Species or orders of birds
There is an opinion that the first stage of separation, or superorder, are penguins and all birds known to science (new sky). The reason that the penguins were attributed to a separate group is significant differences in structure and origin from all other birds. There is a lot of controversy among scientists about which order or class to classify some birds, or create a separate family for them.
All orders of birds can still be divided into domestic and wild, migratory and non-migratory, waterfowl, predatory, forest, living in open spaces and on cultural landscapes.
Squad of owls
The bird of the order of owls is predatory. Most of them are nocturnal. This species includes a barn owl, a white owl, an eagle owl, a tawny owl, a marsh owl, etc. Their greatest advantage is excellent hearing. It is he who helps to catch animals in the dark. Owls create a permanent pair for breeding. The eggs are incubated by the female, but feeding the offspring is already the concern of both parents. Among daytime hunters, it is worth noting the owl, white and hawk owl. Smoke Owl is excellent for food day and night.
Since owls are birds of prey, photos of most of them, like images of other birds of prey, cause trembling and some fear.
Characteristics of the species. Feathers
The order of birds is vertebrate animals, their body is usually covered with feathers, and the wings are the front limbs. The legs are well developed, the body is streamlined. Thin skin allows feathers to be mobile. There are two types of them. downy and contour.
The contour feather has a strong trunk, from which the plates come out, they are covered with short barbs fastened together by hooks. Not the entire surface of the skin is covered with such feathers. Where they are not, down and down feathers are usually observed, they have a softer structure, and they do not have a trunk. Contour feathers are so named because of their location, as they are mainly found along the contour of the entire body of the bird, on the wings and on the back. They play the main role in flight. Another important function of the feather cover is to protect the body from damage and heat loss.
The order of birds is also prone to molting, as feathers tend to wear out. There are species in which the entire cover changes at the same time. For this period of time, they are deprived of the opportunity to fly and find places inaccessible to predators. This type of molt is observed mainly in those birds that are able to provide themselves with food without flying into the sky. In other individuals, this process proceeds gradually. Also, molting can begin due to the changing seasons.
The color of the feather cover is also varied. It depends on the habitat of the birds, the season, gender and climatic conditions.
A detachment of birds. Birds of the passerine order. Birds of prey: photos
The order of birds is considered one of the most ancient. Its appearance is attributed to the beginning of the Jurassic period. There are opinions that mammals were the ancestors of birds, the structure of which changed with the course of evolution.
A bird of the order of chickens can live in the forest, fields and are kept in backyards. These include chickens, hazel grouses, capercaillie, black grouse, white and gray partridge, etc. All representatives of this order remain to winter in their usual places, with the exception of quails. In birds of this species, only the female takes care of the offspring. A significant proportion of chickens are pets.
The order of birds belongs to dioecious animals. Usually, reproduction begins after the birds return from wintering and the onset of favorable weather conditions. Naturally, for its full course, individuals of different sexes are needed. In many species of birds, everything begins with the mating dance of the male, with which he tries to attract the attention of the female. Very often this is accompanied by unusual behavior and interesting sounds. After the lady accepts courtship, a couple is formed. Many birds are looking for a new partner for the next season, but some enter into their union for life.
It should be noted that there are species of birds in which the couple is jointly building a nest and feeding chicks. And there are males who only fertilize the female, and all worries pass without their participation.
After the formation of a pair, the construction of the nest begins. Then eggs are laid, they are usually incubated by females, temporarily replaced by a male. The upbringing and feeding of the offspring is also done jointly. This lasts until the chicks become able to find food on their own.
Bird body temperature
Representatives of this class have a constant and very high body temperature, it is not affected by changes in weather conditions. Animals with a similar phenomenon are called homeothermal. In mammals, it is much lower. The average temperature in various birds is 42 ° C. Representatives of the passerine order have the highest body temperature. 45.5 ° C. Such serious indicators play an important role in the course of various processes and metabolism in the bird’s body.
One of the most important factors is the constancy of body temperature, this is of great importance for the functioning of the brain in the cold season. Despite the low temperature, for example, in winter, due to this phenomenon, all birds lead an active lifestyle.
A detachment of passerines
Birds of the passerine order are known to absolutely everyone. They live almost throughout the entire globe, with the exception of Antarctica. This is the largest order of birds in terms of numbers. about 5000. These include the siskin, sparrow, magpie, jackdaw, kinglet, jay, robin, blue tit, tit, etc. They feed on seeds and small insects.
Similarities and differences with mammals
There are several characteristics that make birds look like mammals:
- Thin skin and few glands in it;
- The horny formations on the body are well developed;
- There is a cesspool, etc.
However, their individual qualities significantly distinguish them:
- The constant temperature of 40-42 ° С does not decrease due to certain processes;
- Breeding method, namely building a nest, hatching eggs and feeding offspring;
- The central nervous system is more developed, this explains the adaptive existence.
