Types of red caviar.
Red caviar is obtained from salmon species found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Atlantic salmon are primarily salmon and trout. Pacific salmon are chum salmon, pink salmon, sockeye salmon. And also less common coho salmon, chinook salmon, sima. It is the caviar of the Pacific salmon that is known and loved by the Russian consumer from the very beginning of fishing (from the 19th century) to the present day. Once a year, from June to October, salmon are caught in northeastern Russia for spawning in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin rivers. In commercial volumes, caviar is mined from chum salmon, pink salmon and sockeye salmon. The caviar of coho salmon and chinook salmon, as a rule, is not distinguished as a separate species and can be attributed to caviar of sockeye and chum salmon, respectively. Each type of caviar has its own characteristics, which allow specialists to easily distinguish one type from another.
The most valuable of the Far Eastern fish is the sockeye salmon, which lives in the north of the Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon begins to spawn one of the first. at the end of May, which allows us to taste the first caviar of the new season at the beginning of summer. Red salmon. Fish of relatively small size (length
2.5 kg), has small eggs (eggs up to 3 mm in diameter) of deep red color. This color, as well as the spicy taste with a slight bitterness, distinguish sockeye caviar from the more traditional and familiar to the taste of pink salmon caviar. It is extremely rare on the Russian market, since this fish lives along the American coast.
Pink salmon caviar.
Pink salmon is the most common member of the salmon family. Its caviar is medium in size and orange in color. Compared to other types of red caviar, it is not in short supply, and is most often present at our feasts. It moves for spawning in June-July from the north of the Pacific Ocean to the rivers of Primorye, the Okhotsk coast, eastern Kamchatka and western Sakhalin. Over the long years of fishing, fishermen have established a pattern that the number of pink salmon fluctuates in even and odd years. At the same time, the life expectancy of the fish is no more than 2 years, and it spawns once in its life, after which it dies. The size of pink salmon eggs varies from 3 to 5 mm. Caviar color is bright orange, and the taste is considered universal.
Its orange-red caviar is considered the best of all other types of red caviar. The caviar of chum salmon is the second (after the roe of the Chinook salmon, listed in the Red Book) in size, the diameter of its eggs is 5-6 mm, and sometimes reaches 9 mm. For its soft, delicate creamy taste and large eggs, it is called royal caviar. They taste tender and, unlike sockeye salmon, do not taste bitter at all. The shell itself is thin, quickly bursts and it feels like it melts in your mouth. But at the same time, such a product has a high calorie content, so it is better to eat it without adding oil. The color of the eggs is light orange and always uniform.
Coho salmon caviar.
Coho salmon caviar occupies an honorable place. This is the most valuable species of fish, but their numbers are limited and small. Fish Coho salmon. One of the representatives of the marine life of the Pacific salmon. This small representative differs from other species of the salmon family by its habitat, a distinctly bright silver color of the scales, thanks to this color of the scales, it was named “silver salmon” and “white fish”. Depending on the individual and habitat, coho is a large sea fish, reaching lengths of up to 98 cm, the maximum weight of which. 15 kg. It has a dark red or even burgundy color, a peculiar bitter taste and a small diameter of eggs. About 4 mm. Silver salmon caviar is a powerful aphrodisiac. Raises the level of endorphin (“hormone of joy”) and serotonin in men. It is recommended to give the product to children from 3 years old, it is very useful for pregnant women.
From the point of view of ichthyology, the Chinook salmon is the largest fish among its relatives. The facts of catching individuals reaching 60 kilograms were recorded. The body length of a chinook salmon on average reaches 95 centimeters. But if we turn to the practice of catching fish in our Kamchatka, for example, we can find out that catching a chinook salmon weighing 20-30 kilograms is already a great success. An individual weighing 6-12 kilograms is considered the standard among Russian fishermen.
The bright red eggs of chinook salmon reach up to 7 mm, making this fish the largest of all types of red caviar. But, despite its large size, red caviar from royal salmon or chinook salmon is rather delicate in taste, with a slight bitterness. The taste is similar to coho salmon caviar, but in chinook salmon it is less bitter than coho salmon caviar. The taste is very delicate, the skin of the eggs is not tough like chum salmon. For the price, the most expensive caviar of all types, because there is very little of it and it is almost never found on the Russian market.
