ulf von Oyler from seminal fluid, so the term “prostaglandin” comes from the Latin name for the prostate gland (Latin glandula prostatica).  Later it turned out that prostaglandins are synthesized in many tissues and organs. In 1971, John Wayne discovered that aspirin is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. For the study of prostaglandins, he and the Swedish biochemists Sune Bergström and Bengt Samuelson received the 1982 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
BC Videos #4. Mastitis
Eclampsia. Eclampsia (from the Greek ékiampsis. outbreak) is a serious illness that occurs during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period; form of late toxicosis of pregnancy. Eclampsia is characterized by seizures that develop in a specific sequence.
Tetania (Greek tétanos. tension, numbness, convulsion). seizures caused by impaired calcium metabolism in the body.
Biliverdin (from Latin bilis. bile and French vert. green). green bile pigment
When pregnant women have milk. is it a norm or pathology?
Pregnancy is a complex process of preparing the body for childbirth and subsequent feeding of the baby. This also applies to the mammary glands, which change under the influence of hormones, and by the birth of a baby they are able to fully provide him with the most useful nutrition in the world.
Everyone knows that milk appears after childbirth. But what about when pregnant women have milk? Is it okay? Expectant mothers are often worried about any reason, and this one is no exception. Let’s figure out when it is really worth sounding the alarm, and when milk released during pregnancy is just an individual feature of the body.
The main hormones affecting changes in the breast are estrogens, which begin to be produced in full force starting from 13-16 weeks of pregnancy, when pregnant women have milk most often. This is due to the fact that the placenta ripens, in which the bulk of estrogen is produced. Also, in the process of preparing the mammary glands for lactation, the pituitary hormone prolactin is involved. It is thanks to him that milk is produced, therefore if prolactin begins to enter the blood in sufficient quantities even during pregnancy, then a small amount of milk may begin to be released.
In some women, discharge from the mammary glands appears literally from the first weeks of pregnancy, which often causes them anxiety. Asking her friends if they produced milk during pregnancy, especially in the early stages, and receiving negative answers, the expectant mother begins to worry that something is wrong with her. Most often, fears are in vain, but if the anxiety persists, it is better to get a referral to a mammologist from the gynecologist who is observing the pregnancy. Be sure to visit this doctor if your chest discharge is accompanied by any unusual sensations.
When pregnant women have milk after 24 weeks, this is the merit of the lactogenic hormone prolactin, which is produced in the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates milk production. And its entry into the ducts is due to the presence of another hormone in the blood. oxytocin. Usually milk produced during pregnancy. it’s not even milk, but colostrum. It can be yellowish or completely transparent, and sometimes pink, if a blood vessel suddenly bursts into the milk duct. All of these options are normal, unless the volumes of liquid are too large.
If the discharge is noticeable enough, then this may be a sign of a functional disorder of the nervous system. It does not pose a particular danger, however, going to the doctor will not be superfluous: most likely, he will prescribe sedatives suitable for use by pregnant women. Do not try to find drugs yourself, it can bring much more trouble than innocent milk during pregnancy, which you are worried about. Even herbal preparations are far from always safe, because they contain analogs of the same synthetic substances that make up the tablets.
Consultation with a mammologist is sometimes necessary when pregnant women have milk, and its appearance has the following features. You should not leave such signs unattended so as not to miss the initial stages of the development of a breast tumor, which can occur precisely during pregnancy.
- There is discharge from only one breast, while nothing similar is observed in the other.
- Colostrum always contains blood or is pink in color.
- Discharge from the chest is accompanied by discomfort or causes severe psychological discomfort.
Contacting a specialist will help establish the cause of such manifestations, and if treatment is needed, get it.
Treatment of imaginary puppies
Dogs are no different from humans, so at the first sign of milk, for example, you need to contact your veterinarian in a timely manner and take care of your dog’s health. False pregnancy syndrome is quite dangerous not only for dogs, but also for the owners. It is often accompanied by complete apathy and lethargy, refusal to eat, as well as serious changes in behavior.
As a therapeutic therapy, hormonal drugs are used, which often have side effects. Before prescribing the medication, the veterinarian must instruct the owners and warn about the possible consequences. A false pregnancy of a dog can be accelerated by greatly simplifying its course:
- exclude all dairy products from the dog’s food, this will stop lactation;
- it is worth limiting fluid intake, even a simple meal;
- you should also reduce the size of daily servings;
- the dog should be walked more often, forced to play (run, catch a stick, etc.). this will help accelerate the course of pathology, maintain the physical shape of the animal and distract from worries about puppies on a subconscious level;
- you need to remove most of the toys and limit the communication of the dog with other four-legged, especially with puppies.
Frightened by the first signs, owners often begin to think about how to express milk from a dog. This should not be done as it could harm the dog’s health. Expressing milk will trigger extra lactation. It is recommended to use a veterinary blanket so as not to allow the dog to lick the milk itself. it will cover the animal’s belly, preventing access to the nipples.