The order Charadriiformes numbers about 350 bird species along the coastlines. Charadriiformes. These are experienced pilots; some species make the longest and most exciting migrations in the bird class.
Charadriiformes eat a wide variety of foods, including marine worms, crustaceans, and earthworms, but surprisingly, they almost never eat fish.!
Order Owls (Owls, owls, eagle owls, barn owls, etc.)
The order of owls (Strigiformes) consists of more than 200 species, medium to large birds, equipped with strong claws, good hearing, and keen eyesight. Because they hunt at night, owls have especially large eyes (they help them see in the dark), as well as binocular vision, which helps them see their prey better.
They are opportunistic carnivores that feed on everything. From small mammals, reptiles and insects to other birds. Having no teeth, they swallow their prey whole and after about six hours regurgitate the indigestible parts of the eaten prey.
Owls live on all continents except Antarctica. They are found in a wide variety of terrestrial habitats, ranging from dense forests to wide open grasslands.
Neognathae birds have a much longer history that goes back to the Mesozoic era and this subclass includes 25 orders, such as:
Detachment Pelicans (Pelicans, herons and ibises)
The Pelecaniformes order includes the following families: pelican, heron, whale-headed, hammer-headed and ibis. These birds are characterized by webbed feet and their various anatomical arrangements for catching fish. Their main food source; many species are excellent divers and swimmers.
Pelicans. The most famous representatives of the order have special leather bags in the lower part of the beak, which allow the birds to effectively catch and hold fish. There are eight types of pelicans in total.
Order Chicken-like (Guinea fowl, pheasants, partridges and craxes)
Some of the Galliformes are well known to people who like to eat poultry, including pheasants, quails, turkeys, guinea fowls, and others. In total, this detachment has 5 families and about 250 species. Many of the less familiar birds are subject to intense hunting pressure and are on the verge of extinction today. Other members of the order, such as chickens, quails and turkeys, have been fully domesticated and are often raised on farms around the world in huge numbers.
The smallest species of chickens. Painted quail, which has a body length of less than 15 cm; the largest view from the squad. North American wild turkey, which can grow over 1 m in length and weigh about 8 kg.
Squad Penguin (Pigwins)
The order penguin-like (Sphenisciformes) includes six genera and about 20 species of penguins. The most diverse are the crested penguins, a genus that includes 6 species.
Penguins. They are flightless birds with rigid wings and unique coloration (black or gray feathers along the back and white feathers on the belly). They are also characterized by long and narrow beaks. Penguins live in the Antarctic climate, where snow persists throughout the year, and like to glide quickly on their belly, and use their wings or legs for control. They are excellent swimmers and some species can stay underwater for more than 15 minutes at a time.
Squads of the bird class. list, names, photo and short description
Birds. It is one of the six main groups of animals, along with reptiles, mammals, amphibians, fish and invertebrates. Birds have distinctive features including their feathers and the ability to fly (in most species). Our planet is home to over 10,000 known bird species.
The bird class is divided into two subclasses, which in turn include a number of orders:
Detachment Cranes (Cranes, coots, shepherds, etc.)
The order crane-like (Gruiformes) includes about 200 living species. Members of the order vary widely in size and appearance, but are usually characterized by their short tails, long necks, and rounded wings.
Cranes with long legs and necks are the largest members of the squad; the Indian crane with a height of more than 1.7 m has a wingspan of up to 2.5 m.
Cranes also include birds that do not match other orders in their characteristics. Currently, the squad has 9 living families.
Order Swift (Hummingbirds and Swifts)
The order of swift or long-winged (Apodiformes) is the most numerous in the class of birds after passerines, it has about 450 species of swifts and hummingbirds. In the Sibley-Alqvist classification, this order rises to the superorder Apodimorphae, in which hummingbirds are separated into a separate order Trochiliformes.
The birds are characterized by their small size, short legs and tiny feet. Hummingbirds and swifts included in this group also have numerous adaptations for specialized flight.
Hummingbirds are found in different regions of North, Central and South America, and swifts can be found on all continents of the world, with the exception of Antarctica. The earliest known members of the Apodiformes were swift birds that evolved in the early Eocene era in northern Europe about 55 million years ago; hummingbirds appeared a little later, they separated from the early swifts after the late Eocene.
Adaptation of birds to flight: signs. How birds adapted to flight
Most of the representatives of the class of birds have mastered the ground-air habitat. The adaptation of birds to flight is due to the peculiarities of their external and internal structure. This article will look at these aspects in more detail.
Adaptation of birds to their habitat
The features of the external structure are often modified depending on the habitat. For example, a woodpecker living in a forest has sharp claws. With their help, he moves along the branches of trees, leaning on a tail with hard feathers. The beak of this bird is like a chisel. Using it, as well as with the help of a long sticky tongue, he gets insects and larvae from the bark, seeds from cones.