Black caviar by packing method
Caviar is packaged in glass, cans, or simply sold by weight. In this sense, it is better to purchase exactly the packaged version, because sometimes it is difficult to understand from which fish black caviar is obtained, what quality it is, etc. Therefore, it is better to refuse purchases on the market. this is too expensive a product to risk so easily tangible amounts of money.
What fish is black caviar?
If everything is clear with the origin of red caviar, then several questions often arise as to which fish the caviar is from. Generally speaking, red caviar is obtained from salmon fish, and black caviar from sturgeon fish.
It is they who have the greatest commercial value, because they provide not only this world-famous delicacy, but also excellent meat, which is traditionally served at the festive table.
What kind of fish gives black caviar
Here we mean what kind of fish gives black caviar:
- Beluga is the most valuable, and it is, of course, the most expensive. It is easy to identify such a product by the very large diameter of the eggs. almost 3.5 mm each. It is closer to silver in color, with gray shades.
Black caviar from beluga
- Sturgeon eggs are 1 mm smaller, and the taste is in no way inferior to beluga. As for the color, the eggs also give off a grayish tint with brownish tints.
Black sturgeon caviar
- But stellate sturgeon eggs are the smallest (about 1 mm), but they are also the most affordable. By color. classic black, with transitions to dark gray.
What is black caviar. by processing technology
Caviar can be salted dry and with brine. In addition, eggs of different ages are chosen for salting. recently laid or mature. On these grounds, the following categories of this product are distinguished:
- Grainy is the best variety. Large, mature eggs that separate well from each other. This is a mature caviar with an elastic surface, it is salted without the participation of water.
Black granular caviar
Pasteurized. this product is also obtained without the participation of water. Eggs are packaged in cans, closed and processed using heat, i.e. Pasteurized (like milk). This product can be stored for up to 2 years without losing its taste. But the feeling of the surface of the eggs is more rigid, so it is preferable to purchase exactly granular caviar.
Yastichnaya is a product that is salted directly in the fish, in the ovary (the shell where all the eggs are concentrated). This technology is currently used less and less, because the dish turns out to be too salty and is not very popular.
Finally, there is also a pressed version. This product is salted with hot brine. It is stored for a long time, but still it tastes inferior to pasteurized and even more granular.
Black pressed caviar
What fish is black caviar obtained from?
Such caviar is carried by fish from the Sturgeon family, here are the most common valuable commercial species:
- The sturgeon itself is a freshwater and oceanic fish, which reaches a length of up to 6 meters, and in weight reaches almost 1 ton (816 kg). In general, sturgeon is not one, but 19 species at once, which live only in the northern hemisphere (basins of Eurasia and North America). In the spring, they enter rivers from the seas and hide in order to lay the very eggs. Then they return to the vast sea waters.
- Beluga is the largest of the freshwater fish, because the weight of individual representatives has reached 1.5 tons, and along the body length. up to 4.5 meters (there is data about 5-7 meters, which is amazing). It is interesting that this fish also breaks records for black caviar. It is reliably known that in 1924 a female was caught in the Caspian Sea, which laid 246 kg of this most valuable product! Mathematicians have calculated that in such a mass there should be about 7.7 million eggs. A real “floating treasure”.
Beluga is the largest freshwater fish
- Sevruga is significantly inferior in length and weight (body up to 220 cm, weight no more than 85 kg). However, it is valued no less than its “older” counterparts. is there any difference from which fish black caviar is obtained? The main thing is that it is large enough and has the correct granular consistency.
- Spike. and this fish is not so well known to the mass consumer. Although she lives in the waters of the Aral, Black and Caspian seas. The body reaches 200 cm in length, and in terms of weight. no more than 30 kg, which is quite a modest result even against the background of sevruga. True, it spawns up to 1300 eggs, so it is also considered a valuable commercial species. It is interesting that although it is rare, the thorn nevertheless enters the Volga, and also into the Ural River. Therefore, fishermen can try their luck. what if they get lucky? Then it will be possible not only to find out which fish contains black caviar, but also to taste this delicacy. Although for the sake of fairness, we note that fishing for this fish in the wild is prohibited today.