False pregnancy in dogs and causes
The ongoing physiological changes in the dog’s body have not yet been explained. There are many assumptions about the origin of this pathology. The main one is based on the fact that false pregnancy syndrome in dogs occurs as a reaction to hormonal disruption after estrus has ended. During estrus, the level of lactogenic hormone rises.
The reasons for the appearance of pathology can be as follows:
- not constant breeding activity, in other words. mating;
- purulent inflammatory processes that occur in the mammary glands. metritis, pyometra, etc.;
- increased levels of hormones produced only during pregnancy.
During the third phase of the estrous cycle, the production of the corpus luteum begins, which creates the pregnancy hormone. In case of successful fertilization, the production of other hormones begins, but if it fails, the corpus luteum remains in the female’s body for 70 days. It is during this period that the pregnancy hormone continues to be produced.
Another reason may be an unsuccessful pregnancy. resorption or death of the embryos. In other words, the puppies died during the developmental stage, and milk continues to be produced, since the dog is conditionally pregnant. Often, the risk of such a pathology continues for 4 weeks of pregnancy. The risk is a consequence of violations in the conditions of the female, incompatibility and due to poor nutrition.
What to do if your dog has a false or imaginary pregnancy
False pregnancy in dogs is not an abnormal condition or serious medical condition. A similar condition occurs in unfertilized and unmated females. And it manifests itself in the fact that the behavior is similar to pregnancy, physical signs develop. That is why the female has milk, but she is not pregnant. This pathology is typical for many viviparous mammals, but it is in dogs that it manifests itself most clearly.
Attentive dog owners are often concerned that the female is producing milk. This problem can often occur after estrus, as hormonal imbalance occurs in the body, leading to a symptom.
Hormonal imbalance does not depend on fertilization or its absence. the body begins to produce pregnancy hormones. The level of progesterone drops sharply, while prolactin rises significantly. The hormone prolactin provokes an increase in the mammary glands, as a result of which milk appears. Swelling of the glands is dangerous because milk begins to accumulate and, as a result, coagulates, forming lumps and thereby causing pain.
An interesting fact is that in the wild, females often experience the pathology of false pregnancy. This happens in a flock, when not all females mate in heat, but they still show all the signs of pregnancy. Subsequently, these females help to feed the puppies that are born, so there are no major changes in the dogs’ body. they realize their full potential.
Symptoms of false pathology
The reason that the dog has milk is precisely the false pregnancy syndrome. The pathology can be mild or severe and cause various symptoms.
- the stomach is rounded;
- swelling nipples;
- milk is released from the nipples;
- discharge from the swollen loop occurs;
- lack of appetite and refusal to eat;
- worms are possible.
- change in gait. the female begins to fall on her hind legs;
- shows concern and even fear, often ignoring the environment;
- begins to fondle the owner, asking for more attention;
- more often hides in secluded corners of the room;
- as the deadline approaches, aggressiveness increases.
The manifestation of a change in the behavior of an animal is considered the most striking sign of a false pregnancy. Even a previously benevolent dog becomes wild towards its owners. It is impossible to say for sure what exactly affects this: the awakened maternal instinct or aggression arises due to the painfulness of the changes occurring in the body.
False contractions are considered a particularly severe symptom. the process is real, making it difficult to help the dog. The animal really feels the desire to whelp, contractions begin and continue for several hours, aggravating the situation.
Recommendations for hosts
Since one of the characteristic signs of such a pathology is mastitis, or, in other words, hardening of the dog’s nipples, it is recommended to lubricate them. Camphor oil is a good item. it will soften the nipples and reduce pain. In addition, compresses with the same oil can be applied to avoid repeating the situation after absorption.
The pet’s daily diet should be changed. A kind of diet should consist of protein foods, as well as foods rich in carbohydrates. In this case, any product that contains milk should be completely excluded. As mentioned above, you should limit the pet in the consumption of any liquid. To do this, you should exclude dry food from the diet, which makes you want to drink, and transfer the dog to natural food.
It is also recommended to give the pet mild sedatives. herbal infusion, for example. This will allow you to overcome aggression in the behavior of the dog, since sedatives will affect its nervous system and significantly calm.
Remember that your pet is scared. physiologically, she feels pregnant, but she is not. She may also be intimidated by any action taken to alleviate the disease. That is why you should pay as much attention to your dog as possible. Thus, she will quickly transfer the disease.
False Pregnancy Syndrome is a hormonal disorder that is stressful for the dog. That is why it is not recommended to scold or punish the animal. It is completely possible to prevent the appearance of such a syndrome only by completely sterilizing the animal.
Often, owners, deceived by false pregnancies, begin to worry that the dog is low on milk and what to do about it. This is what leads to the wrong decision. expressing milk. Milk stagnation is no less dangerous, so when the first signs appear, you should immediately contact your veterinarian to find out what is happening with the dog.