Birds. Inhabitants of reservoirs also have a number of important adaptations. These are short lower limbs with swimming membranes, dense feather cover, smeared with a water-repellent secretion of special glands. “Come out dry from water”. This saying, known to everyone, appeared due to the peculiarities of the life of waterfowl.
Birds of the coast. Gliding flight masters. Albatrosses, gulls and petrels are characterized by strong and long wings. But their tail is short. All this allows coastal inhabitants to fish directly from the air.
Is it possible to see prey up to a thousand meters away? For birds of prey, this is not a big deal. Falcon, hawk, eagle. Bright representatives of this group. They have a large, curved beak that grabs and tears food. And powerful sharp claws leave no chance of salvation. Predators are able to soar in the air for a long time thanks to their very wide wings. And those of them that hunt at night additionally have keen eyesight and perfect hearing. For example, owls and eagle owls.
Features of breathing
The adaptations of birds to flight also relate to the respiratory system. Indeed, for the intensive work of the muscular system, a continuous supply of tissues and organs with oxygen is necessary. Therefore, in addition to pulmonary respiration, birds have additional organs. Air bags. These are additional air reservoirs with a fairly large volume. Therefore, the breathing of birds is also called double.
It becomes possible for birds to easily climb upward for the birds, first of all, thanks to the light skeleton. It is formed by bones, inside which there are air cavities. The main sections of the skeleton of birds are the skull, spine, girdles of the upper and lower limbs and the free limbs themselves. Many bones grow together, providing strength to the entire “structure”. A distinctive feature of the skeleton of birds is the presence of a keel. This is a special bone to which the muscles that move the wings are attached. It is specific only to birds.
The body of birds is divided into the following parts: head, movable neck, torso, tail and limbs. On the head are the eyes, nostrils and beak covered with horny sheaths. The absence of teeth makes the skull even lighter. The eyelids are motionless, the cornea is moistened with blinking membranes.
The main adaptation of birds to flight, of course, also lies in the modification of the upper limbs. They are transformed into wings. Legs. The lower limbs are often covered with horny scales. This feature of the structure remained in birds from their ancestors. Reptiles. Claws on the toes help the birds stay on the support surface.
This adaptation of birds to flight is very important. Warm-bloodedness implies a constant body temperature, independent of the environment. After all, as you know, the air temperature drops significantly with height. And if birds were cold-blooded, like fish or amphibians, they would simply freeze during flight. This feature is inherent in this group of organisms due to the progressive structure of the circulatory system. It is represented by a four-chambered heart and two circles of blood circulation. Therefore, venous and arterial blood do not mix, the exchange of gases and substances is very intensive.
The internal structure of birds
The adaptation of birds to flight is reflected in the structural features of most internal organs.
The digestive system is represented by the oral cavity, the esophagus, which forms an expansion. Goiter. In it, food undergoes additional enzymatic processing, becomes soft and is digested faster. Further, food enters the stomach, which consists of two sections: glandular and muscular, and then. Into the intestines. It opens outward as a cloaca. The intestines of birds are shortened compared to other animals. This structure also makes their body lighter. Undigested food residues do not linger in the intestines for a long time and can be excreted through the cloaca even during flight.
The adaptation of birds to flight can be traced in the structure of the nervous system. Due to its development, animals have a fairly clear color vision, which makes it easy to navigate in the air even at a sufficiently high altitude. Hearing also functions well. And thanks to the developed cerebellum, the coordination of movements is also at a high level. Birds react quickly during impending danger or hunting.
Compactness. A characteristic feature of the reproductive system. The testes of males are small, bean-shaped. They open their ducts directly into the cloaca. Females have only one ovary. This structure makes the weight of the birds significantly less. The ovum from the gonad moves along the oviduct, where the fertilization process takes place, the egg is covered with membranes and calcareous shells. Further through the cloaca it comes out.
Signs of adaptation of birds to flight
The main signs that allow birds to master the air are:
These structural features illustrate how birds are adapted to flight.
The features of the adaptation of birds to flight are largely related to the peculiarities of the integument. Feathered are the only group of animals whose body is covered with feathers. They can be grouped into three groups. The first is called “contour”. Thanks to them, the bird’s body takes on a streamlined shape. Depending on the location on the body and the functions performed, the contour wings are cover, flywheel and steering wings. They cover the body, forming the contours of the wings and tail. Regardless of the type, each wing consists of a central part. The rod, on the most part of which the fans are located, formed by barbs of the first and second order with hooks. The lower bare area of the feather is called the quill.
The second group is represented by downy feathers. Their beards are devoid of hooks, so the fans are not linked, but free. The third kind. It’s fluff. A characteristic feature of its structure is fluffy beards, which are located in a bundle at one end of a strongly shortened quill.
Using the plumage features as an example, it is easy to see how the birds adapted to flight. It provides thermoregulation, determines color, the ability to move in airspace. By the way, the color of birds can serve as a disguise from predators, and one of the forms of manifestation of demonstrative behavior.