Black caviar is also mined from other fish, albeit on a smaller scale. It is interesting that 9 out of 10 kilograms of this delicacy are obtained from the fish that live in the Caspian. To a lesser extent, fishing is developed in the Aral, Black, Azov seas and water bodies of North America (Canada, USA).
Types of black caviar
From a practical point of view, it is useful to know not only what kind of fish black caviar comes from, but in general what kind of caviar it comes from. i.e. How to choose the right delicacy based on its varieties.
How to choose and serve black caviar: 5 useful tips
So, it is clear from which fish black caviar is obtained. But how to choose the right one and serve this, without exaggeration, a royal dish? There are some tips here:
- The most obvious indicator is over 1 kg. Therefore, 100 g (standard jar) simply cannot cost less than 4000 rubles.
- In terms of producers, you can choose not only those who catch fish on the high seas, but also those who grow it in aquatic farms. This, for example, “Beluga”, “Raskat”, “Russian Caviar House” and others.
- It is best to buy the product in a glass container, because then you can consider the eggs, their consistency and external condition. Eggs should be large enough to separate easily from each other. If they are wrinkled and of different sizes, it is better to refuse to purchase.
- You definitely need to ask the seller for a certificate and permission to grow fish. without the presence of accompanying purchase documents, there can be no question.
- You can also determine the quality of a product by smell, but this is only available on the market. Real black caviar, oddly enough, has no smell at all. Unless a subtle aroma can be felt by those who have a particularly keen sense of smell.
- As for the taste, it should be delicate, with hints of creamy and nutty. A slight bitterness is allowed, but only if it is barely noticeable. A tangible aftertaste of bitterness, the smell of fish is something that shouldn’t be. Unfortunately, you will hardly be able to try this product just like that. But on the other hand, according to taste, you can navigate whether it makes sense to purchase a product from a particular manufacturer in the future or not.
- And something about serving the product. On this score, there are 2 styles. European and Russian. In the first case, caviar is served simply in small caviar dishes, which are filled with ice so that the product retains its freshness as long as possible (ice cubes can be put around, on a tray).
Black caviar. in caviar, served with ice
Well, according to the Russian tradition, it should be served in a larger bowl. a vase, from where everyone can put caviar on their sandwich.
Black granular caviar
And one more important point. You need to serve such a delicacy only with special dessert spoons. They should be made of at least silver, because taking such an expensive product with an ordinary metal spoon is not entirely correct. Such is the culinary diplomacy.
Caviar dish with silver spoon. for serving black caviar
Here are many interesting facts about such a seemingly well-known product as black caviar. Judging by the price and psychological perception, this is the most expensive product on the planet.
It is not surprising that they enjoy it mainly on holidays, and even then not for everyone. But the greater the expectation, the stronger the pleasure. this law works at all times.
How to distinguish black caviar from fake
Who has not envied the hero Pavel Luspekaev, who ate black caviar with spoons in the legendary film “White Sun of the Desert”? Rhetorical question.
An incredibly tasty, healthy product at all times symbolized prosperity, well-being, enslaving gourmets from all over the world. Long-term, uncontrolled sturgeon fishing has made caviar a rarity. And where large capitals rotate, there are always swindlers who are not unsuccessful in selling an allegedly natural product at a reduced cost.
Consider the signs of a counterfeit product, give recommendations on how to properly store and consume sturgeon caviar.
Ways to identify real caviar: signs of a fake
It’s easier to understand this issue if you have an idea of what they can sell under the guise of a royal delicacy: tinted grains of pike, capelin, cod, halibut, which are mixed into the original product or sold separately. Counterfeit made from seaweed. A fake based on gelatin with the addition of chemicals harmful to the body. Now let’s return to the problem of how to distinguish black caviar from counterfeit:
It is not superfluous to recall what should be black caviar. the highest, as well as I, II grades. In addition to these categories, there are age types on the market. For example, a royal delicacy from 35-year-old stellate sturgeon. classic gray caviar. Or a delicacy obtained from 20-year-old sturgeon, which is proudly called “Royal Black”.
What real black caviar looks like?
After pondering the answer to this question, most people will give the traditional description. Necessarily mentioned. these are small grains of black color. over, there is an opinion that the blacker the delicacy, the better it is. This is a delusion that scammers do not hesitate to use. In reality, the light grain is the standard. The high-quality mature product ranges in color from black-silver to brown-gray. The following characteristics also distinguish this product from counterfeiting:
- The grains should be whole, without dents, of the same diameter;
- The size varies with the age of the sturgeon. the older the fish, the larger the grain diameter;
- A subtle, faint smell that many people are elusive;
- Saturated salted taste with hints of nut-creamy. a sign of the king’s delicacies of the highest quality.
Products that do not meet these characteristics are counterfeit.
Sevruga lives in the Caspian, Black and Azov seas. It belongs to the small species of sturgeon, its average fishing weight is 5-10 kg. Occasionally, individuals of 70-80 kg and up to two meters long are caught. Stocks of stellate sturgeon are replenished naturally and at the expense of sturgeon farms (90%).
Sevruga begins to reproduce caviar at the age of seven years, but caviar acquires its best taste when the fish reaches 20 years of age. Small grain has an unforgettable taste, some connoisseurs of starred sturgeon caviar rate higher than the product of other sturgeon.
The largest and most expensive sturgeon species listed in the IUCN Red List. Individuals of this species can weigh up to 600 kilograms. In the National Museum of Kazan, there is a stuffed fish caught weighing a ton and over four meters long. In different sources, catches of specimens of 1.5-2 tons were noted, but they all belonged to the 19th century and earlier. In a later period, such information was not received.
Beluga lives in the Caspian, Black and Azov seas, and enters the Volga for spawning. The Azov beluga spawns on the Don River, the Black Sea one enters the Dnieper, Dniester and Danube.
Which fish has black caviar?
It is customary to call sturgeon caviar black, although in fact it is silver-black or gray-brown in color. The lighter versions are even tastier. This delicacy has a second name. kaviar and is obtained from such fish species as beluga, sturgeon, as well as stellate sturgeon and sterlet.
Most (90%) of all sturgeon fish live in the Caspian Sea, and in the past also in the Aral Sea. Sturgeon is hunted in the Sea of Azov, the fish enters the Amur and Danube rivers.
The sturgeon ranks second in nutritional value. This is a large fish, it grows up to two meters in length and weighs from 25 to 85 kg, occasionally there are individuals up to six meters with a body weight of 600 kg. The sturgeon lives for about 80 years. It lives, like beluga, in the Caspian, Black and Azov Seas with access to the adjacent rivers. A small number of German sturgeon live in the Baltic Sea and adjacent river basins. A lot of sturgeon is found in the rivers of Siberia. Freshwater species of these fish live in lakes and rivers of North America.
The sturgeon is bred artificially on fishing farms. Caviar is harvested in the eighth year of an individual’s life. It comes in different shades: light gray, golden, amber, brown. Adult fish has caviar with a rich nutty smell.
Sterlet also belongs to small species of sturgeon, adults weigh from one and a half to two kilograms with a body length of 50-60 cm. Occasionally fish is found weighing from 5 to 15 kg. The area is the same as that of stellate sturgeon. River pollution has led to a significant decrease in the number of individuals. Eggs are small, dark gray in color, with a pleasant characteristic taste and smell /
The sturgeon species was listed in the Red Book back in 1983. On average, individuals are found up to two meters long and weighing 30 kg. Females begin to spawn late, at the age of 13. Lives in the basin of the Caspian and Black Seas, once actively inhabited the Aral Sea. The fish is on the verge of extinction, especially its livestock has decreased in the Black and almost disappeared in the Sea of Azov.
Who brings the delicacy?
Only sturgeon fish have a relationship to black caviar, and since they are of different types, their caviar also differs in taste, shade, size, smell, graininess, elasticity of the eggs.
Growing on farms
Considering the high cost of caviar and the limited sturgeon resources, a number of countries are engaged in the cultivation of valuable fish on farms. The largest supplies of caviar from aquaculture are in Russia (12 tons), Saudi Arabia (6 tons), Bulgaria (5 tons), Israel (4 tons), as well as Iran and China. Less than half a ton is given by Romania and Moldova.
Marine sturgeon fishery
Over the past 20 years, the number of sturgeon in the Caspian Sea has decreased almost 40 times, and such a species as a thorn, in general, was on the verge of extinction and was listed in the Red Book. Uncontrolled fishing has led to dire consequences. Since 2006, by common agreement, the states, whose fishing is carried out in the Caspian Sea, have stopped exporting black caviar. These include Russia, the countries of the former USSR. Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. Only Iran is allowed to export sturgeon, as it has a strict system of control over the fishing process, and any violator is severely punished. This country also grows sturgeon on farms. The cost of Iranian black caviar on the world market is 850 per kilogram.
Since 2008, Israel has been raising sturgeon and selling caviar up to four tons per year. Export takes place to European countries, to the American continent, to Japan and Russia. Caviar costs from 4.5 thousand dollars per kilogram, earning 17 million shekels on this. The entire product goes abroad, nothing is left for the domestic market, since in Israel it is considered not kosher.
In the last century, 90% of the supply of Caspian black caviar to world markets came from the Soviet Union. But already in 2002 Russia stopped exporting this product.
Methods of obtaining
In fish farms, caviar is obtained in three ways: by cutting the oviducts (the fish does not die), by cesarean section (a laborious method of extraction) and by slaughtering fish in order to obtain caviar. To determine which individuals are ready for the release of eggs, and what degree of maturity it has, a small number of eggs are isolated from the female using a special probe. According to the degree of maturity, caviar is of several types.
- Unpasteurized grainy. Produced from mature sturgeon caviar, it is of the best quality, with a dense elastic grain and a uniform composition in color and size of eggs. It is not subject to pasteurization, it is divided into two types: can and barrel. Dry salting allows the eggs to disintegrate freely among themselves.
- Granular pasteurized caviar. It is also dry-salted and then pasteurized in hermetically sealed glass jars. Such a product is safer and can be stored for up to a year. After heat treatment, caviar loses its characteristic specific flavor and can be liked by those who do not really like seafood.
- Pajusnaya. For the manufacture of this type of product, caviar of not the first grade may be suitable. Uniformity of grain and color is optional. The caviar is poured with hot saturated brine, then, dried, sent under the press. A homogeneous mass is obtained, suitable for the formation of briquettes. But sometimes pressed caviar is also placed in glass jars.
- Yastichnaya. Ostok is the natural shell that contains caviar in fish. It is preserved during salting of the product. The yastiki are cut into 10 cm pieces and poured with hot strong salt solution.
What to look for?
- Price. The fair value for 50 grams of black caviar varies from 50 to 120, depending on the variety and type of sturgeon fish. The bed is packed in specially sealed packages or large jars, the weight of which is 120 grams. The price of this product starts at 120. If the product is much cheaper, be sure. this is a fake.
- Manufacturer. For many years, black caviar was mined only in the Caspian Sea. For 15 years, the number of sturgeon fish has decreased 38.5 times. Today, in order to avoid the extinction of the species, they are grown in artificial farms. in aquaculture enterprises. Under these conditions, thanks to modern technologies, eggs are obtained in a gentle way, after which the females do not die, but continue their life cycle.
According to expert data, as of 2009, 20 tons of edible sturgeon caviar were produced from the aquaculture of European countries. At the same time, the leading positions are occupied by: Moldova (300 kilograms), Romania (500 kilograms), Bulgaria (5 tons), Russia (12 tons).
Large aquaculture enterprises: Beluga, Raskat (Astrakhan), Caviar Court food processing (Saudi Arabia), Karat Kavyar (Israel), Aquatir (Moldova), Qinjiang, Shandong, Heilongjiang (China).
Currently, illegal production of sturgeon waste products is widespread, which puts a heavy load on the ecosystem of the globe. According to statistics from Russian law enforcement agencies, the domestic market of the state is 90% poaching.
- Appearance. Depending on the maturity of the caviar, its color ranges from gray-brown to silvery-black, and the grain size ranges from small to large. Also, pay attention to the quality of the product. The grains should not be the same size, whole, not rumpled. The most expensive product is with light, large eggs.
- Taste and smell. High-quality black caviar emits a faint marine scent that only a person with a heightened sense of smell can catch. A strong, strong fish smell is a sign of spoiled food or fake.
100 grams of “black gold” contains from 200 to 250 calories.
Currently, there is an opinion that the sturgeon product is the main enemy of the figure, since it leads to obesity. In fact, this is not the case. Caviar is a valuable nutritious product, which includes essential amino acids, vitamins, macro- and microelements, polyunsaturated triglycerides such as omega-3, omega-6. The product is 50% water, 30% proteins, 13% fatty acids, 5% inorganic substances, 2% nutrients.
|The energy value||237 calories||203 calories||221calories|
|Water||54.2 grams||56.5 grams||54.0 grams|
|Protein||27.2 grams||28.0 grams||28.4 grams|
|Fats||14.2 grams||9.7 grams||11.9 grams|
|Ash||4.4 grams||5.2 grams||5.4 grams|
|Saturated fatty acids||2.5 grams||1.7 grams||2.1 grams|
|Carbohydrates||0.8 grams||0.6 grams||0.7 gram|
|Cholesterol||0.36 grams||0.3 gram||0.33 grams|
|Ascorbic acid (C)||1.8||1.7||2.0|
|Folic acid (B9)||0.051||0.024||0.024|
Black caviar is considered to be perfectly balanced. It is prescribed for seriously ill people to increase hemoglobin, accelerate recovery, strengthen immunity and “return” vitality. The product is needed for children and adolescents for normal development.
Sturgeon grains are very capricious. So that the consistency of the eggs does not change, and the taste does not deteriorate, they are stored at a temperature of 2 to 4 degrees below zero.
How to eat caviar?
Chefs emphasize that the status of the product requires special treatment, and recommend adhering to the classic ritual:
- Place the jar of caviar on ice, wait 20 minutes. This will fully reveal the taste of the delicacy.
- Place the delicacy between your index finger and thumb on the back of your hand. It is generally believed that this product should be eaten from the skin. So you will feel the astringent oiliness, consonance of subtle aroma and taste. If this option is not to your liking, the delicacy is consumed exclusively with the help of silver cutlery.
Metal spoons change the taste of the product for the worse.
Black caviar goes well with oysters, egg white, hard cheese, creamy sauces, puff pastry, lemon, pancakes. The delicacy cannot be combined with fruits, pastries.
Black caviar is one of the most expensive and healthy delicacies. Due to the high cost (from 50 to 50 grams), this product at all times was considered a symbol of wealth and success, associated with a luxurious, prosperous life.
Today, the main place for the extraction of black caviar is the Caspian Sea (90% of the total). The catch is limited in the lower reaches of the Danube, the Amur region, the Black Sea region.
Aquaculture caviar is obtained in two ways: the usual (fish is caught, killed, gutted) and “non-traumatic” (sturgeon is caught, the belly is ripped open, the yasti are “milked”, the incision is sewn up, the animal is released back).
Consider what parameters determine the type of black caviar.
Criterias of choice
Black caviar is an expensive product that is often counterfeited by unscrupulous manufacturers. As a basis, the scammers use pike grains, which are very similar in taste to sturgeon and beluga.
In a fake delicacy, all the eggs are the same size, going one to the other. And in the present. on the contrary, they are different, since there are no ideal forms in nature.
Which caviar is healthier: red or black?
First of all, it is worth noting that both products are considered royal delicacies and are a natural storehouse of protein, omega-3, omega-6 acids, vitamins and minerals. It is naive to believe that different types of caviar of sturgeon (sturgeon, beluga, stellate sturgeon) and salmon (salmon, chinook salmon, pink salmon, chum salmon, sockeye salmon) are the same. The color, taste, shape of the grains depend on the fish from which they are obtained.
There is a misconception that black caviar is healthier than red. These foods have approximately the same nutritional value. The high cost of black caviar is due to the rarity of the delicacy. Sturgeon species of fish lay offspring at an “adult” age (not earlier than 10. 15 years) only 1. 2 times in a lifetime (over 100 years). Catching black caviar is not an easy task that only skilled anglers can do. It is obtained in much smaller quantities than red, which is not difficult to catch if you know the “loaf” places.
Individuals of the salmon family become sexually mature at the age of 2. 5 years. They spawn in fresh waters. Most anadromous salmon spawn only once in a lifetime, after which they die immediately. Some individuals (for example, salmon) spawn up to 4 times in their life.
The main disadvantage of black caviar is high salt, which causes blood pressure problems and swelling. This product is contraindicated in children under 3 years old, people with high blood cholesterol, atherosclerosis, problems with the digestive system, urolithiasis.
Another important drawback of the product is its non-ecological compatibility. In recent years, the sturgeon population has been rapidly declining, which threatens the state of their gene pool. In this regard, the delicacy is mined at fish farms, where individuals for the food industry are grown in artificial conditions.
It is strictly forbidden to catch sturgeon in unlimited quantities in the wild, as it threatens the biodiversity of our planet.
By processing and degree of maturity
- Grainy. Method of preparation: after catching fish, raw caviar is immediately wiped on a sieve (screen). Thanks to this procedure, the grains are cleaned from the veins of the ovary, films, remain completely clean and intact, and retain their round shape. After punching through a screen, the product is slightly salted until the so-called “tuluz” is formed.
Correctly cooked granular black caviar is called dry-friable, in which the grains are easily separated from each other. Underexposed in the ambassador. unacceptable, overexposed. overflowed.
To increase the shelf life, antiseptic substances are added to the product. borax and boric acid.
- Pajusnaya. After the fish is caught, the caviar is salted right in the ovaries in hot brine, after which it is laid out in splints, dried (weathered). The next stage of preparation is release from the film, cleansing of mucus and veins. At the final stage, dried (fermented) and fresh grains are crushed with pushers in vats, after which they thicken, become flat, acquire a piquant taste.
To turn pressed caviar into a homogeneous mass, it is salted in warm brine, lightly pressed.
- Pasteurized. Salted with dry method. Such caviar is packaged in glass jars, which are hermetically sealed and pasteurized. The main purpose of heat treatment is to increase the shelf life of the product. This product can be stored for up to 2 years without losing its nutritional and beneficial properties. Heat treatment gives a richer taste of black caviar, makes the shell of the grains taut.
- The largest purchase of black caviar in the history of mankind belongs to singer George Benson, who, in honor of his 50th birthday, purchased 3 tons of a gourmet product for 3 million.
- Black caviar is a powerful aphrodisiac. It contains a record amount of mineral compounds and vitamins that accelerate the recovery of strength, regulate metabolism, and increase sexual performance.
- Charlie Chaplin was once paid 4 kilograms of black caviar as a film royalty.
- Children of women who consumed caviar at least 2 times a week 2 months before conception and during pregnancy, were less likely to suffer from rickets, and were less ill.
- The most expensive caviar in the world is the beluga “Almas”. The color of the grains is white, the cost of a kilogram is 23,000. It is obtained from fish that are over 100 years old. The Iranian company “House Almas” packs caviar into cans made of pure gold. It is believed that the consistency and taste of the product depends on the age of the beluga. The older the fish, the more tender the caviar.
- Representatives of peoples who often feed on caviar have a higher life expectancy.
- It is a product of youth. Nutrients that make up “black gold” slow down aging, skin flabbiness, and activate collagen production. Therefore, this product is often used in cosmetology to inhibit processes that cause dermis to fade.
The anti-aging mask contains black caviar (10 grams), egg yolk (one), aloe juice (20 milliliters). These components enhance each other’s action, have an anti-inflammatory, rejuvenating effect.
- Black caviar contains more iron (2.5 milligrams per 100 grams) than apples (2.1 milligrams per 100 grams).
Black caviar is the generalized name for caviar of sturgeon fish, including paddlefish. It is interesting that it differs in size, color, chemical composition, shell elasticity, and taste. The color of real sturgeon caviar is not completely black. Quite the opposite: the lighter the product, the higher it is valued.
Today, the wild sturgeon fishery is limited and strictly prosecuted. In conditions of artificial reproduction (aquaculture), caviar is represented by the following species: sterlet, beluga, bester, Russian, Siberian and white sturgeon. According to the method of preparation, it is divided into three groups: pressed, pasteurized and granular. By the type of packing. loose, packaged.
Salt in all types of black caviar preparation is 3-5%. In addition, to increase the shelf life, it is allowed to use a preservative (E285 or LIV-1 / LIV-2).